Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender...

Khalid Abdallah hammouri, Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi

American Journal of Educational Research

Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender and Class Level

Khalid Abdallah hammouri1,, Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi2

1Department of Special Education College of Education, king Khalid University, K.S.A

2The Ministry of Education in Kuwait

Abstract

This study aimed to recognize the spiritual intelligence level and the differences among gifted and non-gifted students, in Jordan, according to gender and class level, this study sample consisted of (556) male and female students, (226) of them are gifted, selected from King Abdullah II schools for excellence, (300) of them are non-gifted, selected from Al-Zarqaa governorate schools, and the sample were distributed into two groups: the intermediate level and the secondary level, during the first semester of the year (2015/2016), the gifted were selected intentionally as they achieved the certified excellence criteria, while the non-gifted students s were selected randomly, and the spiritual intelligence scale was applied on them -that prepared and developed by (Al- Dabee) on the Arabic environment. The study results indicated the following: -The spiritual intelligence level was high among the gifted and non-gifted students. -There are statistically significant differences of spiritual intelligence level; due to (gifted/non-gifted) students' achievement, and the differences were in favour of gifted students. -There are statistically significant differences of the educational level variable among gifted and non-gifted students, and the differences were in favour of the secondary level. -There are no statistically significant differences of gender variable among gifted and non-gifted students.-There are no statistically significant differences due to the interaction between gender and educational level among gifted students, except meditation in the universe, and the differences were in favour of females in the primary level, and in favour of males in the secondary level. -There are no differences due to the interaction between gender and educational level among non-gifted students in all spiritual intelligence domains, except spiritual practice domain, and the differences were in favour of females in the higher primary level.

Cite this article:

  • Khalid Abdallah hammouri, Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi. Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender and Class Level. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 15, 2016, pp 1086-1095. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/15/6
  • hammouri, Khalid Abdallah, and Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi. "Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender and Class Level." American Journal of Educational Research 4.15 (2016): 1086-1095.
  • hammouri, K. A. , & Alenzi, S. A. (2016). Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender and Class Level. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(15), 1086-1095.
  • hammouri, Khalid Abdallah, and Sara Abdulaziz Alenzi. "Spiritual Intelligence and the Differences among Gifted and Non-gifted Students, According to Gender and Class Level." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 15 (2016): 1086-1095.

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1. Introduction

Spiritual intelligence is one of the modern trendy concepts, and the influencing factors in the formation of an individual's personality and attitude, but this requires a presence of many basic principles that contribute in improving the spiritual intelligence among individuals, whether in taking wise decisions or the influence in individual's hearts, improving their skills, changing their conviction, and moving them to a higher levels of thought patterns.

The concept of spiritual intelligence is the individual's ability to achieve the balance between higher values and goals, to get the benefit, in making a real meaning for life, dealing with others ethically. On the other hand, spiritual intelligence guides the individual to the relation type with God, and gives a manner to deal with environment and universe. As well, it helps the individual to gain self-consciousness, sublimation of the ego and feeling gratitude for surrounded blessings, and finally to realize the fact of his presence and goals [1].

Also, spiritual intelligence, from Dhatt's point of view [2] expresses life presence, achieve success and welfare and other positive results of life. As also, many researchers believe that spiritual intelligence has a great importance due to its ability to affect people's lives and communities, and multicultural. So, spiritual intelligence among individuals; contributes effectively to adopt a positive outlook for life, and improves the concept of the positive self they have; which working to improve self-motivation among individuals, and reducing the psychological stress and the tension they face; due to daily life requirements [3]. Anbugeetha Illustrates that spiritual intelligence has positive effects in the mankind, whereas these positive changes work on strengthening individual in the nature. That increases his ability to express the spiritual innate features, such as: love, peace, purity and happiness, through the ideas, positions, and different behaviors [4].

On the other hand, spiritual intelligence has a great importance in life, indicates in being prompt in our life to know the difference between which is good, and which is bad, especially among individuals who can control themselves, and refuse doing anything violates the prevailing regulations and standards. So the person who has a higher levels of spiritual intelligence, refuses doing anything violates the nature and its regulations; because, he has a brilliant thought that makes his mind controls his actions, and his desire turns to achieve specific issues, and this encourages him to work rhythmically to achieve his dreams [5].

Moreover George [6] believes that the improvement and the interesting of spiritual intelligence among individuals, gives them a high self-concept, increases the confidence of themselves and the others, helps them to be more steadiness and emotional poise, grants them a desire to communicate with the others positively, makes them more capable to face what they expose of psychological stress a crises and irritation from others.

Hasan and Rahman [7] indicate that spiritual intelligence has a clear effect on students, in different educational levels, so the student who has a high level of spiritual intelligence, can face the problems that occur to him, and can solve it easily. Also, he could avoid negative feelings and directions, and he will have a great motivation to learn, by his ability to control limpness and laziness, as the spiritual intelligence prevents all emotions that may affect on students.

In the same context, both believe that spiritual intelligence may have a positive impact on the mental health for students and it can promote their self-confidence. Furthermore, it leads to have a better ability to solve problems, achieve goals and improve the quality of students [8].

Wigglesworth [9] illustrates that there are many dimensions for spiritual intelligence including: the consciousness of self supreme ego, whole consciousness, enthrone the higher self and the spiritual social presence, having a teacher and a wise leader, having the effective agent of change, making a wise decisions, quiet and remedy environment, and finally, engaging life courses.

But Emmons [10] mention four essential elements of spiritual intelligence which are: The ability to get the benefit from spiritual sources in problem-solving, the ability to engage in a strong cases of consciousness, the ability to invest daily activities and relations, and the susceptibility to excellence and highness.

According to Tekkeveettil, al et [11] they believe that the most important features of spiritual intelligence are: the outstanding ability to find relationships between things, self-consciousness of everything that the individual feels internally or externally, flexibility and the ability to adopt everything chimes with all circumstances that the individual facing and engaging and deep understanding for all cases, the high ability to face frustration and failure, and to get the benefit from previous experiences and the high ambition, finally, the ability for future work.

Amram and Dryer believe that there is a group of common dimensions between all individuals, no matter how they different in religious and beliefs, which are :

- Consciousness, including: intuition, mindfulness, and synthesis.

- Grace, including: beauty, discernment, freedom, gratitude, immanence, and enjoyment.

- Meaning, including: purpose, and service.

- Transcendence, including: higher self, holism, and spirituality relatedness and practice.

- Truth, including: altruism, self-denial, equanimity, wholeness-inner, openness of mind, and the presence of mind and trust [12].

But according to David King who reached to four components of spiritual intelligence, which are:

1 – Critical existential thinking.

2 – Personal meaning production.

3 – Transcendental awareness.

4 – Conscious state expansion [13].

Moreover, Al- dabee [14] reached to a sample for spiritual intelligence consists of five dimensions, illustrated by the following figure:

And in the followings points, the researcher explains the meaning of each dimension of spiritual intelligence:

1 – Self-transcendence: indicates the ability to search for great values and goals beyond self, and beyond the personal interests and concerns. Also, the individual's ability to feel that he is a part of this world where he lives, and his presence is influential as much his tender to others, and his sacrifice for them.

2 – Perception of the meaning of life: indicates the individual's realization for his life goal, his message about life, that he lives for and sacrifices in sake for. Also, his sense of his value and his importance through achieving the meaning of life.

3 – Meditation in the nature and the universe: indicate to the thinking and speculation of Allah almighty's creatures; to realize the new meaning of experiences that he finds in himself, and the nature around him; in sake of deriving inferences that help him to deepen his faith in Allah almighty, also, to help him to enjoy his life.

4 – Spiritual practice: indicates the practice of the worship and the religious rituals as a part of the right way of Holy Qur'an. Such as: praying, fasting, zakah, pilgrimage, Holy Qur'an recitation, permanent recall to Allah almighty, to cultivate the self and make it happy and comfortable, and this reflects on behaviours and interactions with others.

5 – Perception of suffering as an opportunity: indicates the individual's ability to use spiritual sources to coexistence with suffering experiences, understanding the problems he faces in his life as an opportunity for achievement, and changing the perception of life events from negative perception to positive perception, and searching for a brilliant aspects, finally, faith that life is still has a meaning although all circumstances.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

Now, world is witnessing many changes and developments which have a negative impact on individuals, and this calls the presence of suitable strategies to face and deal with these problems well, as George indicates that the improving and the interesting of spiritual intelligence; increases their self concept, accords them more confidence in themselves and in the others, and makes them more capable to face the psychological pressure and problems, and that has a positive effect on students' medical health, cultivates their self-confidence, achieves success, and develops students' life type [15]. In accordance with that, the researchers believe in the importance of considering the spiritual intelligence level, especially among different mental levels categories; because this contributes in increasing the understanding of such topic, and recognizes the related problems and the affecting factors. So the current study seeks to answer the following questions:

1- What is the spiritual intelligence level among both gifted and non gifted students?

2- Are there statistically significant difference (α ≥ 0.05) in the spiritual intelligence level due to gifted and non gifted.

3- Are there statistically significant differences in the spiritual intelligence level among the gifted students, due to the gender, educational level and the interaction between them?

4- Are there statistically significant differences in the spiritual intelligence level among the non- gifted students, due to the gender, educational level and the interaction between them?

1.2. The Aim and Importance of the Study.

- This study aims to recognize the spiritual intelligence level among both gifted and non gifted students, also to know the differences according to the social type and the educational level.

- This study is important for the following:

1. The spiritual intelligence topic is one of the modern concepts, which is not fully covered by the researchers and specialists of psychology and other educational sciences.

2. This study tries to address this topic among both gifted and non gifted students and compares between them in the light of this concept, also it studies the differences in accordance with to the social type and educational level.

3. It is expected that this study results will contribute in enriching the theoretical literature which related to spiritual intelligence topic, also at the same time, it reinforces the validity of the consumptions that related to gifted students' features, because they are more intelligent in the principles and the features of spiritual intelligence, than the non-gifted students.

4. The importance of this study refers to its results which give an opportunity to present training and guideline programs, also the psychological guidance of the gifted students to raise their self- appreciation level.Procedural definitions.

1.3. Review of Literatur

Many researchers conducted a group of studies which deal with spiritual intelligence. So, Bhaqwau's study [16] aimed to compare the spiritual intelligence between males and females. This study sample consisted of 60 male and female students from high studies faculties in Aurangabad. The results of this study indicate that the differences of spiritual intelligence between genders, were high and the differences were in favour of males.

Also, Kilcup [17] conducted a study aimed to recognize the spiritual intelligence level among teenagers. The study sample consisted of (115) male and female students of teenagers who aged 12-18, and the results indicate that the spiritual intelligence level of male students were high, and this appears through the presence of spiritual values (such as: Altruism, mercy, and openness).

But according to Davoudi's study [18], which aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence and creativity, this study sample of (360) students from the public high schools students in Zanjan city, and the results of this study indicate that there is a high connection between spiritual intelligence and creativity.

Moreover, Sabeeha study [19] aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence and the academic achievement motivation. The sample of this study consisted of (110) male and female students, from the institution of legitimacy science students in Oman, and the results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences between males and females in both; the spiritual intelligence scale and achievement motivation scale. Also, there is a correlative relationship between spiritual intelligence and achievement motivation.

But according to Koohbanani study [20] aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence, and emotional intelligence with life satisfaction. The study sample consisted of (123) female students from the talented secondary school in Birjand, but the results revealed that there is no relationship between spiritual and emotional intelligence, and between life satisfaction.

Now, from Rees, al et [21]. point of view and according to his study, which aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence and interactive senses among teenagers, the study sample consisted of (343) male and female students from secondary level students in Washington state, however, the results indicate that there is a high level of spiritual intelligence among teenagers.

Furthermore, Gupta study [22] aimed to explain the relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence with self-efficiency and self-regulation among faculties students, and the sample consisted of (40) male students and (40) female students from Kurukshtra university in India. The results indicate that spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence are deeply linked with self-efficiency and self-regulation. Also, the study results indicate that there are statistically significant differences of spiritual intelligence due to gender, in favour of males.

Al-Dhabe' [14] conducted a study aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence and psychological happiness among teenagers and adults, the study sample consisted of (180) students of king khaled university in Abha, and the results indicated that there is a correlative relationship between spiritual intelligence and psychological happiness, also it revealed that there are a statistically significant differences in spiritual intelligence degrees of the sample students due to the variable of age categories, and the differences were in favour of adults.

Now, from Rees, al et point of view and according to his study [21] which aimed to recognize the relationship between spiritual intelligence and interactive senses among teenagers, the study sample consisted of (343) male and female students from secondary level students in Washington state, however, the results indicate that there is a high level of spiritual intelligence among teenagers.

After seeing the theoretical literature and related studies, we can conclude the following:

- There is a lack of studies on spiritual intelligence among outstanding and ordinary students, and there are no studies on comparing spiritual intelligence between outstanding students and ordinary students, in the adolescence, so that is why the researchers conduct such study.

- The suitability of Al- dabee test [14] as a tool to measure the spiritual intelligence, which motivates the researchers to use it as a tool to measure the spiritual intelligence among gifted and non-gifted students.

1.3. This Study was Based Upon the Following Terms

The spiritual intelligence: is a group of abilities and preparations which enable the individual to solve the problems and achieve the goals in their daily lives [22], but procedurally, spiritual intelligence known as the degree that the learner grants on spiritual intelligence scale which he prepared [21].

Gifted students: The gifted: they are students who subjected to diagnosis at some point, before higher primary and secondary level at schools, as they have mental, creative, academic, or leading skills; so they need services and special care in order to improve these possibilities and skills to the maximum (Jarawan, 2012). [23] But procedurally, it is known as the students whose their cumulative average between (90-100).

2. Methodology

This study sample consisted of (556) male and female students, (226) of them are gifted, selected from King Abdullah II schools for excellence, (300) of them are non-gifted, selected from Al-Zarqaa governorate schools, and the sample were distributed into two groups: the intermediate level and the secondary level, during the first semester of the year (2015/2016), the gifted were selected intentionally as they achieved the certified excellence criteria, while the non-gifted students s were selected randomly.

2.1. Spiritual Intelligence Scale

The researcher used spiritual intelligence scale which prepared by (Al- dabee, 2012) and that consisted of (40) statements related to the student features and the abilities that helps them to deal positively with different life positions, and it distributed into five dimensions, which are: self-transcendence, the awareness of life meaning, meditation in the nature and the universe, spiritual practice, and perception of suffering as an opportunity, where every dimension include eight statements, that the scale hasn’t dimensions, but measures the total degree and this is on a fivefold scale ( totally agree, agree, not sure, not agree, totally not agree).

2.2. Virtual Scale Honesty

Is judgment on the virtual scale statements according to its words clarity and meaning in the light of the dimension it belongs to, and the scale statements were showed to number of psychological and psychological health specialists who approved the suitability of suggested statements to measure spiritual intelligence in the light of its procedure definition with revising some statements framing.

This scale characterized with acceptable stability degrees that correlation coefficients between the degrees of each dimension and the total degree of spiritual intelligence scale reached, for the self-transcendence (0.79), the awareness of life meaning (0.76), meditation of the universe (0.72), spiritual practice (0.81), suffering as an opportunity (0.69), and the total degree (0.74).

Table 1. the internal consistency coefficient cronbach's Alpha and stability replays for the total degree

In this study, the stability coefficient was calculated in the internal consistency manner according to cronbach's alpha. Table 1 shows the internal consistency coefficient according to cronbach's alpha and the stability of replays for the domains and the tool as whole, and these values were suitable for these study goals.

3. Results

After obtaining the approval from the scale owner, it was applied on a study sample of gifted and non gifted students in the first semester 2015/2016, the students were supplied by written instructions that limit the study goals and explain the procedures which should follow by the students on the scale.

Question 1: what is the spiritual intelligence level among both gifted and non gifted students?

To answer this question, the averages and the standard deviations of the emotional level among both gifted and non gifted students were calculated, and the table below illustrates this:

Table 2. The Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) for the emotional intelligence level among both gifted and non gifted students, classified descending in accordance with the averages

The Table 2 showed that the average ranges from (3.44-3.88). The spiritual practice placed the first level with the highest average (3.88), while suffering as an opportunity, placed the last level with the lowest average (3.44), and according to the average of the total degree, reached (3.66).

Question 2: Are there statistically significant difference (α 0.05) in the spiritual intelligence level due to gifted and non gifted?

To answer this question, the averages and the standard deviations of the spiritual intelligence, were calculated in accordance with to gifted and non gifted, so to illustrate the statistically differences between the averages, T-test was used. And the tables below illustrate this:

Table 3. The Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD), and T-test of the achievement (gifted and non gifted) impact on the spiritual intelligence

The Table 3. shows that there are statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05), due to the achievement in all areas and in the total degree, and the differences were in favour of the gifted students.

Question 3: Are there statistically significant differences in the spiritual intelligence level among the gifted students, due to the gender, educational level and the interaction between them?

To answer this question, the averages and the standard deviations of the spiritual intelligence level among the gifted students, were calculated in accordance with the two variables: gender and educational level. And the table below illustrates this:

Table 4. Duo-variance analysis for the impact of gender, educational level, and the interaction between them, on spiritual intelligence among gifted students

The Table 4 shows an apparent variation in the averages and the standard deviations of the spiritual intelligence level among talented students according to the categories variance of social type and educational level. So to illustrate the statistically significant differences between averages, duo-variance analysis was used Table 5.

Table 5. Duo-variance analysis Two-Way ANOVA for the impact of gender, educational level, and the interaction between them, on spiritual intelligence among gifted students

The table illustrates the following:

- There are statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05) due to the impact of educational level in all areas and in the total degree, except in meditation in the universe domain, and the differences were in favour of the secondary level.

- There are no statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05); due to the impact of gender in all fields, except self-transcendence domain, and the differences were in favour of males.

- There are no statistically differences (α ≥ 0.05); due to the impact of interaction between gender and educational level, except spiritual practice domain, to illustrate the differences between averages, it was represented graphically, as in Figure 1.

Figure 1. A graph illustrates the interaction between level and gender in domain (3)

According to Figure 1, it shows the interaction between level and gender in meditation in the universe field, and the differences were in favour of females in the higher primary level, and in favour of males in the secondary level.

Question (4): Are there statistically significant differences in the spiritual intelligence level among the non- gifted students, due to the gender, educational level and the interaction between them?

To answer this question, the averages and the standard deviations of the spiritual intelligence level among the non gifted students, were calculated in accordance with the two variables: gender and educational level. And the table below illustrates this.

Table 6. Duo-variance analysis for the impact of gender, educational level, and the interaction between them, on spiritual intelligence among non gifted students

The Table 6. shows an apparent variation in the averages and the standard deviations of the spiritual intelligence level among non gifted students according to the categories variance of gender and educational level. So to illustrate the statistically significant differences between averages, duo-variance analysis was used Table 7:

Table 7. Duo-variance analysis Two-Way ANOVA for the impact of gender, educational level, and the interaction between them, on spiritual intelligence among gifted students

The table illustrate the following:

- There are statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05) due to the impact of educational level in all domains and the total degree, except Meditation into the universe, Suffering as an opportunity domains, and the differences were in favour of secondary level.

- There are no statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05); due to gender in all domains.

- There are no statistically significant differences (α ≥ 0.05) due to gender and educational level, except spiritual practice, and to show the differences between averages, it was represented graphically, as in Figure 2.

Figure 2. A graphic illustrates the interaction between level and gender according to the forth domain

Figure 2 shows the interaction between the two variables: gender and level in the spiritual practice domain, and the differences were in favour of females in the higher primary level, and in favour of males in the secondary level.

4. Results Discussion

1. Discussing the results of the first question: In general, the study results showed that the spiritual intelligence level among gifted and non-gifted students was high. Where the average of their performance on the used scales was higher than the premise average; and the researcher refers this result to religious spiritual practices of the gifted and non-gifted students which remove the psychological pressures and the problems they face. Subsequently, they seek to increase their religious knowledge through this aspect, through the increase of their religious worships, due to what they characterized of moral thinking, and an affective viscerally participating that help them to come closer to Allah. So this guides the gifted and non-gifted students to use intellectual methods which prevent them from harming themselves or their society, increase their ability to dramatically control their emotions in a way that help them to face the problems that impose on them by the others, and guide them in a right way.

But according to ''suffering as an opportunity'' that got the lowest average; that because of the students cannot cohabit with moods of psychological pressures and problems, considering their lack of necessary skills to face such pressures, and consider it as a future experience. Subsequently, the presence of non-gifted students with the gifted students in the same question, affected on the result.

Generally, these results agree partially with kilcup study kilcup, [17], and Rees and others study Rees, [21], which indicated that the spiritual intelligence level of teenagers was high. However, the results of this study is different from the results of Mahasneh al et [3], which indicated that there is an intermediate spiritual intelligence level among universities students.

2. Discussing the results of the second question: This study results indicated that there are statistically significant differences in the spiritual intelligence, refer to (gifted/non-gifted) students achievement, and the differences were in favour of gifted students, this result can be explained to the high features and properties of gifted students. As they have a value orientation that motivates their positive and moral behaviour in their relations with others. In addition to their interests and priorities order. And to the gifted students they always seek to achieve success to access idealistic and perfectionism, also their ability to take the moral responsibility more than non-gifted students. So the gifted students believe that they have a moral responsibility to do the moral and social role in a perfect way, also, they have a desire to achieve their future goals. the high level of spiritual intelligence among gifted students can be explained in the light of their high brainpower, which cultivates them with self-confidence, and the initiative which expected to increase the spiritual intelligence, as of the multiple intelligences, also Vaughan [24]. Stressed that the spiritual intelligence has a deep effect on individuals, through the increase of their motivation in their Scientific and practical life. These results agree with the results of Davoudi study [18], which indicated that there is a clear correlation between spiritual intelligence and creativity. As well as Sabeha study [19] which indicated that there is a correlative relationship between spiritual intelligence and achievement motivation. But these study results are partially different from the results of Koobani study [20], which indicated that there is no relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence, also the theoretical literature indicates that the talented students have a high level of emotional intelligence, also Mayer and Salovay [25], see that working on developing the emotional and social skills among students, is one of developing the academic achievements methods, and this appears through increasing the level of self-awareness among them, solving problems, and control the emotions in the learning environment.

3. Discussing the results of the third question:

4. Discussing the results of the fourth question:

These study results -in what related to the spiritual intelligence level according to the social type and educational level- showed that there are statistically significant differences in educational level variable, and the differences were in favour of the secondary level, among all gifted and non-gifted students, so this results can be explained as the following; the high level of spiritual intelligence that the secondary students have, refer to cognitive outcomes that the secondary students got from the previous educational levels, and it had the direct effect in forming the spiritual intelligence among them. Where they could achieve a more advanced level of spiritual intelligence of the high studies students in all areas and in the total degree, who lack the necessary skills to form the positive directions and perceptions about spiritual intelligence, moral values and principles, in addition to that, the secondary level students in that age affected more than the primary level students, because they have a greater ability to change, according to the spiritual thoughts that they have. These results agree with the results of Al- dabee [14], study which indicates that there are statistically significant differences in the degrees of spiritual intelligence; due to the variable of age categories between teenagers and adults, and the differences were in favour of adults.

But according to the explanation of non-presence statistically significant differences due to the social type, we find that the gifted students –of a different gender- study in the same schools of the gifted students, and the same educational program applied on them which is an enrichment programs or other programs that work on improving the multiple intelligences and thinking among them, and this refers to the similarity of mental and emotional characteristics among them, and these characteristics are mostly freed from the gender differences that related to spiritual intelligences. But what is related to non-presence statistically significant differences among ordinary students according to social type variable, and this refers to the range of society awareness, and the customs and traditions and the religious values they committed, that a child is brought since childhood. This results agree with the results of Sabeha study [19], which indicates that there are no statistically significant differences between males and females in spiritual intelligence. Whereas these results are different from Bahgwan study [16], and Gupta study [22], which indicate that the differences between both genders are considerable in the spiritual intelligence, and the differences were in favour of males.

But according to non-presence the differences, which refers to the interaction impact between gender and educational level among gifted students, except meditation in the universe domain, and the differences were in favour of females in the primary level, and in favour of males in the secondary level. And this can be interpreted to the willingness of women at that point to the interest in all things being draws attention and focus among them, and elimination of boredom factors which occurs among females in the primary level because of their sensitivity. But according to non-presence differences due to the interaction impact between gender and educational level among gifted students in all spiritual intelligence areas, except spiritual practice, and this result is realistic, and this may refers to the prevailing community traditions that necessitate students specially female students-since the maturity period – to commit a moral teaching by the family, where the prevailing norm in the community study is conservative society, so girls should commit a certain behaviours, due to these traditions, customs, and social values, but according to males in the secondary level, they go to the spiritual practice because that is related to the personal spiritual practices that far from others, to reduce the psychological pressures, sadness, pain, tension, and anger. Where the spiritual practice domain is one of the important domains to reach the deep awareness of self, others, and universe. Also, the education in the schools focuses on spiritual and moral aspects, through multiple courses in schools that lead to clearly increase the religious awareness and the moral responsibility among students, and this awareness is cumulatively increasing, through the growing of students' cognitive knowledge. The researcher-during his review of theoretical literature and previous studies- didn’t find any study dealt with the interaction between gender and level.

5. Recommendations

Based on these results, the study recommends to do more research in this regard, on different age categories samples of gifted and non-gifted students, and to examine its relationship with other variables such as: happiness, control centre, motivation, and personal style, also to hire standards that measure the ability and the possession of the skill but not practice it.

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