Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Efficacy of Self-concept Counselling Therapy on the Reduction of Examination Malpractices among Secondary School Students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

Agboola James Odunayo, Obiemeka Eucharia Nkechi
American Journal of Educational Research. 2022, 10(3), 161-167. DOI: 10.12691/education-10-3-8
Received February 10, 2022; Revised March 13, 2022; Accepted March 20, 2022

Abstract

This study sought to investigate the efficacy of self-concept counselling therapy on the reduction of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. To guide the study, three research questions were raised and their corresponding hypotheses formulated. The research questions were answered while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The design used for the study was a pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group quasi- experimental design used for the study. The population of the study consisted of all the public mixed Senior Secondary II students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State with counsellors and the sample used for the study comprised 210 students. The instrument for data collection for the study was a questionnaire titled Self-concept and Examination Malpractices Questionnaire (SEMQ), validated by two experts, with reliability index of 0.85. During treatment procedures, the two groups were pretested, the experimental group was exposed to Self-concept therapy while the control group was not exposed to any treatment and after treatment administration, both groups were post tested and the finding, among others, showed that there is a significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment. This showed the efficacy of self-concept counselling therapy used in sensitizing the experimental group. As their self-concept mean score increased, their thoughts and act of examination malpractices drastically and significantly reduced. Based on the findings therefore, it is recommended that counsellors should employ self-concpet therapy to reduce examination malpractices among secondary school students.

1. Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

There are many plagues fighting the education system in many parts of the world including Nigeria but the most prominent one is examination malpractices. In Nigeria, the introduction and influence of the Christian missionary activities seemed to have influenced the change from the informal or old system of education to the western oriented type of education. The effect was so enormous to the extent that preference was no longer for hard-work but acquisition of certificate obtained after series of examinations. As a matter of fact, examinations do not play vital roles only in our educational system but also in the society as a whole. In the Nigerian school system various forms of examinations take place. These include the entrance examinations, the terminal and promotion examinations, the senior school certificate examination and the diploma or degree examinations. It is required of students to pass any forms of examinations they write through intensive reading, burning of all-night candles and feeling the seat hot in serious studying. But these days, students have devised numerous ways of achieving success in these examinations and one of such ways is involving in examinations malpractices such as leakage in examination papers, impersonation, external assistance, copying, smuggling of foreign materials, substitution of script and improper assignment. Examination malpractice has been defined as a deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to official examination rules and is designed to place a candidate at an unfair advantage or disadvantage 1.

There are proofs of increasing incidents of examination malpractices by students at schools and colleges. This insurgence has become so prominent amongst scholars that many times it has been supported with the notion that everybody is doing it and the slogan that “after all, examination is not a true test of knowledge”. It is appalling that teachers are not free in this anti-academic act because of little token and this is in conflict with the core purpose of education 2. The main objective of schools which is to equip students with the required knowledge and skills to enable them to contribute effectively to national development has been defeated. Examination malpractice hampers excellence and celebrates mediocrity 3. The periodic assessment and evaluation which are basically in the form of examinations and tests command no value anymore. The ascertainment of the level of knowledge and competence of students at graduation is now in confusion as constant parades of fine certificates take turns. One could safely say it here that examination malpractices could lead to dearth of professionals in Nigeria as innocent citizens of a country could suffer because of injustice in the hands of unqualified lawyers and many could die because of little sickness or professional misconducts on the part of the unqualified doctors. Another result of examination malpractices could be a decrease in the nation’s integrity. It is observed recently that students prefer to study abroad than in Nigeria. The reason is because people who studied in Nigeria are valued lesser than those who study abroad. The funniest part of it is the fact that, Nigerian students now prefer to study in less developed countries like Ghana, South Africa and even Gambia which Nigeria is far better than. This reveals the fact that Nigeria’s education system is gradually declining and the nation’s integrity is going low too. Nowadays, it is probably impossible to see a Nigerian, who graduated from a Nigerian university, going to further his/her education in Harvard or Manchester University. In fact, before top universities like Harvard or Manchester will admit a Nigerian, there must be proper scrutinizing of the student to be sure that he/she is truly academically sound.

Yet another possible outcome of examination malpractices could be national underdevelopment because when a nation’s education system cannot produce enough qualified students in different fields of study or is more concerned about producing students who can write examination and pass very well, than those who can actually put into practice what they have been taught. Such a nation would not be developed and as a result of this, students concentrate more on passing their examination because that is the only way they can be deemed fit in their various professions.

However, while strategies have been put in place to checkmate examination malpractices by the Government, researchers and education stakeholders, it appears that on a daily basis malpractice assumes an alarming trend and dimension. Should one fold his hands, looking at the deplorable state of education system of the nation? This is the thrust of this study, to look for a functional therapeutic counselling technique to fight this menace and this therapy is called self-concept counselling therapy.

According to Chamberlain 4, the earliest milestone in the self-concept theory is that of Rene Descartes, who proposed that a person’s existence depended on how he perceives so. Self-concept is the totality of our beliefs, preferences, opinions and attitudes organized in a systematic manner, towards our personal existence. Simply put, Self-concept is an overarching idea we have about who we are—physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually, and in terms of any other aspects that make up who we are 5. The self is perhaps the most complex unit to study in psychology. Each of us have different personality, traits, abilities and preferences that sometimes we cannot understand what is really going on inside of us. While we may not be able to exactly explain why we think this way, or why do we behave in that manner, the self-concept theory is a good foundational knowledge on the importance of our perceptions towards our personal existence.

According to Agboola 6, there are two types of self-concepts – high or positive and low or negative self-concepts. One is said to possess high self-concept when he or she believes in him or herself, confident enough to handle issues with little or no stress, is optimistic, solves problem without fear or feeling inferior but someone with low self-concept acts in fear, lacks confidence, is pessimistic, does not believe in him or herself and suffers inferiority complex. A person with low or negative self-concept may think he cannot do better in life and this may probably lead to low self-esteem and anxiety resulting in the involvement in examination malpractices.

Sikhwari 7 investigated the relationship between motivation, self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, gender differences between self-concept, motivation and academic achievement and found that there were significant correlations between self-concept, motivation and academic achievement of students.

If examination malpractices are serious threat on the quality of a nation’s education system and literature has proven that this problem could be traced to negative or low self-concept 3 and there are living proofs that the adolescents in the secondary schools are exhibiting low self-concept, then there is a need to enhance these students’ self-concept using a therapeutic counselling therapy. This study therefore sets to examine efficacy of self-concept theory in the reduction of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ikpoba-okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

To guide the study, three research questions were raised and their corresponding hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance.

1.2. Research Questions

1. Is there a difference between the level of examination malpractices of adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment?

2. Is there a difference between the level of examination malpractices of adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment?

3. Is there a difference in the level of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment?

1.3. Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference between the level of examination malpractices of adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment

2. There is no significant difference between the level of examination malpractices of adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment

3. There is no significant difference in the level of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment

2. Methodology

A pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group quasi- experimental design was used for the study. One independent variable (Self-concept Therapy) was involved in this study, one (01) intervening variable (sex) and one dependent variable (examination malpractices). This intervening variable (sex) is of two levels while all the samples used for this study were of the same background since they are all from the same Local Government Area. The independent variable is manipulable variable since the samples were exposed to the different levels respectively. This study involved only one dependent variable namely examination malpractices. The independent variable of the study was Self-concept therapy. This variable was manipulated through the sensitization and training of the guidance counsellors on the skills and usage of Self-concept Therapy and those in the school used for control group was not exposed to any treatment.

2.1. Population for the Study

The population of the study consisted of all the public mixed Senior Secondary 11 students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State with counsellors. There are 5 public mixed schools that have counsellors with 2,761 numbers of students (Post Primary Education Board, New Lagos Road, Benin City).

2.2. Sample and Sampling Technique

The sample of the study consisted of 210 Secondary School II students in the two schools randomly selected in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government from the five (5) schools with counsellors in the local government area using simple random technique through balloting. In doing this, the names of the schools were written on a sheet of paper, folded and put into a blind bag from which the researcher picked. The first two schools picked became the sample used for the study. From these two schools selected, school A was randomly assigned as experimental groups and while school B was the control group. School A was exposed to Self-concept Therapy, school B was not exposed to any therapy Out of the 210 students, 103 students comprising of 40 males and 63 females were exposed to Self-concept Therapy in school A, 107 students comprising of 39 males and 68 females were not exposed to any therapy in school B.

2.3. Research Instrument

The instrument for data collection for the study was a questionnaire titled “Self-concept and Examination Malpractices Questionnaire” (SEMQ), which was constructed by the researcher, is made up of two sections. Section A contains the information about the students' bio-data such as sex while section B consists of twenty (20) items on self-concept and examination malpractices on a five-point Likert scale of Completely true of me (CTM), Mostly true of me (MTM), Partly true of me (PTM), Mostly untrue of me (MUM) and Completely untrue of me (CUM).

2.4. Validity of the Instrument

In order to validate the instrument, drafted copies were given to the two experts, one in Counselling Psychology while the other in the field of Measurement and Evaluation to ascertain its face, content and construct validity. Content validity which refers to the extent to which the items on an instrument are fairly representative of the entire domain the instrument seeks to measure was examined. These experts assessed the quality of the items on the instrument and finally the construct validity which is the extent to which the measure 'behaves' in a way consistent with theoretical hypotheses and represents how well scores on the instrument are indicative of the theoretical construct was also ascertained. Suggestions by the two experts were inculcated into the final draft of the instrument and this made the instrument valid.

2.5. Reliability of the instrument

In establishing the reliability of the instrument used for this study, firstly, the test-re-test method was used. In using this procedure, the researcher administered forty (40) copies of the instrument to senior secondary school II students outside the sampled students used for the study. After three weeks, the same instrument was re-administered to the same students. The data collected were analyzed, using Pearson Product Moment correlation statistical procedure to determine its reliability and it had an r-value of 0.85. Also, using the Cronbach Alpha statistical procedure, the instrument obtained an r-value of 0.75. These showed that the instrument was reliable.

2.6. Treatment Procedure

Step I: Pre-Testing

The two groups were pre-tested on the first two days using the self-concept and examination malpractices questionnaire.

Step II: Treatment Packages

(a) Sensitization of the students in Group A using the Self-concept Therapy.

In order to sensitize the experimental group using the self-concept therapy, the counsellor took the experimental group students through the following sessions.

Session 1: In this session, the following sub-heading were discussed: the concept of Self-concept Therapy (ST).

Session 2: These sub-heading were discussed: Key Rules of ST, and The Basic Tenets That Inform Self-concept Therapy.

Session 3: These sub-headings were discussed: the Process of Self-concept Therapy, Rules and The Therapeutic process of Sepf-concept Therapy

Session 4: These sub-headings were discussed: examination malpractices, causes and outcomes of examination malpractices

Session 5: These sub-headings were discussed: Building client self-concept with Positive exceptions and finally

Session 6: examination malpractices and how to overcome its temptations and all questions raised were answered.

Step III: Post-test

2.7. Control of Extraneous Variables

These are the variables which could muddle and influence the findings of the study and are capable of posing serious threats to the internal validity of an experimental design if not controlled. The researcher emphasized confidentiality among students throughout the treatment sessions to minimize contaminations.

In this study, the extraneous variables that might contaminate the study were identified and were controlled as follows:


2.7.1. Attrition/Experimental Mortality

The researcher controlled this by discussing with the students and agreed on a convenient time of meeting before the treatment session commenced. The participants were encouraged and sensitized to be punctual and regular to all session. To further reduce the chance of this error, participants were informed of regular refreshment throughout the periods of meeting.


2.7.2. Subject Bias

The participant’s perception of the nature of the study can affect the outcome. This was controlled by not revealing the nature of the experiment to the participants. They did not know whether they were in the treatment or control group.


2.7.3. Experimenter Bias

The nature and techniques the researcher used in the presentation of the treatments to students might bring about bias on the researcher’s part and this would affect the result of the study. To control for this, the researcher strictly followed the treatment package designed for the experimental group.

2.8. Administration of Instruments

The instrument titled "Self-concept and Examination Malpractices Questionnaire (SEMQ) was administered as pre-test, followed by the treatment. The experimental groups was treated by the researcher in school A to avoid subject interaction with the students in the control group in school B. And at the end of the treatment, both the experimental and the control groups were post tested using the same questionnaire by the researcher and the completed questionnaire were collected instantly.

2.9. Method of Data Analysis

In analyzing the data collected, the scoring of the items follows thus: Positive worded items in the instrument were scored 5.4.3.2.1 on the scale while negative worded items were scored 1.2.3.4.5 on Completely true of me (CTM), Mostly true of me (MTM), Partly true of me (PTM), Mostly untrue of me (MUM) and Completely untrue of me (CUM) respectively. There are twenty (20) items on scale. If a respondent rates himself 5 on every item, the maximum of one hundred (100) scores would be recorded and this would represent the highest level of examination malpractices. Scores of 45 and above represented high level of examination malpractices while scores below 45 represented low level of examination malpractices.

In analyzing the data collected, all research questions were answered using the descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and percentage count while all the hypotheses were tested using the students’ independent t-test Statistics at 0.05 alpha level of significance.

2.10. Data Analysis and Results

Research Question 1: Is there a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment?

Table 2 showing the descriptive statistics of difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment.

The summary of the result is presented in Table 2

Table 2 above showed that the students in the experimental group had examination malpractices mean score of 46.92 with standard deviation of 3.38 while those in the control group had examination malpractices mean score of 46.87, standard deviation of 3.21 with a mean difference of 0.05 in favour of the students in the experimental group. It can be concluded from the table therefore, that, there is a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment, however, the experimental group had the higher examination malpractices mean score and self-concept mean score than their counterparts in the control group before treatment administration.

Research Question 2: Is there a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment?

Table 3 showing the descriptive statistics of difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment

The summary of the result is presented in Table 3

Table 3 above showed that the students in the experimental group examination malpractices mean score had reduced from 46.92 with standard deviation of 3.38 at pretest to 22.77 with standard deviation of 1.39 after treatment while those in the control group examination malpractices mean score had a little reduction from 46.87 with standard deviation of 3.21 at pretest to 46.85 with standard deviation of 3.23 after treatment. It can be concluded from the table therefore, that, there is a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment.

Research Question 3: Is there a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental after treatment?

Table 4 showing the descriptive statistics of difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental after treatment.

The summary of the result is presented in Table 4

Table 4 above showed that the male students in the experimental group had examination malpractices mean score of 22.87 with standard deviation of 1.39 after treatment while their female counterpart had examination malpractices mean score of 22.71 with standard deviation of 1.40 after treatment. It can be concluded from the table therefore, that, there is a difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental after treatment.

2.11. Testing of Hypotheses

H01: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment.

The summary of the test of this hypothesis is presented in Table 5.

Table 5 shows that the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment is not significant at 0.92 (t = 0.96; df=208). Since 0.92 is higher than 0.05, the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment is not significant. With this, the null hypothesis which says there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment is accepted. This showed that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

H02: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment.

The summary of the test of this hypothesis is presented in Table 6.

Table 6 shows that the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment is significant at 0.00 (t = -69.50; df=208). Since 0.00 is less than 0.05, the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment is significant. With this, the null hypothesis which says there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment is not accepted. This showed that there is a significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

  • Table 5. t-test statistics on the difference in the mean rating of self-concept and examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment

  • Table 7. t-test statistics on the difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment

H03: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment.

The summary of the test of this hypothesis is presented in Table 7.

Table 7 shows that the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment is not significant at 0.57 (t = 0.56; df=101). Since 0.57 is higher than 0.05, the observed difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment is not significant. With this, the null hypothesis which says there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment is accepted. This showed that there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

3. Summary of Findings

Three main findings are obtained from this study and these include that:

- there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. This finding showed that all the subjects in both the experimental and control groups, used for the study have common background, nature and random self-concept levels before treatment.

- there is a significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment. This showed the efficacy of self-concept counselling therapy used in sensitizing the experimental group was effective. As their self-concept mean score increased, their thoughts and act of examination malpractices drastically and significantly reduced.

- there is no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. This was so because both sexes were sensitized together using the self-concept therapy.

4. Discussion of Findings

The first finding as far as this study is concerned showed that no significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment among secondary school students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. However, the main finding showed that there is a significant difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment. This showed the efficacy of self-concept counselling therapy used in sensitizing the experimental group was effective. This finding was in line with Sikhwari 7 who found that there were significant correlations between self-concept, motivation and academic achievement of students but was in contrast with the third finding of this study which showed that male students in the experimental group had a higher mean self-concept score than their female counterpart after treatment.

5. Conclusion

This study had justified the efficacy of Self-concept Therapy (ST) in the reduction of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Ikpboba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

6. Recommendation

Based on the findings therefore, it is recommended that counsellors should employ Self-concept therapy to reduce examination malpractices among students.

References

[1]  Alutu, O.E. & Alutu, A.N.G. (2003). Examination malpractice among undergraduates in a Nigerian University: Implications for Academic advising. Guidance and Counselling, 18: 149-152.
In article      
 
[2]  Nanna, E. M. (1997). Teacher’s behaviour amongst school pupils as a factor in examination malpractice in secondary school: A study of schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. Unpublished Bachelors of Education Dissertation, Edo State University, Ekpoma- Nigeria.
In article      
 
[3]  Mfon, M.S, Ekpang P. & Bassey D.A (2008). Self-concept and Examination Malpractice Tendencies among Students in secondary School in Cross River State. Retrieved from Researchgate on 23/12/21.
In article      
 
[4]  Chamberlain, C., (2020). What Am I? Descartes’s Various Ways of Considering the Self. Journal of Modern Philosophy, 2(1), 2.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Ackerman, C.E. (2021). What is self-concept theory. Retrieved from positive sychology.com on 23/12/21.
In article      
 
[6]  Agboola, J.O. (2015). Impact of Modelling and Solution Focused Brief Therapies on the self-concept of secondary school adolescents in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Unpublished Dissertation of PhD, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[7]  Sikhwari, T. D. (2014). A Study of the Relationship between Motivation, Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Students at a University in Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Educational Science. 6(1), 19-25.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Agboola James Odunayo and Obiemeka Eucharia Nkechi

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Agboola James Odunayo, Obiemeka Eucharia Nkechi. Efficacy of Self-concept Counselling Therapy on the Reduction of Examination Malpractices among Secondary School Students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 10, No. 3, 2022, pp 161-167. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/10/3/8
MLA Style
Odunayo, Agboola James, and Obiemeka Eucharia Nkechi. "Efficacy of Self-concept Counselling Therapy on the Reduction of Examination Malpractices among Secondary School Students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 10.3 (2022): 161-167.
APA Style
Odunayo, A. J. , & Nkechi, O. E. (2022). Efficacy of Self-concept Counselling Therapy on the Reduction of Examination Malpractices among Secondary School Students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 10(3), 161-167.
Chicago Style
Odunayo, Agboola James, and Obiemeka Eucharia Nkechi. "Efficacy of Self-concept Counselling Therapy on the Reduction of Examination Malpractices among Secondary School Students in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 10, no. 3 (2022): 161-167.
Share
  • Table 5. t-test statistics on the difference in the mean rating of self-concept and examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups before treatment
  • Table 6. t-test statistics on the difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between the adolescents in the experimental and control groups after treatment
  • Table 7. t-test statistics on the difference in the mean rating of examination malpractices between male and female adolescents in the experimental group after treatment
[1]  Alutu, O.E. & Alutu, A.N.G. (2003). Examination malpractice among undergraduates in a Nigerian University: Implications for Academic advising. Guidance and Counselling, 18: 149-152.
In article      
 
[2]  Nanna, E. M. (1997). Teacher’s behaviour amongst school pupils as a factor in examination malpractice in secondary school: A study of schools in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. Unpublished Bachelors of Education Dissertation, Edo State University, Ekpoma- Nigeria.
In article      
 
[3]  Mfon, M.S, Ekpang P. & Bassey D.A (2008). Self-concept and Examination Malpractice Tendencies among Students in secondary School in Cross River State. Retrieved from Researchgate on 23/12/21.
In article      
 
[4]  Chamberlain, C., (2020). What Am I? Descartes’s Various Ways of Considering the Self. Journal of Modern Philosophy, 2(1), 2.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Ackerman, C.E. (2021). What is self-concept theory. Retrieved from positive sychology.com on 23/12/21.
In article      
 
[6]  Agboola, J.O. (2015). Impact of Modelling and Solution Focused Brief Therapies on the self-concept of secondary school adolescents in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Unpublished Dissertation of PhD, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
In article      
 
[7]  Sikhwari, T. D. (2014). A Study of the Relationship between Motivation, Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Students at a University in Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Educational Science. 6(1), 19-25.
In article      View Article