Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Case Report
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Recycling as an Environmental Awareness Tool in Public Schools: Working with Waste and Building Values in a Brazilian City

Elissa Stephanie de Oliveira Torres, Rayssa Maria do Nascimento, Gyovanni Dhieymyson Oliveira Lima, Rosiane Leite dos Santos Soares, Juliano Keyton Dantas, Fábio André Bispo de Melo, Dany Geraldo Kramer
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(9), 970-972. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-9-7
Published online: September 28, 2017

Abstract

In Brazil, the generation of 78 million tons of waste annually occurs, 35.2% of municipalities dispose of it improperly, resulting in environmental risks and health. In socially disadvantaged regions, this problem intensifies, and it is opportune to take actions that can increase reuse / recycling and rational consumption. Thus, the present study aimed to carry out interventions, with this theme, in public schools of a Brazilian city. The interventions (lectures, talk wheels and workshops) approached rational consumption, waste classifications and recycling as central axes. 150 students were involved in the suggested activities, in which they have intense participation, developing dozens of products from recyclable materials, such as toys, educational games and objects holder. In this way, it was possible to conclude that these actions are relevant, in order to contribute to the appropriation of the contents by the students and their change of behavior as transforming agents of society, mitigating the problems associated with solid urban waste in their communities.

1. Introduction

The modern society produces a wide variety of waste daily, influenced mainly by the industrialization and unbridled consumption of goods and services. This can lead to social, economic and environmental problems, such as: soil pollution and aquifer sources; Damage to human health; Atmospheric and visual pollution; Vector proliferation (insects and rodents); Devaluation of real estate near the dump and generation of odors 1, 2, 3, 4.

These problems can be intensified, compromising the quality of life of the citizens of a region, to the detriment of the type of waste management, especially in developing countries, where there are failures in this topic. 5 In Brazil, waste production is estimated at 78 million tons/year, with a per capita average of 1,062 kg/inhab/day. Selective collection initiatives are not observed in 35.2% of Brazilian municipalities. The final destination, in turn, is inadequately performed in 41.6% of the municipalities. Regarding the costs, there is an average expenditure of R$ 119.76 per inhabitant/year in urban cleaning services 11, 12, 13.

In the State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), the daily generation of waste is estimated at 2,657 tons (0.780 Kg/inhab/day), 34% of this amount being discarded in dumps. Relative to the average gravimetric composition of urban waste samples is divided into: 37.57% wastage, 37.49% organic matter, 8.70% plastic film, 4.95% paper / cardboard, 4.39% hard plastic, 1, 37% ferrous metals, 1.0% glass, other components 4.53%. The components with potential to be recycled are estimated at 20.41% 11, 12.

The study was carried out in Santa Cruz / RN (38,000 inhabitants). Similar to other small localities, there are problems with solid waste due to poor collection equipment, low capacity of the executing team, and lack of recycling and conscious consumption programs. The production of waste in this locality is estimated at 22 tons per day (0.6 kg / inhab / day), of which 22% is recyclable. The average gravimetric composition of this waste is divided into: 29.31% tailings, 40.8% organic matter, 8.62% plastic film, 4.95% paper / cardboard, 4.60% hard plastic, 2.87% metals Ferrous, 1,7% glass, other components 7,15% 12, 13.

2. Metodology

The present study was carried out in two public schools, in the municipality of Santa Cruz / RN / Brazil, for elementary students II, involving interventions (lectures, talk wheels and workshops), whose main axes were: rational consumption, classification of residues and recycling.

Approximately 150 students were enrolled in the two schools, aged between 14 and 16 years. Initially, lectures were given on the classification of waste, types of reuse and recycling, as well as the risks to the environment.

Next, the wheels of conversations took place, where some questions were directed to the students, as well as reports of experiences, so that it was possible to understand the degree of their knowledge on this subject, and finally, the idea was proposed to assemble a Workshop for the making of objects and toys made with recyclable material, that this would be practiced in the second meeting.

In a second moment, the wheels of conversations were realized, including questionings and reports of experiences, so that one could understand the degree of knowledge of the students on the subject. Finally, it was proposed to carry out a workshop for the making of objects and toys made with recyclable material. In the workshop on the use of recyclable materials (cardboard, bottle pet, cans, among others), students were encouraged to produce toys, educational games and object holders, under the guidance of tutors.

3. Results and Discussions

The interventions sought to sensitize students to the importance of changing habits about compulsive consumption and solid waste. Initially, a focus was taken on speeches and conversation wheels (Figure 1), in a playful and clear way, with cartoons and photos being inserted that stimulated participants' reflection.

The discussions with students in the classroom stimulated the interest of the group in this theme, being questioned the consequences of uncontrolled consumption and the increasing production of waste in Brazil and in Santa Cruz / RN. The production of waste in this locality is estimated at 22 tons per day (0.6 kg / inhab / day), was not perceptible by students. Fact that generate costs of R $ 119.00 per inhabitant per year 11, 12.

One way to mitigate these annual expenses, in the order of R $ 4,522,000.00, would be the reduction in waste generation and reuse, and it is opportune to demonstrate to the students possible reuse and stimulation of creativity to produce various items (Figure 2).

These interactive workshops were important for the theoretical foundation and stimulated the creativity of the target audience. They demonstrate potential in creating interesting objects and helping to reduce waste problems. They were made of board games, pencil holder, jewelry box, safes, toys, bracelets and educational games 7, 8, 9, 10.

In numerical terms, recycling stimulated with the local population, would allow a reduction of up to 4.8 tons of waste generated daily, in addition to an annual savings of R $ 994,840.00. Thus, noticeable environmental and financial gains for the community 13.

Thus, it is important to stimulate selective collection and recycling, especially among schoolchildren, in order to discard in small children attitudes that lead to environmental improvement. In addition, financial collection may be possible with the sale of recyclable material 14, 15.

This process of awareness in the school community can foster initiatives that transcend the school environment, generating potential multipliers of activities related to recycling, selective collection and conscious consumption 15.

4. Final Considerations

The city of Santa Cruz / RN presents problems with solid waste, similar to other developing regions, a fact that justifies the reinforcement of actions aimed at selective collection, recycling and rational consumption. Thus, schools are important areas, since potential multipliers of activities related to this theme can be formed, and propagate actions that reduce the generation of waste and increase the reuse of these. It is possible to reduce public cleaning costs, increase collection through trade in recyclable material and stimulate students' creativity in the production of objects from recyclable material, and thus raise environmental awareness.

Acknowledgements

To the directors of the schools, which allowed the study to be carried out in the institutions. To PROEX for financial and logistical support for the execution of this study.

References

[1]  GODECKE, V. M.; NAIME, H. R.; FIGUEIREDO, S. A. J. O consumismo e a geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos no brasil. Rev. Elet. em Gestão, Educação e Tecnologia Ambiental. v (8), nº 8, p. 1700-1712, SET-DEZ, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  SANTOS, L. T. A. et al. Aproveitamento da fração orgânica dos resíduos sólidos urbanos para produção de composto orgânico. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Amazônia. v. 3, n. 1, p. 15-28, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  NOGUEIRA, D. V. J. et al. Educação ambiental e resíduos sólidos. Revbea, São Paulo, Vol. 10, nº 1: 291-300, 2015.
In article      
 
[4]  TROMBETA, R. L.; LEAL, C. A. Gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos: um olhar sobre a coleta seletiva no município de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil. Formação (Online), Vol. 1, nº 21 (2014).
In article      View Article
 
[5]  RAVINDRA, K. et al. System analysis of municipal solid waste management in Chandigarh and minimization practices for cleaner emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 89, 15 February 2015, Pages 251-256.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  ZAMAN, U. A. A comprehensive review of the development of zero waste management: lessons learned and guidelines. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 91, 15 March 2015, Pages 12–25.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  AKENJI, L. Consumer scapegoatism and limits to green consumerism. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 63, 15 January 2014, Pages 13-23.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  GUERRERO, A. L. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management. Vol. 33, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 220-232.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  KOPNINA, H. Education for sustainable development (ESD): the turn away from ‘environment’ in environmental education? Environmental Education Research. Vol 18, Issue 5, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  KUDRYAVTSEV, A. et al. The impact of environmental education on sense of place among urban youth. Echosphere. Vol. 3, Issue 4 April 2012 Pages 1-15.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  SEMARH - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos - Rio Grande do Norte. Plano Estadual de Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos. 2012
In article      
 
[12]  ABRELPE - Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Limpeza - Brasil. Panorama de Resíduos Sólidos no Brasil. 2014.
In article      
 
[13]  PMGIRS - Plano municipal de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos - Santa Cruz / RN. 2012
In article      
 
[14]  DAI, Y. C., GORDON, M. P. R., YE, J. Y. Why doorstepping can increase household waste recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling Volume 102, September 2015, Pages 9-19.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  CECERE, G., MANCINELLI, S., MAZZANTI, M.Waste prevention and social preferences: the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Ecological Economics, Volume 107, November 2014, Pages 163-176.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Elissa Stephanie de Oliveira Torres, Rayssa Maria do Nascimento, Gyovanni Dhieymyson Oliveira Lima, Rosiane Leite dos Santos Soares, Juliano Keyton Dantas, Fábio André Bispo de Melo and Dany Geraldo Kramer

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Elissa Stephanie de Oliveira Torres, Rayssa Maria do Nascimento, Gyovanni Dhieymyson Oliveira Lima, Rosiane Leite dos Santos Soares, Juliano Keyton Dantas, Fábio André Bispo de Melo, Dany Geraldo Kramer. Recycling as an Environmental Awareness Tool in Public Schools: Working with Waste and Building Values in a Brazilian City. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 5, No. 9, 2017, pp 970-972. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/5/9/7
MLA Style
Torres, Elissa Stephanie de Oliveira, et al. "Recycling as an Environmental Awareness Tool in Public Schools: Working with Waste and Building Values in a Brazilian City." American Journal of Educational Research 5.9 (2017): 970-972.
APA Style
Torres, E. S. D. O. , Nascimento, R. M. D. , Lima, G. D. O. , Soares, R. L. D. S. , Dantas, J. K. , Melo, F. A. B. D. , & Kramer, D. G. (2017). Recycling as an Environmental Awareness Tool in Public Schools: Working with Waste and Building Values in a Brazilian City. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(9), 970-972.
Chicago Style
Torres, Elissa Stephanie de Oliveira, Rayssa Maria do Nascimento, Gyovanni Dhieymyson Oliveira Lima, Rosiane Leite dos Santos Soares, Juliano Keyton Dantas, Fábio André Bispo de Melo, and Dany Geraldo Kramer. "Recycling as an Environmental Awareness Tool in Public Schools: Working with Waste and Building Values in a Brazilian City." American Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 9 (2017): 970-972.
Share
[1]  GODECKE, V. M.; NAIME, H. R.; FIGUEIREDO, S. A. J. O consumismo e a geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos no brasil. Rev. Elet. em Gestão, Educação e Tecnologia Ambiental. v (8), nº 8, p. 1700-1712, SET-DEZ, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  SANTOS, L. T. A. et al. Aproveitamento da fração orgânica dos resíduos sólidos urbanos para produção de composto orgânico. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Amazônia. v. 3, n. 1, p. 15-28, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  NOGUEIRA, D. V. J. et al. Educação ambiental e resíduos sólidos. Revbea, São Paulo, Vol. 10, nº 1: 291-300, 2015.
In article      
 
[4]  TROMBETA, R. L.; LEAL, C. A. Gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos: um olhar sobre a coleta seletiva no município de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil. Formação (Online), Vol. 1, nº 21 (2014).
In article      View Article
 
[5]  RAVINDRA, K. et al. System analysis of municipal solid waste management in Chandigarh and minimization practices for cleaner emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 89, 15 February 2015, Pages 251-256.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  ZAMAN, U. A. A comprehensive review of the development of zero waste management: lessons learned and guidelines. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 91, 15 March 2015, Pages 12–25.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  AKENJI, L. Consumer scapegoatism and limits to green consumerism. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 63, 15 January 2014, Pages 13-23.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  GUERRERO, A. L. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management. Vol. 33, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 220-232.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  KOPNINA, H. Education for sustainable development (ESD): the turn away from ‘environment’ in environmental education? Environmental Education Research. Vol 18, Issue 5, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  KUDRYAVTSEV, A. et al. The impact of environmental education on sense of place among urban youth. Echosphere. Vol. 3, Issue 4 April 2012 Pages 1-15.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  SEMARH - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos - Rio Grande do Norte. Plano Estadual de Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos. 2012
In article      
 
[12]  ABRELPE - Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Limpeza - Brasil. Panorama de Resíduos Sólidos no Brasil. 2014.
In article      
 
[13]  PMGIRS - Plano municipal de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos - Santa Cruz / RN. 2012
In article      
 
[14]  DAI, Y. C., GORDON, M. P. R., YE, J. Y. Why doorstepping can increase household waste recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling Volume 102, September 2015, Pages 9-19.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  CECERE, G., MANCINELLI, S., MAZZANTI, M.Waste prevention and social preferences: the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Ecological Economics, Volume 107, November 2014, Pages 163-176.
In article      View Article