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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials

Jef Struyf
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(5), 313-322. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-5-7
Received April 05, 2022; Revised May 09, 2022; Accepted May 19, 2022

Abstract

Some divine standards match essentials of the chemistry of life in number and in structure. The investigated divine standards are the following: biblical quotes, icons, Christian religious art, the miraculous food, the holy trinity, the Jewish menorah and the Islamic geometry including the Kaäba. Divine standards help explaining the match or parallelism between the human (hands) models, the Ptolemaic parallelism (the zodiac constellations and the classical solar system) and life chemistry essentials. The related subjects are the following: (1) The cosmic modeling of the genetic code including the reason for the two Earth-Moon-Sun representatives, selection of third position synonymous codons, genetic code crystallography, and the accordance of encoded amino acids to the number of haploid human chromosomes. (2) An addendum and correction to the Vigeland tetrahedral human model.

1. Introduction

1.1. The Human Standard for Life Chemistry

The basic human chemistry of life can be seen as the standard for life chemistry. This personal statement is based on my “parallelism” publications and will not have much support from traditional biochemists. Nevertheless, the basic biochemistry is common to all organisms. Escherichia coli and yeast, which are the biochemically most intensively investigated model micro-organisms are much more acceptable as standard candidates. Comparative biochemistry does not make the standard choice easier. Comparative biochemistry targets small differences between specific organisms in order to trace their evolutionary relationship. Evolution conserves metabolic and developmental pathways, nucleotides, DNA double helix and standard amino acids, which supports the idea of a common descent of living organisms.

1.2. Related Subjects

Two related subjects for parallelisms to the chemistry of life are already published in open access journals. First, the human models 1, 2 and secondly the parallelisms to the antique Ptolemaic cosmos 3, 4. The present contribution also discusses a few necessary additions to the previously published articles. The parallelisms in the five contributions including this article are the result of a one man quest. The scope and extent of the parallelisms in the chemistry of life can be demonstrated in more detail as more research on this subject will be performed. In my publications, the words accordance, correspondence, parallelism and similarity and their derivates are used as synonyms. Somewhat related to these articles are the unexpected strategies of alternative genetic codes 5.

1.3. Aims and Objectives: The Divine Dimension
1.3.1. A Contemporary Conviction

Many people believe in divine actions that propagate evo1ution in which the chemistry of life always plays an accompanying role and in primordial molecular evolution even a dominant role. Nevertheless, divine standards for the chemistry of life have not yet been much investigated. Divine standards are a research subject that could be searched for structural and numerical accordances. Divine actions related to the origin of life should have some footprints in the chemistry of life. This article shows examples of how divine standards match and/or find projections in chemical data. The fact that the chemical data match the spiritual data indicates divine actions in the selection of the chemical data.


1.3.2. Ancient Greek Philosophy and Early Christianity1.4. Investigated Divine Standard Subjects

The investigated divine standard subjects are the following: The ascension icons (Section 2.2), the Sistine Madonna (Section 2.3), the apocalyptic number 666 (Section 2.4), the miraculous food of John 6, 1-15 (Section 3), the Jewish menorah (Section 4), the Islamic geometry (Section 5) and the Holy Trinity (Section 6).

2. Carbon Conformity in Art and Bible

Section 2.4. shows and describes a planar model of the carbon atom.

2.1. Conformity of Ascension Icons to the Carbon Atom
2.1.1. Locations of According Ascension Icons

Most of the ascension icons that we can admire, for instance on the internet 8, show a numerical and structural similarity to the carbon atom structure. Note that on the website, the sequence of the icons and/or the legend of an icon can be changed. The selected ascension icons on the cited website for Christian Art are found by browsing the Gallery by “I. Topics” and, select the 2nd topic “New Testament”. Then select the 32th item: The Ascension (the 32th part of “New Testament” is “Ascension”). Most of these icons are suitable for the intended correspondence. The best matching Ascension icons are: The Tretyakov Gallery icon 1410-1420 (the right icon on the first row). Three icons on right side of row two: The Sergiev-Posad Museum icon 15th century; one apostle is missing on the left side, The Tretyakov Gallery icon, Mid-15th century and The icon from the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early Russian Art in Moscow. The Pskov Museum 16th century icon, proton and neutron apostles on reversed side (row three on the right side). Other matching ascension icons are: Orthodox Icon of 1535 by Theophanis from the Monastery of Stavronikita (Mount Athos), St. John’s Episcopal (grand Haven MI), the Myrrhbearers Monastery, Otego, New York and a modern variant the Kiko’s Icons (The Thoughtful Catholic), Icon CF 1046 from Skete.com. The icons in general and including ascension icons are very conservative in structure. The original idea and structure of an icon subject such as “Ascension”, is strongly conserved during time as for example can be seen by comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2.


2.1.2. Ascension Icon Conformity to the Carbon Atom

Figure 1 and Figure 2 show two ascension icons. The icon in Figure 1 is from The Tretyakov Gallery. The icon dates from1410-1420. The icon in Figure 2 is a more recent icon from the Holy Myrrhbearers Monastery.

The top of an ascension icon often shows two concentric circles (which are intended as spheres) surrounding Christ who is sitting on a (black or dark green) core. For the conformity to carbon, the two concentric circles are similar to the two electronic levels (1s and 2s). The icon shows two pairs of angels; the top pair surrounds Christ and the lower pair surrounds the Madonna. The Madonna is the mother of Jesus and often represented (as is the case here) as the Sedes Sapientiae (seat of wisdom). Christ, the Madonna and the angels (six in total) have an aureole around the head, which connects them to each other and indicates a common nature. They represent the divine spiritual active reality, which we connect as follows to the carbon electron configuration. The upper pair angels, closest to the core, accord to the 1s2 electrons, the lower pair to the 2s2 electrons. In accordance to the opposite spin of the electron pairs, the angle pairs show opposite locations on the icon. The 1s angels are opposite in orientation towards the Christ and in wing color or structure. The 2s angels are opposite in orientation and raise their arms towards the apostles. Christ and the Madonna are opposites by the height difference and are related to each other in a spiritual sense. The divine Sophia (wisdom) and the Sedes Sapientiae are expressions for the latter spiritual relationship to Christ. This spiritual relation between Christ and the Madonna connect them to each other and make them suitable for an accordance to the 2p2 electrons. The apostles do not show an aureole; they belong to the earth. On the icon, the core (sometimes green, sometimes black) can also be connected to the earth. The twelve apostles are split into two groups of each six apostles. In each group, one apostle is more prominent. Probably these are the apostles John and Peter.

From the left apostles, some raise arms and are clearly excited (facial expression and other body language) and are nearly charged just as the six protons of the carbon atom core. The apostles on the right site are serene, uncharged like the six neutrons.

Not all ascension icons show the difference in “charge” of the apostles, but they almost always show the two groups of six apostles. Some ascension icons have fewer apostles in the two groups, but all Christians know that there should be a total of twelve apostles. The twelve apostles represent the twelve tribes of Israel, which are derived from the twelve sons of Jacob (Israel). Are the twelve apostles also representing the zodiac constellations? In that case, we expect the typical zodiac seven over five ratio (seven animal and five non-animal constellations). The two prominent apostles on the icon help to demonstrate this ratio. Both apostles tend to show properties of the opposite apostles group. The left hand one moderately raises a hand and has a serene facial expression. The right hand one his head and breast are highly developed. The latter can be seen as the human variant of the lion morphology and consequently the right sight most prominent apostle can be seen as a Leo constellation representative. A male lion has imposing head and breast body parts too. The seven animal constellation representative apostles are by previous reasoning the six left apostles supplemented with the left dominant apostle.

2.2. The Carbon Electron Configuration Accordance for the Sistine Madonna

The Sistine Madonna 9, also called the Madonna di San Sisto by Raphael (1512-1514), is a high renaissance religious painting. The Sistine Madonna is a second example of a painting that in its composition shows accordance to the carbon electron configuration in number and opposite properties. The six electrons of carbon accord to the six “humans” on the painting.

Opposite properties pair the six “humans” in three pairs. The two “humans” in the lower part symbolize two angels that represent the spiritual reality behind the physical reality and bearing the physical world. That is why they are positioned at the bottom of the painting. The two angels are opposites in at least the arms, the eyes and the hair. The angel pair accords to the 1s2 electrons of carbon. The old man and the young women form a second pair that has opposite properties. They are opposites in age, sex and because the man looks upward towards the Christ child and the woman looks downwards towards the angels. The old man-young women pair accords to the 2s2 electrons. The old man on the left depicts Pope Sixtus I. The Madonna with the Christ child form a third pair that are opposites in physical development (child-adult). The Christ-Madonna pair accords to the 2p2 electrons. The humans on the painting are personifications of soul properties and soul developments. The open curtain lets us have a view in the spiritual world, which contains the souls of the yet to be incarnated souls. If one looks carefully to the painting one can see some faded faces in the area of the opened curtain. The curtain covers the spiritual reality by the cover of sensibility. Where is the core analogue in the painting? Probably the painting points to the earth, which provides the bodies of the just mentioned souls.

2.3. Carbon and the Number 666

In the Apocalypse (13:18) of (evangelist) St. John, the number 666 indicates a man (“For it is the number of a man”). The six neutrons, six protons and six electrons of carbon have some accordance to this number. Three numbers six construct the number 666. Additionally we could establish that neutrons, protons and electrons have different energy levels that, in this respect, we can compare to the hundreds, tens and units levels of number 666. In “Answer to the Riddle of 666” Adam Soul makes these connections too and discuss the meaning of 666 for mankind 10.

2.4. The Carbon Electronic Structure

Figure 4 shows a planar schematic representation of the carbon atomic structure. The black filled circle represents the carbon atomic core and is located in the center of the figure. Two purple filled circles represent the first shell electrons (1 s2) of the smallest spherical orbital. Orbitals are represented by unfilled larger circles and ellipses. The remaining colored filled circles represent the second shell electrons (n = 2) of which the two “s” (2 s2) electrons (green filled circles) are on the larger unfilled sphere. The red filled circles represent the two “p” (2 p2) electrons which are on elliptical shaped orbitals (elliptical unfilled shapes). The carbon core consists of six protons which each have a positive unit charge and six uncharged neutrons. The protons and neutrons are not shown in Figure 4. The mass difference between a neutron and a proton is nearly equal to the mass of an electron. Electrons are not located at specific positions as the Figure 4 suggests. The spherically and the elliptically shaped orbitals represent the probability distribution of the corresponding electron. A carbon 2 p electron resides not only on the elliptical shape on which it is drawn in the figure, but is also equally spread over the opposite ellipse. In compounds, the carbon 2 s2 and 2 p2 electron orbitals hybridize into 4 sp3 orbitals that form the four bonds to other atoms including other carbon atoms.

3. Parallelism between the Miraculous Food, including Bread Multiplication, the Geocentric Cosmos and Life Chemistry

In the story of the miraculous food (John, 6, 1-15), the boy, the two fishes, the five small buns and the twelve baskets with debris correspond to the antique geocentric cosmos; the earth (the boy), moon and sun (the two fishes), five wandering stars (five buns) and twelve zodiac constellations (the twelve baskets with debris). In the chemistry of life, the geocentric cosmos is at best represented by the twenty (1 + 2 + 5 + 12) standard amino acids that are encoded by the standard genetic code [ 4, Section 4]. For more details on this parallelism see reference 4. In summary, the twenty standard amino acids consist of eight non-polar amino acids and twelve polar chiral amino acids. The latter amino acids are the zodiac constellation representatives. The eight non-polar amino acids consist of one achiral amino acid (the Earth representative) and seven chiral amino acids of which two have non-alkyl side chains (Moon and Sun representatives) and five have alkyl side chains (wandering star representatives).

4. The Periodic Table Menorahs

The original menorah 11 is a Jewish old temple symbol. It is a pure golden lamp stand or candelabrum with seven arms. In chemistry, the main periodic table groups IA till VIIA (actual group numbers: 1, 2, 13 till 17) can be presented as a chemical menorah (Figure 5). This chemical menorah shows a symmetry of complementary electron configurations.

A second chemical menorah (Figure 6) is possible in the periodic table with the noble gases and radium if we only look at their outer shell electrons over the seven periods of the periodic table. The first and the seventh chemical candle representatives; helium and radium, have the same electron configuration on their outer shell, which makes this chemical menorah outer shell symmetrical. The five other noble gas elements have the same electron configuration for the outer shell electrons. This article considers only naturally occurring elements and describes two chemical menorahs, one using the main groups except the noble gases and one using the noble gases and radium. Radium is connected to the noble gas radon by its radioactive decay (226Rd into 222Rn). Reference 12 shows a periodic table menorah by arranging all the chemistry elements is a menorah like form. Reference 13 is a You Tube contribution that shows a chemistry menorah with colored solutions in test tubes.

5. Islamic Geometry

Geometric patterns are the most favorite decoration in Islamic culture. Are they also an expression of divine forces? The most well-known Islamic geometric pattern is the Holy Kaäba (cube) in Mecca. Note that the Holy Kaäba is not a perfect cube. Islamic decorations mostly use four fold, six fold, eight fold, tenfold, twelve fold, sixteen fold, and twenty-four repetitions of a unit structure into geometric patterns. Most n-fold patterns can be numerical connected to a cube. A cube is a hexahedron (six squares each with four ribs) with eight vertices, twelve ribs and twelve diagonals on the six outer square planes. This way, we have all the typical numbers for the cube and the carbon atom; four (the four covalent bonds), six (the carbon atomic number), eight (the carbon outer electron shell electron configuration) and twelve (the carbon atomic mass). The twelve ribs of the cube planes and the twelve diagonals of outer planes together give the number 24 and twelve and four (from the square ribs of the cube) is sixteen. Due to these numerical connections, the Islamic geometric patterns can be seen as emanations of the Holy Kaäba cube and consequently are expressions of divine forces. Other scholars describe the Islamic geometric decorations as “the bridge to the spiritual realm”, “instruments to purify the mind and soul 14 and “windows onto the infinite” 15. The numbers eight and twelve connect a cube numerically to the antique geocentric cosmos including the Earth. Muslims do not use personifications to express divine forces.

6. The Holy Trinity in the Chemistry of Life by Representing Three over One Ratios

The holy trinity is the Christian believe in a Triune God manifested as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. In the Koran, the 99 names for Allah can be structured in three groups of 33 names. Note that Jesus lived 33 years. Indian Gods have the trinity of: Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. The numerical relation between the Holy Trinity and humans is the three over one ratio.

6.1. Trinity in General and Organic Chemistry

Perhaps the most remarkable trinity in chemistry is the atomic structure that is build up by protons, neutrons and electrons. The noble gas configuration is in a split form present in three complementary pairs of main groups: IA and VIIA (1 and 17), IIA and VIA (2 and 16), IIIA and VA (13 and 15). The transition elements are the 3d-, 4d- and 5d block elements. The elements can be divided in: main elements (with incomplete outer shell), noble gases and elements that have to fill the underlying shells (actinides, lanthanides and transition metals). Actinides, lanthanides and transition metals form the trio of elements that differ in the fill up of underlying shells. Elements can also be divided in metals, non-metals and noble gases.

Fundamental organic chemistry has a Neon Electron Configuration Analogy (NECA) structure (Figure 7), which also is analog to the finger structure of the human hands (see Section 2.3 of reference 1).

The NECA structure of organic chemistry exhibits a three over one ration. Organic chemistry is the overarching whole (the one) and the threefold substructures are: 1s NECA, 2s NECA and 2p NECA. Organic functional groups show the triplet of hydrocarbons, monofunctional groups (amine, alcohol-phenol, aldehyde-ketone and carboxyl), and composite functional groups (hemi-acetal, acetal, imine, amide and ester). Reaction types has the three over one ratio by the trio of addition, elimination and substitution reactions. Polymerization consists of the threefold processes of initiation, propagation and termination. Reaction mechanisms has the three over one ratio with the trio of electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical mechanisms. A three over one ratio for the oxidation levels (OLs) in the human tetrahedron based model for biochemically relevant functional group reactions (see Section 3, Figure 2 of reference 2): OL 0 for the hydrocarbon head part of the model to the three OLs of the tetrahedral (reaction) part of the model: OL 1, OL 2 and OL 3 (see Figure 2 of reference 2). The OL 0 hydrocarbon head relates to the tetrahedral reaction part of the model like the human head relates to the tetrahedral limbs of the Vigeland tetrahedral man (see Section 2, Figure 1 of reference 2), which further more confirms the relationship between these two figures.

6.2. Trinity in General Biochemistry

The most obvious triplet structures in general biochemistry can be found in the amino acid and nucleotide building blocks of proteins and nucleic acids. In generalization, amino acids consists of three groups: The alfa amino and alfa carboxyl groups, and the side chain. The nucleotides consist of a nucleobase, a ribose sugar and a phosphate group. The three main nucleic acids are chromosomal DNA, ribosomal RNA and mRNA. For the lipids we can note the three carbons of glycerol and correspondingly the three fatty acid alkyl chains. For the phospholipids we can propose the trio of: glycerol, fatty acid chains and phosphate. The monosaccharides consist of the triplet of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The structure of the monosaccharides consists of a carbon skeleton, a carbonyl group and hydroxyl groups. For the furanose and pyranose ring structures the carbonyl is transformed into a hemiacetal ring oxygen.

6.3. Trinity in the Cell

The basic cell biochemistry is located in three parts of the cell: the nucleus, the cytoplasm including the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria. The nucleus consists of the nuclear envelope, the nuclear matrix including the nuclear lamina and the chromatin (chromosomes) and the nucleoli. The eukaryotic ribosomes consist of two ribosomal particles (60S and 40S) and the mRNA for translation.

The three main components of the eukaryote cytoskeleton are: the micro or actin filaments, the intermediate filaments and the micro tubules. The mitotic microtubules subclasses are: the astral microtubules, the inter/polar microtubules and the K-fiber or Kinetochore microtubules. The microtubules are formed in three phases: dimerization of αβ-tubulin, polymerization of αβ-tubulin to protofilaments and association of at most 13 protofilaments into a tubule.

6.4. Trinity in the Genetic Code
6.4.1. An Introduction to the Genetic Code

Reference [ 4, Section 1.1 and for formulas the Figures 8, 10, 11 and 13] contains a short introduction to the chemistry of life. The DNA of the chromosomes contains the genetic information for the production of proteins. Proteins are the most important components for every action in the life chemistry. Each protein consists of a specific long chain sequence of in most cases more than one to several hundred amino acids. Twenty different amino acids are necessary for the construction of proteins and these twenty amino acids are encoded by the genetic code. The DNA is a long chain (several thousands) of nucleotide units symbolized by A, C, G and T. For the translation from DNA to protein, the nucleotide T is replaced by U.


6.4.2. A Genetic Code Table

Figure 8 shows an mRNA genetic code translation table, which shows the translation of the 64 genetic codons into 20 amino acids and stop signals. The table shows the amino acids each by a three letter and a one letter abbreviation. The presented genetic code table differs in structure (not in the coding content) from typical genetic code tables (cfr.Wikipedia). Our table is based on third codon position synonyms that each encode for the same amino acid. The “ab” group symbolizes one of the sixteen (42) possible combinations for the first two nucleotides of a codon. The “N” (the third position of a codon) means that each abN consists of 4 codons; abA, abC, abG and abU. For example, if “ab” is UC then the four UCN codons UCA, UCC, UCG and UCU encode for the amino acid serine (Ser, S). The genetic code consists of 32 (8*4) abN and 32 (14*2 + 4) spliced abN codons. The 32 (14*2 + 4) spliced abN codons consists of 28 (14*2) abY (Y = C + U) and abR (R = A + G) spliced abN codons and four [one AUG and three AUH (H = Y + A)] spliced AUN codons. For example, the CAY and CAR spliced CAN codons respectively encode for the amino acids histidine (His, H) and glutamine (Gln, Q).


6.4.3. Three over One Ratios in the Genetic Code

The coding three over one ratio: The most common and remarkable three over one ratio in the genetic code is the triplet codon structure for an encoded amino acid.

Three over one ratio based on the number of synonyms: One triplet of three third position synonymous codons (AUH) that code for the amino acid isoleucine. Note that this is an exceptional and unique case for codon synonyms.

Three over one ratio in the overall structure of the genetic code: The genetic code table represented by Figure 8 consist of three parts: the abN codons (left upperpart), the abY and abR codons (right upper part) and the lower part consisting of the spliced UGR codons and the asymmetrical spliced AUN codons.

Three over one ratios for specific first and second nucleotide (ab) combinations of a codon: The 16 “ab” combinations for the first and second (nucleotide) position of a codon show four three over one ratios for the different purine and/or pyrimidine ab combinations. The purine (R) – pyrimidine (Y) ab combinations are: YY, RY, RR and YR. The purine and/or pyrimidine ab combination in abN codons to the same ab combination for the spliced abN codons generates the 3/1 ratio. The 3/1 ratio for the YY ab combinations is: UC, CU, CC / UU and for the RY ab combinations AC, GU, GC / AU. Note that AUN is spliced into AUG and AUH. The reversed ratio of 1/3 is applicable for RR ab combinations GG / AA, AG, GA and for the YR ab combinations CG / UA, UG, CA. These four three over one ratios result from all the 16 ab combinations.

Three over one ratio for base complementary first position of codons: The abN codon pairs in Figure 9 and the (abY and abR) spliced abN codon pairs in Figure 10 have base complementary first positions and identical second and third positions (mostly identical third position in Figure 10). These first position base complementary also show the 3/1 ratio. Figure 8 shows three abN codon pairs with C – G (columns 2-4) and one with U – A (column 1) base complementary first codon position and Figure 9 shows three (aby or abR) codon pairs with U – A (columns 2-4) and one with C – G (column 1) base complementary first codon position. Note that each codon pair in Figure 9 consists of eight codons and each codon pair in Figure 10 consists of four codons. The upper part of Figure 10 shows the abY codons and the lower part the abR codons.

In view of a cosmic and/or a divine origin of the genetic code, the three to one ratios accord with: 1) Sun, Moon, Earth and human 2) The Holy Trinity; God Father, The God Son, Holy Spirit and human 3) the trichotomy of body, soul and spirit of human.

7. The Cosmic Modeling of the Genetic Code

7.1. The Genetic Code as a Cosmic Structure - Why Two Earth-Moon-Sun Representatives?

The table of Figure 8 shows the parallelism of the genetic code to the classical geocentric cosmos. The division of the 64 codons in 32 abN and 32 spliced abN codons indicates an equal importance of both parts of the genetic code. The two parts of the antique geocentric cosmos are: the solar system and the zodiac constellations. Regarding the cosmic parallelism of the genetic code, the 32 abN codons encoding for eight amino acids represent the solar system. The Earth-Moon-Sun triplet is part of the solar system like their representative UCN, ACN and CGN codon representatives are part of the 32 abN codons. The 32 spliced abN codons represent the relationship of the Earth-Moon-Sun triplet to the fixed stars which are represented by the 12 zodiac constellations. The latter Earth-Moon-Sun representatives are not a part of the zodiac constellations as the non abY-abR spliced abN codons (UGG, AUG and AUH) representative for the Earth-Moon-Sun triplet are not part of the abY-abR spliced abN codons encoding for twelve amino acids in the typical zodiacal ratio of seven to five. The antique solar system has a unit non-spliced structure. The 32 abN codons are non-spliced. The Earth-Moon-Sun triplet is spliced from the fixed stars spiritual forces by the inner-outer planet spheres and correspondingly the other 32 codons (left and below in Figure 8) are spliced. These considerations make it clearer and more acceptable than in the original publication 4 that the standard genetic code must contains two Earth-Moon-Sun representatives.

7.2. Very Strong Restrictions in the Selection of Third Position Synonymous Codons further on Support the Cosmological Origin

Most codon synonyms are third position synonyms. The standard code includes four (N, R, Y and H; namely AUH isoleucine) of the eleven possible nucleotide combinations for third position synonyms. The eleven combinations are: N, R, Y, S, W, K, M, B, D, H and V (from SMS-IUPAC codes) 16. The proposed model explains the observed restriction of third position nucleotide combinations to combinations that all together refer to the classical geocentric cosmos. These restrictions extremely are necessary for the cosmological structure of the genetic code (Section 7.1) and are incomprehensible without the existence of divine-cosmic modeling actions on the genetic code.

7.3. Standard Genetic Code Crystallography

The degeneracy of the genetic code means that each of the twenty amino acids is encoded by a different number of codons. The standard code degeneracies of encoded amino acids are: 1 (two singlet codons), 2 (seven abY and five abR doublet codons), 3 (one triplet codon), 4 (five abN quartet codons) and 6 (three abN quartets by degeneracy connected (combined) to three corresponding doublet codons, of which one abY and two abR doublets. For example the CUN and UUR codons, six codons in total, encoding for leucine). The 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 degeneracy series show the same numbers as the crystallographic symmetry axes. Quintuple symmetry axes are very exceptional for crystals. Only some virus crystals have a quintuple symmetry axe. Quintuple symmetry axes are quite normal for plant flowers. Degenerate codons encode for an identical amino acid like a symmetry axe rotation results into an identical crystal structure. For example, each of the four UCN codons encode for serine like the four 90° rotations of a crystal’s fourfold symmetry axe result in the same crystal view. The crystallographic accordance of the standard genetic code points to its mineral nature. Biochemistry studies the mineral properties of life and is a projection of the life process in chemistry. At the moment of death, the biochemistry of the deceased person can still be intact. The chemistry of life is not enough to support life.

7.4. Encoded Amino Acids Accordance to Haploid Human Chromosomal Number

Biologists tend to downplay the exceptional position of humans in evolution. Even at the molecular level, the exceptional position of humans becomes clear. It is not a coincidence that the total number of singlet, doublet, triplet and quartet encoded amino acids of the standard genetic code (respectively 2 + 12 + 1 + 8 = 23) is identical to the number of haploid chromosomes in humans. The number 23 (three more than the expected number of 20 amino acids) of encoded amino acids is caused by three amino acids that have degeneracy six (Arg, Leu and Ser). For example, arginine (Arg) has four CGN codons and two AGR codons. Therefore, Arg appears in columns two and five of our genetic code table (Figure 8).

8. Correction and Addendum to Section 2.1. The Vigeland Tetrahedral Man of wjce-7-1-2

In wjce-7-1-2 2, Section 2.1, I wrote: An impressionism’s attempt to artfully depict the human body in a tetrahedron is done by Daniel Austin [5 in reference 2]. I wrote “attempt” because I couldn’t see a tetrahedron on the artwork and I wrote Impressionism because Wikipedia does not give me a description for “Interpressionism” and Google often corrects Interpressionism into Impressionism and then I believed that Interpressionism was a variant of Impressionism.

Correction: The intended Interpressionism artwork is entitled as: “Human Body in the Tetrahedron” The reverse equation of “The Vitruvian Man”. More information about this artwork and “what gives man the ability to stand up straight, to walk straight, and to run very fast for a long distance on his feet without falling.” is available in the book: Daniel Austin Master of Interpressionism Movement”. Section 7.2 “Study of Anatomy: Human Bodies in the Tetrahedron” 17, 18. The first edition was in 2014. Thomas Lestine posts a You Tube contribution in which he connects the human tetrahedron to carbon 19.

9. Conclusion

The article effectively demonstrates that divine standards match essentials of the chemistry of life. Projections in the life chemistry of divine forces are demonstrated and indicate the divinely intended nature of evolution. The divine modeling actions evoke properties of the life chemistry that refer to its modeling origin. The match of divine standards to the essentials of the chemistry of life is a divinely oriented explanation for the published human models 1, 2 and the cosmic determination of the chemistry of life 3, 4. In most cases, a cosmic determinant (zodiac constellations and/or antique “planets”), the human model and a divine standard all three match the same chemistry essential of life. The most clear example of such a common match are the twenty standard amino acids. Reference 1, section 3, divides them in four logical groups each of five amino acids representing 20 amino acid fingers and the reference 4 article divides them in number accordance to the classical geocentric cosmos (1 + 7 + 12) on a chirality and polarity base [Section 3 of reference 4]. The divine standard of the miraculous food as a classical geocentric cosmos analog with a (1 + 2 + 5 + 12) structure matches the standard amino acid side chain structures in a number parallelism (Section 3 of the present article). Projections in chemistry of divine forces are demonstrated and indicate the divine intended nature of evolution. The parallelism of the human model to the life chemistry indicates that humans were intended from the very beginning of evolution. Indeed, this life chemistry is already necessary even for the most primitive life forms. The correspondence of carbon to the Logos is an important clue to see that the chemistry of life is divinely determined.

Most scientists consider the classical geocentric cosmos outdated knowledge. It is a remarkable fact that precisely this outdated knowledge matches essentials of the life chemistry. The modeling actions of the divine standards, the human model and the antique geocentric cosmos evoke and determine structure and properties of the life chemistry that refer to its modeling origin. The classical (antique) cosmos explains the life chemistry octets (electron octet, micro bio-elements octet and genetic code octets), the conservative and universal nature of the standard genetic code, and the selection (and restriction) of third position nucleotide synonymous combinations (Section 7.2.). Chemists explain the life process from the smallest entities: Atoms and molecules. A search for divine, human and cosmic influences and accordances compensates for this one-sidedness. The divine standards, the human model and the antique geocentric cosmos resembles an artist producing a master artwork: The chemistry essentials of life.

Abbreviations

“ab” is the first and the second position nucleotide of a codon triplet.

U, C, A and G are the single letter abbreviations (IUPAC) for standard nucleotides of which the nucleobases are: U (uracil), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and G (Guanine). Uracil is only an RNA component. Formulas of nucleobases are in Figure 13 of reference 4.

N, Y, R and H represent respectively four (N), two pyrimidine (Y), two purine (R) and three (H = Y + A) third position nucleotides (IUPAC).

AAs is amino acids.

Figure 7 only shows the three letter and one letter abbreviations for the twenty standard amino acids. Amino acid formulas are in the Figures 8, 10 and 11 of reference 4.

NECA is Neon Electron Configuration Analogy

OL(s) is Oxidation Level(s)

References

[1]  Struyf, J. The Human Hands Model for the Essentials of the Chemistry of Life. World Journal of Chemical Education, 6 (3), 117-123, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Struyf J, The Human Model for Chemistry Essentials of Life. World Journal of Chemical Education. 7(1), 12-20, 2019.
In article      
 
[3]  Struyf, J., Seasonal and Zodiac Sign Properties of the Citric Acid Cycle and the Grouping of Biochemically Important Functional Groups, World Journal of Chemical Education, 8 (3), 122-127, 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Struyf, J., Parallelism between the Classical Geocentric Cosmos and the Life Chemistry Essentials, American Journal of Educational Research 9 (1), 38-51, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Struyf, J., The Unexpected Strategies behind Alternative Genetic Codes, American Journal of Educational Research, 9 (7), 417-425, July 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Steiner, R. GA 8, Christianity as a Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity, 1902, Aziloth Books.
In article      
 
[7]  Steiner, R. GA 110, The Spiritual Hierarchies and the Physical World, Düsseldorf Lectures, Anthroposophic Press Inc, New York, 2008, ISBN10: 0880106018.
In article      
 
[8]  Ascension Icons, http://www.icon-art.info/gallery.php?Ing=en Christian Art, Gallery by topics, 2. New Testament, 32. Ascension.
In article      
 
[9]  The Sistine-Madonna https://gemaeldegalerie.skd.museum/en/exhibitions/archiv/the sistine-madonna/ Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.
In article      
 
[10]  Soul, A., Answer to the Riddle of 666, Gorham Printing, 2008, ISBN13: 978-0-9802472-1-3.
In article      
 
[11]  Jewish Menorah, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menorah_(Temple).
In article      
 
[12]  Periodic Table Menorah, https://periodictableelements.jimdofree.com/periodic-table-of-the-elements/.
In article      
 
[13]  Chemistry Menorah, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tv67bs3P7O0.
In article      
 
[14]  Critchlow, K.. (1976). Islamic Patterns: an analytical and cosmological approach. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27071-6.
In article      
 
[15]  Wade, D. https://patterninislamicart.com/background-notes/the-evolution-of-style”.
In article      
 
[16]  Lekomtsev, S. A., Nonstandard genetic codes and translation termination, Molecular Biology. 41, 878-885, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Austin, D. www.interpressionism.com.
In article      
 
[18]  Austin, D. Daniel Austin Master of Interpressionism Movement, Section 7.2 Study of Anatomy “Human Bodies in the Tetrahedron” ISBN: 9798985235920.
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[19]  Lestine, T. Youtube.com/watch?v=KSJzheydqcc.
In article      
 

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Jef Struyf. Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 10, No. 5, 2022, pp 313-322. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/10/5/7
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Struyf, Jef. "Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials." American Journal of Educational Research 10.5 (2022): 313-322.
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Struyf, J. (2022). Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials. American Journal of Educational Research, 10(5), 313-322.
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Struyf, Jef. "Parallelism between Divine Standards, Related Subjects and Chemistry of Life Essentials." American Journal of Educational Research 10, no. 5 (2022): 313-322.
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  • Figure 1. The Ascension Icon from The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia, Cat No. 12766 1410–1420, 71 × 59 cm. Reproduced with permission of ”The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia”
  • Figure 2. Ascension Icon of the Myrrhbearers Monastery, Otego, New York “Reproduced with permission from the Holy Myrrhbearers; Ascension Icon from the Monastery of the Holy Myrrhbearers, Icon by the hand of Mother Onufria”
  • Figure 3. The Sistine Madonna, Raphael, painted about 1512-1513, Foto: Estel/Klut. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Gal. – Nr. 93), Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Reproduced with the permission of the “Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden“
  • Figure 7. The Neon Electron Configuration Analogy (NECA) of fundamental organic chemistry knowledge. Reproduced with permission of: The Chemical Educator [http://chemeducator.org] and World Journal of Chemical Education [1]
  • Figure 8. Standard mRNA genetic code translations paired by “ab” combination with base complementary first, and identical second and third codon positions (except UU) (Reproduced from Figure 20 of American Journal of Educational Research 9 (1), 38-51, 2021, DOI: 10.12691/education-9-1-5)
  • Figure 9. The grouping of abN codon pairs and their encoded amino acids for standard (and vertebrate mitochondrial) genetic codes (This figure is analogue to the lower part of Figure 15 from American Journal of Educational Research 9 (1), 38-51, 2021, DOI: 10.12691/education-9-1-5)
  • Figure 10. The grouping of (abY-abR) spliced abN codon pairs and their encoded amino acids for the standard genetic code (This figure is analogue to the lower part of the Figures 16 and 17 from American Journal of Educational Research 9 (1), 38-51, 2021, DOI: 10.12691/education-9-1-5.)
[1]  Struyf, J. The Human Hands Model for the Essentials of the Chemistry of Life. World Journal of Chemical Education, 6 (3), 117-123, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Struyf J, The Human Model for Chemistry Essentials of Life. World Journal of Chemical Education. 7(1), 12-20, 2019.
In article      
 
[3]  Struyf, J., Seasonal and Zodiac Sign Properties of the Citric Acid Cycle and the Grouping of Biochemically Important Functional Groups, World Journal of Chemical Education, 8 (3), 122-127, 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Struyf, J., Parallelism between the Classical Geocentric Cosmos and the Life Chemistry Essentials, American Journal of Educational Research 9 (1), 38-51, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Struyf, J., The Unexpected Strategies behind Alternative Genetic Codes, American Journal of Educational Research, 9 (7), 417-425, July 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Steiner, R. GA 8, Christianity as a Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity, 1902, Aziloth Books.
In article      
 
[7]  Steiner, R. GA 110, The Spiritual Hierarchies and the Physical World, Düsseldorf Lectures, Anthroposophic Press Inc, New York, 2008, ISBN10: 0880106018.
In article      
 
[8]  Ascension Icons, http://www.icon-art.info/gallery.php?Ing=en Christian Art, Gallery by topics, 2. New Testament, 32. Ascension.
In article      
 
[9]  The Sistine-Madonna https://gemaeldegalerie.skd.museum/en/exhibitions/archiv/the sistine-madonna/ Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.
In article      
 
[10]  Soul, A., Answer to the Riddle of 666, Gorham Printing, 2008, ISBN13: 978-0-9802472-1-3.
In article      
 
[11]  Jewish Menorah, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menorah_(Temple).
In article      
 
[12]  Periodic Table Menorah, https://periodictableelements.jimdofree.com/periodic-table-of-the-elements/.
In article      
 
[13]  Chemistry Menorah, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tv67bs3P7O0.
In article      
 
[14]  Critchlow, K.. (1976). Islamic Patterns: an analytical and cosmological approach. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27071-6.
In article      
 
[15]  Wade, D. https://patterninislamicart.com/background-notes/the-evolution-of-style”.
In article      
 
[16]  Lekomtsev, S. A., Nonstandard genetic codes and translation termination, Molecular Biology. 41, 878-885, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Austin, D. www.interpressionism.com.
In article      
 
[18]  Austin, D. Daniel Austin Master of Interpressionism Movement, Section 7.2 Study of Anatomy “Human Bodies in the Tetrahedron” ISBN: 9798985235920.
In article      
 
[19]  Lestine, T. Youtube.com/watch?v=KSJzheydqcc.
In article