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Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Personality and Emotional Intelligence

Agamani Mondal, Birbal Saha
American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, 5(10), 1097-1101. DOI: 10.12691/education-5-10-11
Published online: November 16, 2017

Abstract

The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of personality and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction. Entire secondary school teachers working under West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE) are considered as population. The survey sample included 888 secondary school teachers. Job satisfaction scale (JSS), emotional intelligence inventory (EII), both developed and standardized by the investigators and culturally adapted big five inventory (BFI) were used to collect from samples. Result revealed that high emotional intelligent teacher possesses high level of satisfaction than that average as well as low level emotional intelligent teacher. It is also observed that conscientious and agreeable teachers are highly satisfied with their teaching job whereas neurotic teachers did not satisfied with their teaching job.

1. Introduction

Teacher’s commitment and effectiveness are highly dependent on motivation, morale and job satisfaction. This indicates that teacher motivation and job satisfaction are vital phenomena for all type of educational institution in any country. It is also an indicator of the school environment and culture of the Institution. A highly satisfied teacher tries to pick the school in its highest position. If teachers are not satisfied with their job, improvement of performance of the school is not possible 1. This implies that satisfied and motivated school teachers are most likely to affect the students learning positively while the dissatisfied may have negative impacts on students’ performance. Nowadays, in spite of different plans and programs, there is a general feeling that the teachers are not satisfied in their job as a result of which standard of education are falling.

Emotions are more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. Positive and negative emotions are significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Hoppock 2 noted a strong correlation between workers' emotional adjustment and their levels of job satisfaction. Similarly, Fisher and Hanna 3 concluded that a large part of dissatisfaction resulted from emotional maladjustment. Derlin and Sclineider 4 observed that, satisfaction with a job remains unusually stable, which made them believe that it was people's personality that was due to the satisfaction with their job, rather than other variables. Some studies showed consistent relations between personality and job performance 5, 6. According to Holland 7, the choice of occupation is highly dependent on personality type. Judge and Larsen 8 investigated the role of personality characteristics in moderating the relationship between mood and job satisfaction whereas Bui 9 reexamines the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and job satisfaction.

2. Objectives

To keep in mind the nature of variables investigators frames specific objectives:

• To study job satisfaction of secondary school teachers with regard to personality traits.

• To study job satisfaction of secondary school teachers with regard to emotional intelligence.

• To study the first order interaction effect due to the variation of personality and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers.

3. Variables

In the present study dependent variable is job satisfaction and independent variables are emotional intelligence and personality of secondary school teachers.

4. Hypotheses

The null hypotheses have been framed for smooth running of the study. These are:

Ho1: Job satisfaction does not differ significantly with regard to personality traits

Ho2: Job satisfaction does not differ significantly with regard to emotional intelligence

Ho3: There is no significant first order interaction effect due to the variation of personality and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers.

5. Population

Entire secondary school teachers of West Bengal under West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE) are considered as population of the study.

6. Sample and Sampling

Multistage sampling techniques have been used to include sufficient number of cases from each districts of West Bengal. Total 888 samples are taken randomly from 108 school located in different districts. Descriptive research method has been used for the investigation. The sample profile is presented in Table 1.

7. Tools

For this purpose two self developed scales viz. job satisfaction scale (JSS) and emotional intelligence inventory (EII) and one culturally adapted big five inventory (BFI) has been used. JSS is used to measure job satisfaction, EII for Emotional Intelligence and BFI for personality trait of secondary school teachers. JSS contains 57 item with 43 positive and 14 negative items. The reliability of JSS by split half test is found 0.827 by the use of Spearman - Brown prophecy formula. Cronbach α of the scale is found 0.882. EII scale has been developed following Daniel Goleman’s theory 10. The scale contains 100 items with 59 positive and 41 negative items. The reliability of EII by split half test is found 0.75 using of Spearman - Brown prophecy formula. Cronbach α of the scale is found 0.92. BFI of John, O.P 11 has been culturally adopted for this investigation.

8. Analysis and Interpretation

8.1. Analysis through Descriptive Statistics

By applying job satisfaction scale the following data have been collected and presented in Table 2.

Results found from job satisfaction scale revealed 23.19% secondary teachers of both male and female are positioned into high job satisfaction, 62.84% belonged to the average level and 13.74% positioned into low level of job satisfaction. This result indicates that most of the secondary teachers in West Bengal are not highly satisfied with their job which is alarming to education system.

8.2. Analysis through Inferential Statistics

Testing of Ho1: In the present study Big Five Personality traits i.e. extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness have been determined by administering BFI. In order to find out whether any significant difference exists among different personality traits, F test has been carried out and the result is presented in Table 3.

From Table 3, it is found that F value for different personality trait is 65.042 at df (4, 883) which much greater than that of critical ‘F’ value. This indicates that job satisfaction depends on personality traits. However in order to compare these personality traits with job satisfaction, ‘t’ value for each pairs of traits has been determined and presented in Table 4.

From Table 4, it is evident that out of ten pairs, seven pairs differ significantly whereas only three pairs did not differ significantly.

Testing of Ho2: In order to determine the effect of different level of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction, calculation of F value is essential. Therefore, the Researchers has constructed ANOVA table (Table 5) to determine the effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction.

It is observed form Table 5 that F value for assessing the effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction is 147.31 at df (2,885) which is very high than that of critical ‘F’ value indicating that there is a significant difference exists among different levels of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction. Therefore, null hypothesis Ho2 is rejected. To determine the effect of individual level of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction, ‘t’ test has been carried out and presented in Table 6.

Testing of Ho3: ANOVA table (Table 7) has been framed to determine the interaction between personality and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction.

From Table 7, F value for the interaction between gender and personality on job satisfaction is found to 3.908 at df (7,874) which is significant at 0.01 level of significance. Hence hypothesis Ho3 is rejected. In order to analysis which pairs have significant effect, ‘t’ critical ratio (Table 8) for each pairs has been determined.

Out of 13 possible pairs, only three pairs viz. Average Emotional Intelligent Extravert vs low Emotional Intelligent Extravert, average Emotional Intelligent Agreeable vs low Emotional Intelligent Agreeable and Average Emotional Intelligent Conscientious vs low Emotional Intelligent Conscientious did not differ significantly where as others 10 possible pairs differ significantly on job satisfaction.

9. Results and Discussion

9.1. Emotional Intelligence

Objective of the study is to find out whether any relationship exists or not with regard to job satisfaction of the secondary teachers in relation to their emotional intelligence. It is observed that high emotional intelligent teacher possesses high level of satisfaction than that average as well as low level emotional intelligent teacher. Thus emotional intelligence has significant effect on job satisfaction. The result corroborates with the findings of Cobb 12, Guleryuz et.al 13, Craig 14, Coco 15, Anari 16, Lee and Ok 17, Tabatabaei and Farazmehr, 18, Alnidawy 19, Singh and Kumar 20. In addition, Carmeli 21 states that people with high emotional intelligence are constantly in a good mood and that they experience a higher level of job satisfaction and well-being in comparison with people with lower emotional intelligence. They can effectively recognize frustration and stress-related emotions and hence, control them in order to reduce stress. Such employees can also realize their professional needs and control them, so their job satisfaction increases. These employees have the ability to control their emotions and have better relationship with others.

9.2. Big Five Personality Traits

Conscientiousness trait encompasses a diligent, hardworking, thorough and organized. Secondary teachers high on this trait would likely be described by their superiors and having a hard work ethic and being dedicated. These individuals liked group work more when they selected their own groups. They understood other group members’ ideas and were willing to offer help to group members. Agreeableness trait includes empathetic, considerate, friendly, generous and helpful and they also have an optimistic view of human nature. It is perceptible individuals who score high on the agreeableness trait have strong interpersonal skills and find prosaically relationships to be intrinsically motivating. They also perform all tasks assigned to them conscientiously and work hard to accomplish their goals. This explained why conscientious and agreeable teachers are highly satisfied with their teaching job. Extraversion trait encompasses talkative and energetic at one end of the continuum and shy and withdrawn at the other end. Jost 22 revealed that people those who have highly openness personality trait tend to be politically liberal and tolerant of diversity. As a consequence, they are generally more open to different cultures and lifestyles. They are lower in ethnocentrism and right-wing authoritarianism.

It is also observed from the present study that secondary teachers with neurotic trait differ significantly with regard to job satisfaction when compared with other four personality traits. Neurotic individuals reported feeling nervous in communicating their ideas within the group, had difficulty in understanding what the group task was; were tensed most of the time and were afraid to ask for help within their group 23. They have a limited capacity to deal with stressful situations and get angry at the ways other treat them 24. As such, their participation and contribution to group work will be limited. So the characteristics of neurotic prospective is not fit for teaching job and hence they are less satisfied. This result is consistent with the studies of Chakraborty et.al. 25, Matzler and Renzl 26 and Judge et. al. 27.

9.3. Interaction between Emotional Intelligence and Personality

Some studies revealed that personality traits have also been associated with emotional intelligence. It should be noted that certain authors such as Elliot and Thrash 28, who found that certain personality traits such as extraversion, combined with positive emotionality, are associated with a type of approach temperament. In contrast, people who have more neurotic features and negative emotionality possess an avoidance temperament. Mayer, Salovey and Caruso 29 also found correlations between emotional intelligence and personality traits such as agreeableness, openness and responsibility, among others. Other authors have found a relationship being the ability to manage one's emotions with traits such as extraversion 30. In the present study first order interaction is found among emotional intelligence and personality traits.

10. Conclusions

The present provides excellent evidences, how job satisfaction is affected and related to emotional intelligence and personality. The connotation of current state of teachers holding average satisfaction is very dangerous as it not only destroys the professional status of a teacher but also devastates the spirit of the school life. Thus Govt. has to take necessary measures to enhance external factors of job satisfaction by creating attractive salary package, career advancement scheme, earned leave scheme, health scheme, attractive fringe benefits etc. Besides this personality test to be make compulsory during the selection of secondary teachers. Also training to be provided to the secondary teachers to develop their ability to manage and control their emotions.

References

[1]  Mbua, F. N. (2003). Educational Administration: Theory and Practice. Limbe, South West Province, Cameroon: Design House.
In article      PubMed
 
[2]  Hoppock, R. (1935). Job Satisfaction, Harper and Brothers, New York and London.
In article      
 
[3]  Fisher, V. E. and Hanna, J. V. (1931). The dissatisfied worker. New York: Mcmillan.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Derlin, R. and Schneider, G.T. (1994). Understanding job satisfaction: Principals and teachers, Urban and Suburban, Urban Education, 29 (1), 63-68.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Lease, S. (1998). Annual review, 1993-1997: Work attitudes and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behaviour. 53(2): 154-183.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning Behav. Personnel Psychology, 50, 145-167.
In article      
 
[7]  Holland, J. L., (1973). Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Career, Prentice-Hall.
In article      
 
[8]  Judge, T.A. and Larsen, R. (2001). Dispositional affect and job satisfaction: a review and theoretical extension. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, pp. 67-98.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Bui, M (2017). Big Five Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction, Journal of General Management, 42(3), pp. 21-30.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Goleman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence: perspectives on a theory of performance. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (eds.): The emotionally intelligent workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
In article      PubMed
 
[11]  John, O. P. and Srivastava, S. (1991). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Cobb, R.E. (2004). Assessing Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence in Public School Teachers’, Ph.D. Dissertation, Western Kentucky University.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Guleryuz, G., Güney, S., Aydın, E.M. and Aşan, O. (2008). The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction Between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment of Nurses: A questionnaire survey, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(11), 1625-1635.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Craig, J.B. (2008). The Relationship between the Emotional Intelligence of the Principal and Teacher Job Satisfaction, Doctoral Dissertations University of Pennsylvania.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Coco, C.M. (2009). Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The EQ Relationship for Deans of U.S. Business Schools, ProQuest LLC, D.B.A. Dissertation, Anderson University.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Anari, N. N. (2012). Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment, Journal of Workplace Learning, 24(4), 256-269.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Lee J., and Ok C. (2012). Reducing burnout and enhancing job satisfaction: Critical role of hotel employees’ emotional intelligence and emotional labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 1101-1112.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Tabatabaei, S. O. and Farazmehr, Z. (2015). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Iranian Language Institute Teachers’ Job Satisfaction, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(1), pp. 184-195.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Alnidawy, A.A.B. (2015). The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction: Applied Study in the Jordanian Telecommunication Sector, International Journal of Business Administration, 6(3), pp. 63-71.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Singh, B., and Kumar, A. (2016). Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 1-9.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Jost, J. T. (2006). The End of the End of Ideology. American Psychologist, 61, pp 651-670.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Bakker, A. B., Van der Zee, K. I., Lewig, K. A., and Dollard, M. F. (2006). The relationship between the Big Five personality factors and burnout: a study among volunteer counsellors. Journal of Social Psycholology, 146(1), pp 31-50.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Van Heck, G. L. (1997), Personality and physical health: toward an ecological approach to health-related personality research. Eur. J. Pers., 11, pp 415-443.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Chakraborty, A. (2015). Attitude of Prospective Teachers Towards Teaching Profession in Relation to Emotional Intelligence and Personality, Ph.D. Dissertation, Kalyani University.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Matzler, K. and Renzl, B. (2007), Personality Traits, Employee Satisfaction and Affective Commitment, Total Quality Management 18(5), 589-598.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Judge, T. A., Heller, D., Mount, M.K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 530-541.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[28]  Elliot, A. J., and Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach avoidance motivation in personality: approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), pp 804-818.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., and Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), pp 197-215.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P. and Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), pp 641-658.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Agamani Mondal and Birbal Saha

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Agamani Mondal, Birbal Saha. Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Personality and Emotional Intelligence. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 5, No. 10, 2017, pp 1097-1101. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/5/10/11
MLA Style
Mondal, Agamani, and Birbal Saha. "Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Personality and Emotional Intelligence." American Journal of Educational Research 5.10 (2017): 1097-1101.
APA Style
Mondal, A. , & Saha, B. (2017). Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Personality and Emotional Intelligence. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(10), 1097-1101.
Chicago Style
Mondal, Agamani, and Birbal Saha. "Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Personality and Emotional Intelligence." American Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 10 (2017): 1097-1101.
Share
[1]  Mbua, F. N. (2003). Educational Administration: Theory and Practice. Limbe, South West Province, Cameroon: Design House.
In article      PubMed
 
[2]  Hoppock, R. (1935). Job Satisfaction, Harper and Brothers, New York and London.
In article      
 
[3]  Fisher, V. E. and Hanna, J. V. (1931). The dissatisfied worker. New York: Mcmillan.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Derlin, R. and Schneider, G.T. (1994). Understanding job satisfaction: Principals and teachers, Urban and Suburban, Urban Education, 29 (1), 63-68.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Lease, S. (1998). Annual review, 1993-1997: Work attitudes and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behaviour. 53(2): 154-183.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning Behav. Personnel Psychology, 50, 145-167.
In article      
 
[7]  Holland, J. L., (1973). Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Career, Prentice-Hall.
In article      
 
[8]  Judge, T.A. and Larsen, R. (2001). Dispositional affect and job satisfaction: a review and theoretical extension. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, pp. 67-98.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Bui, M (2017). Big Five Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction, Journal of General Management, 42(3), pp. 21-30.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Goleman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence: perspectives on a theory of performance. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (eds.): The emotionally intelligent workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
In article      PubMed
 
[11]  John, O. P. and Srivastava, S. (1991). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Cobb, R.E. (2004). Assessing Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence in Public School Teachers’, Ph.D. Dissertation, Western Kentucky University.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Guleryuz, G., Güney, S., Aydın, E.M. and Aşan, O. (2008). The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction Between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment of Nurses: A questionnaire survey, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(11), 1625-1635.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Craig, J.B. (2008). The Relationship between the Emotional Intelligence of the Principal and Teacher Job Satisfaction, Doctoral Dissertations University of Pennsylvania.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Coco, C.M. (2009). Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The EQ Relationship for Deans of U.S. Business Schools, ProQuest LLC, D.B.A. Dissertation, Anderson University.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Anari, N. N. (2012). Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment, Journal of Workplace Learning, 24(4), 256-269.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Lee J., and Ok C. (2012). Reducing burnout and enhancing job satisfaction: Critical role of hotel employees’ emotional intelligence and emotional labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 1101-1112.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Tabatabaei, S. O. and Farazmehr, Z. (2015). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Iranian Language Institute Teachers’ Job Satisfaction, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(1), pp. 184-195.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Alnidawy, A.A.B. (2015). The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction: Applied Study in the Jordanian Telecommunication Sector, International Journal of Business Administration, 6(3), pp. 63-71.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Singh, B., and Kumar, A. (2016). Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 1-9.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Jost, J. T. (2006). The End of the End of Ideology. American Psychologist, 61, pp 651-670.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Bakker, A. B., Van der Zee, K. I., Lewig, K. A., and Dollard, M. F. (2006). The relationship between the Big Five personality factors and burnout: a study among volunteer counsellors. Journal of Social Psycholology, 146(1), pp 31-50.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Van Heck, G. L. (1997), Personality and physical health: toward an ecological approach to health-related personality research. Eur. J. Pers., 11, pp 415-443.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Chakraborty, A. (2015). Attitude of Prospective Teachers Towards Teaching Profession in Relation to Emotional Intelligence and Personality, Ph.D. Dissertation, Kalyani University.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Matzler, K. and Renzl, B. (2007), Personality Traits, Employee Satisfaction and Affective Commitment, Total Quality Management 18(5), 589-598.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Judge, T. A., Heller, D., Mount, M.K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 530-541.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[28]  Elliot, A. J., and Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach avoidance motivation in personality: approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), pp 804-818.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., and Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), pp 197-215.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P. and Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), pp 641-658.
In article      View Article