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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Learning with Each Other: Peer Learning as an Academic Culture among Graduate Students in Education

Gamal M. M. Mustafa
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(9), 944-951. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-9-3
Published online: September 27, 2017

Abstract

The major objective of the present study is to examine the extent to which peer learning is common among graduate students in educational programs in Saudi universities. Moreover, it also investigates the obstacles which may hinder spreading the culture of peer learning, and the proposals to overcome such obstacles from the graduate students’ perspectives. Data were collected through an electronic questionnaire conducted to a sample of 375 of graduate students in educational programs in Saudi universities. The major findings of the study revealed majority of respondents (69%) agree and strongly agree to the items of the questionnaire, while (12.4%) disagree and strongly disagree, and (21%) were neutral. The most agreed upon items in part (1) are: “I do feel embarrassed to ask my peers for new knowledge and information” and “I feel happy with the comments of my peers on my research and work papers. The most agreed upon items in part (2) are: “Lack of non-classroom activities that support the culture of peer learning” and “Lack of equipped classrooms of graduate students that support peer learning”. The most agreed upon items in part (3) are: “Urging professors to support and supervise academic discussions among students” and “Encouraging students to attend the seminars when their peers present their research proposals”.

1. Introduction

Peer learning, as a teaching-learning strategy, is highly productive and demanding at the same time. It assumes that learners have many potentials to share with others. At the time of rapid technological development, exchanging information is necessary for broadening learners’ minds. Peer learning would change the nature of learning to be pleasant, beneficial and meaningful, as learners become more positive and deeply involved. Peer learning is a method that encourages ‘meaningful learning’ which involves students teaching and learning from and with each other 1. It involves exchanging ideas, knowledge, and expertise among peers. “Peer-learning schemes now exist on all continents and hold relevance for students of all cultures” 2. It becomes one of the main features of the process of learning and teaching in universities 3, 4, and it is one of "the most cost-effective of learning strategies" 5.

Literature assured that peer learning is not a new strategy, rather it “has a long history. It is possibly as old as any form of collaborative or community action, and probably has always taken place, sometimes implicitly and vicariously” 5. Gaillet 6 mentioned that it was about "two-hundred years ago, when George Jardine, professor of logic and philosophy at the University of Glasgow from 1774 to 1826, designed a method of peer review to help prepare his students for full participation in British society". In Islamic context of study, there was a semi position called "Areef" which refers to an older and experienced student who used to assist the teacher in the process of teaching and assessment.

Peer learning refers to the process through which learners acquire knowledge and skills through active helping and supporting among status equals or matched companions. It involves individuals from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by so doing 5. Lupu 7 found that peer learning strategies have been associated with the development of generic skills (transferable skills): critical thinking, intellectual curiosity, problem-solving, logical and independent thought, communication and information management skills, intellectual rigor, creativity and imagination, ethical practice, integrity, and tolerance. Leijten & Chan 8 found that peer learning often results in improved classroom environment and enhanced collaborative and teamwork.

Peer learning provides immense improvement in student performance 9 and leads to high rates of attendance 10. It encourages students to develop their learning to support their academic success and assists graduates to be well equipped for lifelong learning 11. Roberts 12 concluded that there are many benefits for collaborative learning. Academic benefits include the enhancement of critical thinking skills, the actively involvement of students in the learning process, the improvement of classroom results, and the reinforcement of students' problem-solving techniques. Socially, collaborative learning develops social support for students, constructs mutual understanding between staff and students and provides positive atmosphere for practice and corporation. Psychologically, it increases students' self-esteem and develops positive attitudes towards teachers.

Peer learning is not just "putting children together and hoping for the best" 5. It is a form of interactive learning in which instructors heavily make use of in-class structured activities, ask questions, reply to students interrogates and correct misunderstandings. Students are encouraged to talk to each other, work with partners or in teams 10. Peer tutoring and cooperative learning are the longest established and most intensively researched forms of peer learning. Peer tutoring is characterized by specific role-taking as tutor or tutee, with high focus on curriculum content and clear procedures for interaction. Cooperative learning is more than “working together” to achieve shared goals or outputs. It is operated in small groups of heterogeneous learners and requires in advance training to ensure equal participation and interaction 5.

One main reason for investigating peer learning in Saudi universities is that there are different academic cultures. Given that the academic culture in Saudi universities is different from other contexts, therefore the peer learning approaches may be different as well, or even rarely used in the academic environment in Saudi universities.

In the light of the abovementioned, the main objective of the present study is to shed light on culture of peer learning among graduate students in education. The study attempts to answer the following questions:

• What is the status quo of the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities from their perspectives?

• What are the obstacles which may hinder spreading the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities from their perspectives?

• What are the proposals to enhance the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities from their perspectives?

• Are there any statistically significant differences in responses according to the study variables: university, students' specialization, program, type of study, and gender?

2. Literature Review

2.1. Peer Learning

There are many definitions for peer learning. According to Lupu 7 although “peer learning” is not an easy term to define, it promotes cognitive or intellectual skills, increases knowledge and understanding. Leijten & Chan 8 define peer learning as “pre-trade students’ informal sharing of knowledge, ideas, and experiences, which are of equal standing due to their role as students, either older or younger with different cultural back grounds, social class, and ethnicity”. Others define peer learning as “the use of teaching and learning strategies in which students learn with and from each other without immediate intervention from the teacher” 13.

Sedghi & Lunt 14 refers to Peer Assisted Learning as:

A student-to-student academic support scheme designed to typically benefit first-year students. Student volunteers from higher levels are trained to become PAL leaders who facilitate group discussions which support academic topics but also learning strategies more generally. The role of the trained PAL leaders is not to teach, but one of facilitating collaborative learning.

Peer learning is a ‘two-way reciprocal learning activity’ 15 in which there are mutual benefits to the parties involved in the learning process. The reciprocal nature of the activity is fundamental as students do not have power over each other by virtue of their position or responsibilities. “Peer learning can be both informal and formal. Informal peer learning occurs implicitly when students discuss lectures, assignments, projects, and exams in casual social settings. Formal peer learning occurs when group work or group projects are explicitly scheduled into courses” 1. It is a “social process, in which peer interactions are fundamental” 16.

The above-mentioned definitions indicated that peer learning is developmental, cognitive, intellectual, cooperative, meaningful, productive and demanding. It can be either formal or informal. It depends heavily on discussion, exchanging ideas and team work. It is a learning teaching process in a social form.

The results of Keenan 2 indicated that students who are involved in peer learning activities as ‘peer leaders’ acquire higher levels of personal and professional skills, their subject learning is expanded, their grades are improved, and their relationships and intercultural awareness are enhanced. The results also proved that students who participate in peer learning sessions have a sense of belonging and enhanced academic confidence. They have enhanced friendship development, greater confidence in social integration and participate more fully in the community (p. 5). Such results have been assured, either partially or entirely, in literature 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26.

The benefits of peer learning are well documented in literature. Among the advantages of peer learning is that it can develop self-directed learning skills; critical and creative thinking and problem-solving skills; communication skills; interpersonal and teamwork skills; peer assessment and critical consideration; and deep understanding of concepts, skills and enhancing self-image 27. Hortsmanshof & Conrad 24 highlighted the graduate students need for "group approaches" to overcome the intellectual which was related to their dissatisfaction, delay, and withdrawal from study. Peer learning among graduate students provides opportunities for skill development and social interaction outside of the supervisor-student relationship 19. Moreover, it is more suitable for some students rather than individualistic learning and teaching strategies 13. Chilvers 18 assured that peer assisted learning is one of the best means to enable international students to adjust to the academic cultures within higher education.

To elaborate the need for peer learning, Boud, Cohen & Sampson 13 mentioned twofold reasons, pragmatic and principled. The pragmatic is the increased student-staff ratio that leads to staff teaching more students. Peer learning enables staff to carry out their jobs without increasing their work load. The principled reason refers to the emphasis on non-academic outcomes which are increasingly demanded by employers, such as soft skills, generic skills, and key competencies.

According to Liou-Mark, Dreyfuss, Han, Yuen-Lau &Yu 9 students participating in peer-led workshops had significantly higher grades and lower failure and withdrawal rates than those who did not take part. According to Malm, Bryngfors & Morner 9 students who attended peer learning workshops were higher than those who didn’t participate in such workshops. Research by Andreanoff 28 indicated that peer coaching had a beneficial impact in particular for those in their first year of study and those who were performing less well at the outset. It deepened the students’ involvement in the learning process throughout all stages of progress beyond the traditional roles 14. Peer assessment, as a type of peer learning, enhanced the students’ responsibility and changed the way in which they watch and consider each other. Moreover, it increased students’ attention and motivation 29, 30. Even students with special needs, peer learning has been proved as a vital teaching learning technique which helps students to be self-actualized 31.

One of the techniques used for peer learning is "supervisory groups" which assist graduate students to discuss and exchange ideas and experiences. In such groups, supervisors intend to build and spread their own academic and intellectual schools of research. Supervisory groups can be similar to supplemental instruction, which is developed by Dr. Deana Martin in 1973 at the University of Kansas City at Missouri. Supplemental Instruction is an academic assistance program that increases student performance and retention. It provides regularly scheduled, out-of-class, peer facilitated study sessions 31, 32. In Australian universities, supplementary Instruction is also known as Peer Assisted Study Sessions 19, 34.

Sometimes the process of peer learning takes the form of peer mentoring, as it involves trained higher years students (leaders) working in pairs to facilitate regular study groups with students in the years below. Research by Ford, Thackeray, Barnes & Hendrickx 20 revealed that peer leaders developed employability attributes including leadership, time management, and organization, communication, cultural awareness, and confidence. Giles, Zacharopoulou & Condell 22 counted academic, personal and professional benefits for such peer leaders. Academically, it gets them to be familiar with course materials. Personally, it enables them to gain self-confidence, build interpersonal relationships, improve their communication skills, and be familiar with teamwork and prepared for leadership.

Coping with the advancement of information technology, many studies intensively assured the necessity to make use of technology in peer learning. Scot, Castaneda, Quick & Linney 35 examined the use of live online peer-to-peer learning via video conferencing. Watts, Malliris & Billingham 36 concluded that “online PAL can make a significant contribution to learners in higher education by improving engagement through the flexibility afforded by the online space”. The results of Boyd & Paterson 37 indicated that peer tutoring improves distance learners’ experience and provide the opportunities to develop graduate skills that are key parts of the academic community. Participation in online peer learning gets students to be more confident, flexible, convenient and provides them expertise which enhances their opportunities to be selected as peer leaders 38.

2.2. Academic Culture

Learning is highly affected by “cultural beliefs and backgrounds which may affect the way people prefer to learn or process information” 39. Valiente 40 concludes that culture is the key word that explains why some students’ behaviors are different from what is considered high-quality learning. He recommends a clear understanding of the role of culture in learning styles, and proposes what he calls a ‘cross-cultural learning style’. Vygotsky quoted in: Zaccagnini & Verenikina 41 mentioned that “students’ interactions with more knowledgeable peers assist their adjustment to the new, unfamiliar culture of university”.

Shen & Tian 42 refers to the academic culture as: “The external manifestation of the common values, spirits, behaviour norms of people on campus who are pursuing and developing their study and research. This kind of culture can be embodied in the rules and regulations, behaviour patterns and the material facilities”.

It is also known as culture of learning, which is defined as:

Socially transmitted expectations, beliefs and values about what good learning is, what constitutes a good teacher and a good student and what their roles and relationships should be; about learning and teaching styles, approaches and methods; about classroom interaction and activities; about the use of textbooks; about what constitutes good work 25.

One student presents his experience of learning which sums up one of the main features of Arab academic culture saying:

Since the time I started school, I was raised listening mainly to the teacher and was not encouraged to speak or engage in any discussion. Even in my social life, age, gender, and social status affected when one was to speak and how one was to speak, and pushed me to act as a passive listener. In this way, I became used to being a listener and favoured this style of learning 39.

Jin & Cortazzi 25 compared the Chinese and British academic cultures of learning. Chinese teachers concentrated on knowledge and memorization, skills and critical thinking would be earned consequently. On contrary, British teachers stressed skills which would lead to knowledge consequently. It is obvious that what happens in classrooms is highly affected by cultural values and practices outside schools 43. The American academic culture, for instance, is a learner-centred culture where students are expected to discuss, express their perspectives, think critically about content, interact, give presentations, work in groups and participate in the process of evaluation. Pham 44 advised international students to care for some facts that characterize the American academic culture. They are classroom participation, American grading system, teamwork, group projects and presentations, and professors' office hours.

The results of major literature regarding Arab students in different educational environments assured the academic adjustment of students is highly affected by their academic cultures. The results of Al-Hattami & Al-Ahdal 45 revieled that there were great cultural differences between the Americans and the Arab students. It is common in most universities to get their international students familiar with their academic cultures. The Canadian academic culture, for instance, expect students to manage their time, be responsible for their own learning, to compete yet be helpful to each other, not being embarrassed to ask for clarification and explanation for not understood things, participate in class discussions and to accept criticism for student's work 46. Mostafa 33 stated that proving graduate student's' competencies in Canadian universities exceeds beyond just passing exams and extends to publishing of papers, delivering conference presentations and participating in classroom discussions. One of the key elements in the academic cultures of learning is that it provides the framework of expectations, interpretations, and evaluations of learning, as both teachers and students, need to either have knowledge about each other's' cultures of learning, or they may not fulfil expectations 25. The most two key components of an academic culture are the student teacher relationship and the students' involvement in the learning process.

3. Methodology

The data for this study were gathered through a questionnaire, which consisted of three parts. The first part included 19 items investigating the status quo of the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities. The second part included 12 items shedding light on the obstacles which may hinder spreading the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities. The third part included 11 items shedding light on proposals to enhance the culture of peer learning among graduate students in education in Saudi universities. The participants of the study were volunteered from among graduate students in educational programs in Saudi universities through contacting them on Facebook and Twitter. Completed forms of the electronic questionnaire were received from 375 respondents of graduate students in educational programs in six Saudi universities. The descriptive statistics of the sample population are given in Table 1. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. ANOVA, t-test, and frequencies are used in data analysis.

3.1. Profile of Respondents

The sample of the study is dragged from six Saudi universities. Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU) had the highest percentage (52.8%), followed by the Islamic University at Al-Madinah with (26%), followed by King Saud University with (8.5%), followed by Tabuk University with (4.5%), then Umm Al-Qura University with (4%) and Taibah University with (3.5%). The fields of specialization of respondents were Islamic education (39.5%), then foundations of Education with (26.7%), followed by educational administration with (13.6%), followed by Curricula & Methods with (10.4%), followed by educational psychology with (2.9%). More than two-thirds of respondents were master students (69.3%) and the rest were Ph.D. candidates (30.7%). More than half of students were doing their theses or dissertations (57.3%), while the rest were in courses (42.7%). (46.7%) were male and (53.3%) were female. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the respondents surveyed.

4. Results and Discussion

The results of data analysis indicated that the respondents generally agree on the total items of the questionnaire with mean (3.86) and standard deviation (14.3). Regarding the percentage of responses, the majority of respondents (69%) agree and strongly agree to the total items of questionnaire, while who disagree and strongly disagree were (12.4%) and (21%) were neutral. This result can be considered in the light of what has been assumed in the literature for the importance and vitality of peer learning in the teaching/learning process. Table 2 shows the frequencies, Means and Standard Deviations of responses on the whole questionnaire.

The statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the responses of graduate students on the whole questionnaire according to all variables as proven by t-test and one-way ANOVA. However, statistically significant differences were found according to the variable of students’ specialization as proved by one-way ANOVA. The differences were to the side of students whose specializations were Foundations of Education, and educational psychology (F = 3.863; d. f. = 370; p = .004).

The questionnaire consisted of three parts as follows:

Part (1) the status quo of the culture of peer learning among graduate students:

This part of the questionnaire contained 19 items. The results indicated that the respondents generally agree on the items of part (1) with mean (3.78) and standard deviation (0.47). The findings indicated that the item “I do feel embarrassed to ask my peers for new knowledge and information” came at the first rank (m = 4.384, s. d. = 0.74), followed by the item “I feel happy with the comments of my peers on my researches and work papers” (m = 4.381, s. d. = 0.69), followed by the item “I feel happy with the comments of my peers on my speeches and oral interventions” (m = 4.357, s. d. = 0.73), followed by the item “I benefit a lot of the interventions and participations of my peers during lectures” (m = 4.280, s. d. = 0.73), followed by the item “The negative perception towards student has been changed; as knowledge is no longer the preserve of one over the other” (m = 4.227, s. d. = 0.84), all these five items were in the range of the “strongly agree” response. The findings indicated that two items came in the range of “neutral” response. They are “Faculty encourage their students to learn from their peers” (m = 3.283, s. d. = 1.03), followed by the item “Courses include activities contribute to spreading the culture of peer learning” (m = 3.067, s. d. = 1.12). The respondents disagree on the item “I look for information in the accounts of my colleagues in social networks” (m = 3.067, s. d. = 1.17). Table 3 shows the Means, Standard Deviations and sorting of responses on part (1).

The statistical analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences in the responses on part (1) according to the variables of university, program, type of study, and gender as proven by t-test and one-way ANOVA. However, statistically significant differences were found according to the variable of students’ specialization as proved by one-way ANOVA. The differences were to the side of students whose specializations were Curricula & Methods, and educational psychology (F = 3.091; d. f. = 370; p = .016).

The results of this part stress the need of graduate students for peer learning, as it helps to broaden their experiences and provides them more confidence. Students need to change their belief about the abilities of their peers. Although asking questions freely is one of the key components of academic cultures in world class universities, respondents expressed their embracement to ask their peers. They assured their happiness with peers’ comments on their works and presentations, this indicates that the learning environment is ready for utilizing such strategies of teaching and learning with graduate students.

Part (2) obstacles which may hinder spreading the culture of peer learning among graduate students:

This part of the questionnaire contained 12 items. The results indicated that the respondents generally agree on the items of part (2) with mean (3.55) and standard deviation (0.605). The findings indicated that 9 items were in the range of response “agree” with statistical means between (3.984) and (3.483), while the other three items were in the range of response “neutral” with statistical means between (3.272) and (3.024). The item “Lack of non-classroom activities that support the culture of peer learning” came at the first rank (m = 3.98, s. d. = 0.96), followed by the item “Lack of equipped classrooms of graduate students that support peer learning” (m = 3.979, s. d. = 1.16), followed by the item “Lack of classroom activities that support the culture of peer learning” (m = 3.768, s. d. = 1.02), followed by the item “The widespread of competition rather than cooperation in Arab academia” (m = 3.672, s. d. = 1.15), The findings indicated that three items which came in the range of “neutral” response were “Lack of confidence in the peer of Knowledge” (m = 3.272, s. d. = 1.02), followed by the item “Feeling that peers aren’t better than me” (m = 3.139, s. d. = 1.07), followed by the item “Being Embarrassed to ask one’s colleagues” (m = 3.024, s. d. = 1.12). Table 4 shows the Means, Standard Deviations and sorting of responses on part (2).

The statistical analysis of data (Table 4) revealed no statistically significant differences in the responses on part (2) according to the variables of university, program, type of study, and gender as proven by t-test and one-way ANOVA. However statistically significant differences were found according to the variable of students’ specialization as proved by one-way ANOVA. The differences were to the side of students whose specializations were foundations of Education, and educational psychology (F = 3.410; d. f. = 370; p = .009). The agreement of respondents on the obstacles which may hinder spreading the culture of peer learning among graduate students emphasizes the need for peer learning to be incorporated into the academic culture of Saudi universities.

Part (3) proposals to enhance the culture of peer learning among graduate students:

This part of the questionnaire consisted of 11 items. The results indicated that the respondents generally agree on the items of part (3) with mean (4.35) and standard deviation (0.612). The findings indicated that all items in this part were in the range of response “strongly agree” with statistical means between (4.531) and (4.203. The item “Urging professors to support and supervise academic discussions among students” came at the first rank (m = 4.531, s. d. = 0.71), followed by the item “Encouraging students to attend the seminars when their peers present their research proposals” (m = 4.448, s. d. = 0.83), followed by the item “providing programs of professional development for faculty about academic cultures in different universities” (m = 4.379, s. d. = 0.87), followed by the item “Encouraging students to constructively criticize and review their peers’ works showing both strengths and weaknesses” (m = 4.373, s. d. = 0.86). Table 5 shows the Means, Standard Deviations and sorting of responses on part (3).

The statistical analysis of data (Table 5) revealed no statistically significant differences in the responses on part (3) according to the variables of university, students' specialization, type of study, and gender as proven by t-test and one-way ANOVA. However, statistically significant differences were found according to the variable of study program as proved by t-test. The differences were to the side of Ph.D. candidates. (t = 4.849; d. f. = 373; p = .028). Many procedures should be considered to enhance the academic culture of interactive learning such as developing the faculty professionally, involving students actively and creating the right and reinforcing the educational environment.

5. Conclusion

The academic culture or culture of learning in world class universities depends intensively on strategies that get students heavily involved in the learning teaching process. Peer learning has been proved to be one of such effective strategies. It gives the process of learning a new life as students are active and positive and teachers are facilitators rather than being the source of knowledge. It also provides students with expertise which assist them in their future positions. Although peer learning has been proved to be effective for undergraduate students, the present study revealed its most beneficial for their peers in graduate studies.

The present study investigated the extent to which peer learning represents a key component of the cultures of learning among graduate students in educational specializations in Saudi universities. For the culture of peer learning to be intensively used in Saudi universities, the respondents proposed that: professors should support and supervise academic discussions among students, students should be encouraged to constructively criticize and review their peers’ works showing both strengths and weaknesses, and non-classroom activities that support the culture of peer learning should be supported.

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[38]  Beaumont, T., Mannion, A. &Shen, B. (2012). From the Campus to the Cloud: The Online Peer Assisted Learning Scheme. Journal of Peer Learning, 5, 20-31.
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[39]  Alkhatnai, M. (2011). Learning Styles of EFL Saudi College-level Students in Online and Traditional Educational Environments, Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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[40]  Valiente, C. (2008). Are students using the 'wrong' style of learning? A multicultural scrutiny for helping teachers to appreciate differences. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9(1), 73-91.
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[41]  Zaccagnini, M. & Verenikina, I. (2013). Peer Assisted Study Sessions for postgraduate international students in Australia. Journal of Peer Learning, 6, 86-102.
In article      View Article
 
[42]  Shen, X. & Tian, X. (2012). Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities. Higher Education Studies, 2(2), 61-65.
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[43]  Smithee, M., Greenblatt, S. & Eland, A. (2004). U.S. Classroom Culture. Washington: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
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[44]  Pham, D. (2014). 5 Key Facts for International Students About U.S. Academic Culture. U.S. News, Nov. 18, 2014, Retrieved from: https://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/international-student-counsel/2014/11/18/5-key-facts-for-international-students-about-us-academic-culture.
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[45]  Al-Hattami A. & Al-Ahdal, A. (2014). Academic and Social Adjustments of Arab Fulbright Students in American Universities: A Case Study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4, 5, 216-222.
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[46]  University of Alberta (2017). Academic Culture. Retrieved from: https://www.ualberta.ca/international-student-services/culture-and-lifestyle-guide/academic-culture
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Gamal M. M. Mustafa

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Gamal M. M. Mustafa. Learning with Each Other: Peer Learning as an Academic Culture among Graduate Students in Education. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 5, No. 9, 2017, pp 944-951. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/5/9/3
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Mustafa, Gamal M. M.. "Learning with Each Other: Peer Learning as an Academic Culture among Graduate Students in Education." American Journal of Educational Research 5.9 (2017): 944-951.
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Mustafa, G. M. M. (2017). Learning with Each Other: Peer Learning as an Academic Culture among Graduate Students in Education. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(9), 944-951.
Chicago Style
Mustafa, Gamal M. M.. "Learning with Each Other: Peer Learning as an Academic Culture among Graduate Students in Education." American Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 9 (2017): 944-951.
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[30]  Anglin-Jaffe, H. (2013). Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages Within ‘Oral’Schools for the Deaf. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 32(3), 261-271.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Arendale, D. (2001). Supplemental Instruction: Review of Research Concerning the Effectiveness of SI from The University of Missouri-Kansas City and Other Institutions from Across the United States, Unpublished manuscript. Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Retrieved from: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~arend011/SIresearchreview01.pdf
In article      View Article
 
[32]  Arendale, D. (1994). Understanding the supplemental instruction (SI) model. New directions for teaching and learning, 60(4), 11-22.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Mostafa, G. (2006). Learning and cultural experiences of Arab Muslim graduate students in a Canadian university. Journal of contemporary issues in education, 1(1), 36-53.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Paloyo, A. (2015). A note on evaluating Supplemental Instruction. Journal of Peer Learning, 8, 1-4.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Scott, P., Castaneda, L., Quick, K., & Linney, J. (2009). Synchronous symmetrical support: a naturalistic study of live online peer-to-peer learning via software video conferencing. Interactive Learning Environments, 17(2), 119-134.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Watts, H., Malliris M. & Billingham, O. (2015). Online Peer Assisted Learning: Reporting on practice. Journal of Peer Learning, 8, 85-104.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Boyd, S. & Paterson, J. (2016). Postgraduate peer tutors supporting academic skills in online programmes. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, Special Edition: Academic Peer Learning, Part Two, April 2016, 1-13.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Beaumont, T., Mannion, A. &Shen, B. (2012). From the Campus to the Cloud: The Online Peer Assisted Learning Scheme. Journal of Peer Learning, 5, 20-31.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Alkhatnai, M. (2011). Learning Styles of EFL Saudi College-level Students in Online and Traditional Educational Environments, Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Graduate Studies and Research, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Valiente, C. (2008). Are students using the 'wrong' style of learning? A multicultural scrutiny for helping teachers to appreciate differences. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9(1), 73-91.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  Zaccagnini, M. & Verenikina, I. (2013). Peer Assisted Study Sessions for postgraduate international students in Australia. Journal of Peer Learning, 6, 86-102.
In article      View Article
 
[42]  Shen, X. & Tian, X. (2012). Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities. Higher Education Studies, 2(2), 61-65.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  Smithee, M., Greenblatt, S. & Eland, A. (2004). U.S. Classroom Culture. Washington: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
In article      
 
[44]  Pham, D. (2014). 5 Key Facts for International Students About U.S. Academic Culture. U.S. News, Nov. 18, 2014, Retrieved from: https://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/international-student-counsel/2014/11/18/5-key-facts-for-international-students-about-us-academic-culture.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Al-Hattami A. & Al-Ahdal, A. (2014). Academic and Social Adjustments of Arab Fulbright Students in American Universities: A Case Study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4, 5, 216-222.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  University of Alberta (2017). Academic Culture. Retrieved from: https://www.ualberta.ca/international-student-services/culture-and-lifestyle-guide/academic-culture
In article      View Article