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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria

OKOYA A. A. , ELUFOWOJU M. A.
American Journal of Water Resources. 2020, 8(4), 164-172. DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-2
Received June 17, 2020; Revised July 18, 2020; Accepted July 28, 2020

Abstract

This study assessed the physico-chemical quality parameters of ground water bodies around the industry, with a view to evaluating the impact of the water bodies for the industry, and by extension the health of people of neighbouring communities who depend on these groundwater bodies for their water needs for domestic and other purposes. Water samples were collected from five ground water bodies. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out on the samples using standard methods. The highest and least values of turbidity (44.47 ± 34.37 and 7.99 ± 1.89 NTU) were recorded in the well and borehole during the wet season respectively. Highest value of pH (6.65 ± 0.13) was recorded in the well during the dry season, while the least value (5.94 ± 0.15) was found in borehole water sample during the wet season. TDS was highest (113.23 ± 14.76 mg/L) in the well during the dry season, while it was least (71.69 ± 17.68 mg/L) in the borehole during the wet season. Least value of DO (4.20 ± 0.71 mg/L) and the highest value (6.00 ± 0.42 mg/L) were recorded during the dry season, in borehole and well respectively. Ca2+ and Cl- were highest in the well during the wet season (26.31 ± 5.64 and 16.08 ± 2.28) mg/L respectively but their least values 16.37 ± 3.67 and 8.91 ± 1.46 respectively occurred in the borehole during the dry season. Highest values of Cd (0.093 ± 0.0043 mg/L), Fe (0.69 ± 0.05 mg/L) and Pb (0.24 ± 0.03 mg/L) were recorded in the borehole during the dry season, but the least value of Cd (0.086 ± 0.0028 mg/L) was found in the well during the dry season, while least values for Fe and Pb (0.27 ± 0.036 and 0.012 ± 0.0086) mg/L respectively were found in the well during the wet season. The study concluded that values of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, cadmium, lead and iron significantly exceeded the national (NSDWQ) and international (WHO) permissible limits. The high values of these parameters, especially turbidity and heavy metals, may make the water toxic, and pose serious health challenges to people who drink the water.

1. Introduction

Ground water, which because it is out of sight, it is frequently out of mind 1, represents 30.1% of the world’s freshwater distribution 2. The ground water regime is a dynamic system in which water is continuously in motion through the recharge (water entering) and discharge (water leaving) system, which can be naturally occurring or influenced by human activity. Ground water is a major source of water that is readily available for human use, such as domestic (potable and non-potable), agricultural and industrial. These human activities put pressure on ground water, thereby leading to a reduction in the remaining portion available, as well as lowering of the quality of the ground water 3, 4, 5. Ground water quality comprises the physical, chemical and biological qualities 6. It becomes contaminated when either the physico-chemical or the biological property is disturbed. The inability of government to meet the rising water need of the people has made them to look for alternative ground water sources such as shallow wells and boreholes 7, 8.

Ground water pollution usually results from human activity, when pollutants are released to the ground, and they make their way down into ground water. Natural sources of pollution of ground water include contamination by minor and unwanted constituents, or other source of impurity 6. Major threats to ground water quality are from diffuse sources of contamination. These sources of contamination include introduction into the air and subsequently rained out, agricultural use and partly infiltrate into the subsurface, mine tailings and accidental spills of hazardous substances, as well as wastewater from industrial processes. Understanding the physical environment of groundwater is important in the assessment of its quality’s parameters, and pollution evaluation. There is high risk of vulnerability to contamination in areas where population density is high, and there is intensive land use. When ground water becomes contaminated, it is difficult and expensive to clean up. In Nigeria, especially in urban and semi-urban areas, increased urbanization, industrialization and agricultural activities pose serious pollution threats, with all its attendant health hazards, to ground water quality 9, 10. Ground water may contain fluoride, and toxic metals such as arsenic, lead and selenium in quantities that are harmful to health, as well as iron and manganese which cause other types of problems such as the staining of sanitary fixtures. The inability of government to meet the rising water need of the people has made them to look for alternative ground water sources such as shallow wells and boreholes 7, 8. Sustainable ground water management must be based on prevention of over exploitation of ground water resources, and on the prevention of contamination 11.

Scrap metals are among the most important priced materials in Municipal Solid Waste 12. Many important metals including iron and steel, copper, brass, and aluminum have been recovered and recycled 13, 14. “Reference 15 also reported that in the USA, recycling metals contributed 76.9 metric tons of metal valued at $14.2 billion or 58% of apparent metal supply”. The recycling of scrap steel obtained mostly from municipal solid wastes is now a major way through which the Nigeria steel sector is being sustained. “Reference 12 reported that in many of the rolling mills, 100% scrap steel is recycled for the production of iron bars used for civil construction”. Scrap metal recycling results in the generation of less than 7% and 7 - 15% slag for low and high carbon steel respectively 12. In Nigeria, metal scrap is useful both as source of raw material, and as a solid waste management method. Hence, recycling of scrap is advantageous in converting materials that would have otherwise constituted various forms of environmental hazards into useful forms 16, 17. However, lack of required strict regulations for environmental and personnel protection, as well as poor investment in facilities necessary for improving their production processes have hampered the acceptability and hence, rapid growth witnessed by the scrap metal recycling industry in Nigeria.

The principal sources of pollution caused by smelting are contaminant-laden air emissions and process waste such as wastewater and slag 18. One type of pollution attributed to air emissions is acid rain 18. During smelting, sulfide ores emits sulphur (IV) oxide, which reacts chemically with water vapour, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere to form a sulphuric acid mist, and then falls back to the earth surface in form of acid rain, or other forms of wet deposition. As this acid rain falls to the earth, it increases the acidity of soils, streams, and lakes, harming the health of vegetation, fish and wildlife populations, and ultimately humans 18. Percolation of the acidic rain water into the soil may dissolve harmful elements and indirectly affect groundwater distribution systems 19. Also, complex geochemical processes in soils are important factors in determining the quality of the percolate which infiltrates down to ground water systems 20.

The Ife Metal Recycling Industry which was established in January 2011, uses electric arc furnace to produce iron bar from the scrap collected from various dumping area across the country. The industry has a potential for causing strong environmental pollution, due to emissions which can degrade the soil, vegetation and water, and also increase the rate of occurrence of some common diseases in residents of some rural communities in its immediate vicinity. The inhabitants of these villages depend on untreated ground water bodies like hand-dug wells and “boreholes” for their daily water needs.

However, there is paucity of information on the physicochemical properties of ground water bodies in the vicinity of the Metal Recycling Industry in the Southwestern part of Nigeria in which this study is based. There is therefore the need to assess the impact of the activities of the industry on the physicochemical properties of the ground water bodies in these communities, hence this study.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

The Ife Metal Recycling Industry is located in Fasina Area, Ile-Ife, Ife Central Local Government, Osun State. The coordinates of the Industry lies on latitude 7°29'44''N and longitude 4°28'37''E. The study was carried out in 4 villages (Awosun, Coker, Fasina and Ogunwusi) located around the Ife Iron and Steel Recycling Industry (Figure 1). The land-use consists of a mosaic, principally of degraded tropical forest, arable land and built-up areas. The climate is tropical with the raining season extending from April to October while the dry season lasts from October to March 21. However, due to human activities such as industrialization, urbanization and agriculture, the region has been witnessing rapid population growth and land-use conversion.

2.2. Sampling Stations

The study was carried out on the five ground water bodies in four villages around the industry. A Global positioning system (GPS) handset was used to determine the grid coordinates of the sampling stations (Table 1). The five sampling stations were: two hand-dug wells in Awosun Village and one borehole each in Fasina, Coker and Ogunwusi villages. Five water samples were collected from the five sampling stations. Sampling was carried out six times for a period of ten months, covering both the dry and wet seasons. At each sampling station, water samples were collected using clean, properly washed and rinsed 2-litre plastic bottle containers. All possible sources of contamination were taken into consideration while performing the analysis.

2.3. Physicochemical Analysis of the Water Samples

Water and ambient air temperature were determined using a thermometer, while pH was measured in situ, using a pH meter. The electrical conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were determined in situ using a Jenway Conductivity meter. Titrimetric methods described by 14 were used to determine ions of magnesium and calcium, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Turbidity was determined using nephelometric method as outlined by 22. Potassium ion and sodium ion were analyzed using flame emission spectrophotometer as specified by 23. Nitrate was determined spectrophotometrically as described 24. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer 23.

2.4. Quality Control and Quality Assurance

All determinations were based on standard scientific methods with relevant quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) measures. Some of the measures adopted include the use of non - phosphate detergents to wash the DO and BOD bottles after which it was rinsed with distilled water before use since phosphate can stimulate algal growth. The bottles were then thoroughly rinsed with the water sample before collection of the water samples for analyses. Labelling of the bottles was done on the field using a marker to prevent sample mix up. The equipment used to determine the physicochemical water quality parameters were standardized using the blanks and standards of known concentrations before each determination 24. All the determination of physico-chemical water quality parameters were carried out within the individual holding time for the samples 24 and replicate determinations were carried out.

3. Results and Discussions

All the five groundwater stations available within the study area (Table 1) were sampled and analysed. The least mean values of water temperature (26.22 ± 0.41°C) and turbidity (7.99 ± 1.89 NTU) were recorded in the borehole during the wet season as presented in Table 2 while the highest mean values of water temperature (28.00 ± 0.26°C) and turbidity (44.47 ± 34.37 NTU) occurred in the well during the wet season. There was a very high significant difference (P<0.001) in water temperature values in the water bodies, while turbidity showed a high significant difference (P<0.01) across the water bodies (Table 2). The higher value of turbidity recorded in the wet season could be attributed to input of silt, and an increase in abundance of phytoplankton biomass (which influences water transparency, and therefore turbidity) and organic matter with run-off. Higher turbidity obtained in this study than the national standard was indicative of pollution of the water bodies, and may lead to negative health impact on the residents of the study area. According to 25, high turbidity is often associated with higher level of disease-causing microorganisms, such as bacteria and parasites. Also, 26 reported that turbid water has the tendency of posing health challenges, causing symptoms like nausea, cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches. The highest mean value of 191.3 ± 104.46 mg/L for total suspended solids (TSS), occurred in the well during the wet season, while the least mean value of 93.64 ± 10.49 mg/L was found in the borehole during the dry season (Table 2). A significant difference (P<0.05) existed in TSS across the water bodies (Table 2). Higher TSS found in wet season could be as a result of rainfall which is usually coupled with increase in organic sources (algae, protozoa and decay of vegetation such as humic substances, tannins and lignins). Equally, higher turbidity and TSS values found in the well in wet season in this study might have been aided by the shallowness of the wells in comparison with the boreholes which makes them to be easily impacted by pollutants. This is supported by 27 who stated that shallow wells are susceptible to contamination from activities around.

The highest mean values of pH (6.65 ± 0.13), conductivity (172.12 ± 11.33 µScm-1) and TDS (113.23 ± 14.76 mg/L) were from the well water samples during the dry season, while the least values of conductivity (117.22 ± 28.10 µScm-1) and TDS (71.69 ± 17.68 mg/L) were found in the borehole samples in the wet season (Table 3). There was a significant difference in the values conductivity and TDS across the water bodies at P<0.05. On the other hand, the least value of pH (5.94 ± 0.15) occurred in the well water samples during the wet season. There was a high significant difference (P<0.01) in the values of pH across the water bodies. From the above results, the pH of water samples were within the permissible range of 6.5-8.5 national standard given by Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality 28. The slight acidic pH recorded in this study agrees with 29 and 30 who studied soil, and surface water and sediment around the vicinity of the same scrap metal recycling industry respectively. The sulphur (iv) oxide that is formed from the byproduct of the activities of the metal smelting industry could contribute to the pH of the water body that is in the acidic range and falling below permissible range. Acidic pH range of the groundwater water samples is of concern since pH affects the solubility of metals in solution, and indirectly impacts physiological process in a great way 28, 31. TDS value was below the recommended national standard. References 32, 33 rated TDS levels as follows: excellent = <300 mg/L; good = 300-600 mg/L; fair = 600-900 mg/L; poor = 900-1200 mg/L; unacceptable = >1200 mg/L. Reference 34 and 32 reported that TDS may affect the taste of water, and drinking water with extremely low TDS concentration may be unacceptable because of its flat insipid taste, thereby affecting the palatability.

Dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), have their highest mean values of 6.00 ± 0.42 mg/L and 3.10 ± 0.41 mg/L respectively occurring in the well during the dry season, while the least value of DO (4.20 ± 0.71 mg/L) was found in the borehole in the dry season, but that of BOD (1.93 ± 0.55 mg/L) was recorded in the well during the wet season (Table 3). There was no significant difference in the values of DO as well as the BOD across the water bodies respectively (Table 3). DO level is an indication of the amount of oxygen in a body of water, and it is affected by pressure, temperature and salinity 35. Higher DO in well during the dry season observed in this study maybe due to two reasons. One is diffusion of oxygen from surrounding air, as the sampled wells are shallow and frequently exposed to air when opened to draw water from them. Second reason is nutrient pollution, which result from decayed plants and animals, animal manure and storm run-off which move in to the soil and subsequently ground water. Excess DO in water bodies can cause emphysema (external bubbles), a rare condition that affects the skin and other tissues 35. BOD is the amount of DO needed by aerobic biological organisms to break down OM present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. Reference 36, stated that BOD is used as an indication of the OM quality of water. BOD is affected by temperature, concentration of nutrients and available enzymes for the microbial populations. Also, the amount and activity of microorganisms have significant impact on BOD values. When the amount of microorganisms is small, the processes of biochemical breakdown do not occur, or the intensity of biochemical breakdown is insignificant 37. In natural conditions, such effect is often caused by the presence of toxic inorganic substances (such as heavy metals) that adversely affect the enzymatic activity of the microorganisms. Under that circumstance, it must be considered that the changed values of BOD do not reflect the actual level of water pollution 37.

Table 3 also showed that organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) had their highest mean values of 5.34 ± 0.97 mg/L and 3.11 ± 0.56 mg/L respectively occurring in the borehole during the wet season, while their least values of 2.52 ± 0.58 mg/L and 1.46 ± 0.34 mg/L respectively were obtained in the borehole in the dry season. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in OM and TOC respective values in the water bodies (Table 3). TOC is the measurement of organic carbons in water, and it is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality. TOC is also considered as the most relevant parameter for quantifying organic pollution in water 38. Periodic fluctuations in TOC concentrations may result from seasonal changes of groundwater level, which means that increased values of this parameter correspond to lower groundwater levels 37.

Seasonal fluctuations of this indicator can be attributed to runoff from the compostory plant and seasonal changes of groundwater level 37. OM consists of organic compounds from the remains of dead organisms such as plants and animals, and their waste products in the environment 39. As the OM moves in the environment (soil and water), microorganisms in the environment feed on the organic compounds. Changes in pH can affect the microorganisms that consume the organic matter and then affect the level of pollution caused by organic compounds 37. From all of the above discussions, the availability and roles of DO, BOD, OM and TOC in water quality cannot be over emphasized.

From Table 3, highest mean values of Ca2+ (26.31 ± 5.64 mg/L), Na+ (11.30 ± 2.11 mg/L) and K+ (8.85 ± 1.93 mg/L) occurred in the well water samples during the wet season, while the highest mean value of Mg2+ (1.84 ± 0.30 mg/L) was obtained in the borehole during the dry season. The least values of Mg2+ (1.32 ± 0.37 mg/L) and K+ (5.74 ± 1.26 mg/L) were found in the borehole in the wet season, while Ca2+ had its least value of 16.37 ± 3.67 mg/L also occurring in the borehole, but in the dry season. Na+ has least value of 6.18 ± 2.50 from the well water samples during the dry season (Table 3). There was no significant difference in the values of the respective cations listed above across the water bodies (Table 3). Ca2+ and Na+ values obtained in this study were below the national permissible levels, while Mg2+ level was higher than the national standard. However, there is no report that higher magnesium level has any effect on human health 27. The highest mean values of SO42- and Cl- were 14.44 ± 2.92 mg/L and 16.08 ± 2.28 mg/L respectively in the well water samples during the wet season, while the least values of 7.71 ± 1.65 mg/L and 8.91 ± 1.46 mg/L were obtained in the borehole samples in the wet season (Table 3). For Cl-, there was significant difference (P<0.05) across the water bodies, while for SO42-, there was no significant difference (Table 3). The highest value of NO3- (5.80 ± 0.37)mg/L was found in the well water samples in the dry season, while the least value of 4.13 ± 0.40 mg/L was obtained in the borehole in the wet season (Table 3). A highly significant difference (P<0.01) in the values of NO3- were obtained across the water bodies. The higher Cl- concentration obtained in the wet season in this study agrees with the finding of 40 who also reported higher Cl- level in wet season, and attributed it to industrial waste and/or leaching from upper soil layers. Also, higher SO42- value found during the wet season was supported by the findings of 41 who reported higher level of sulphate in wet season as well, and attributed it to action of leaching and release of sulphur gases from industries and utilities, which get oxidized. The levels of the three anions were below the national standards and international standards as at the time of this study, hence, they do not pose any threat to human health. However, one cannot rule out the possibility of increase over time due to accumulation in different matrices.

Heavy metals such as Cd, Fe and Pb were observed to have high values of 0.093 ± 0.0043 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.05 mg/L and 0.24 ± 0.03 mg/L respectively in the borehole samples during the dry season (Table 4). Also from Table 4, it could be seen that the least value of Cd (0.086 ± 0.0028 mg/L) was found in the well during the dry season, while the least values of Fe (0.27 ± 0.036 mg/L) and Pb (0.012 ± 0.0086 mg/L) occurred in the well during the wet season. Cd showed no significant difference across the water bodies (Table 4). Lead (Pb) showed high significant difference (P<0.01), while Fe showed very high significant difference (P<0.001) across the water bodies (Table 4). The higher value of Pb in the dry season recorded in the borehole for this study is not in agreement with the finding of 17 who reported higher Pb concentration in borehole during the wet season. The difference in the results may be due to variation in the geology of the different study areas, and diversity in human activities occurring in the areas. However, it can be deduced that the water bodies are polluted with lead because both the highest and least values recorded in this study were above the national and international permissible levels. Pb is quite deadly and it can result in several diseases which are harmful to the human health especially children. The presence of Pb above the normal threshold results in carcinogenic diseases, interference with vitamin D metabolism and it affects mental development in infants 28, 32. For Fe, the higher concentration in the dry season obtained in this study agrees with the finding of 43 who also reported significant increase in the dry season concentration of Fe in soil around a Scrap Metal Recycling Factory, and attributed it to the activities of the factory, because most of the scraps were made from Fe and Al materials. The concentration of Fe detected in this study was quite higher than the national permissible level, and it may cause rapid increase in pulse rate and coagulation of blood in blood vessels, hypertension and drowsiness 44, 45. Cadmium’s concentration recorded in this study was also significantly higher than the national and international standards. Cd enters into the environment when it is discharged as a by-product of the refining of Zinc, and do not degrade in the environment to products that are less toxic; hence they tend to bioaccumulate in the kidneys and livers of animals 46, 47. Reference 48 posited that as cadmium bioaccumulates over time, if not attended to it may cause kidney and liver failures in the people that consume water from the ground water sources. Cd exposure causes kidney damage, by interfering with enzymatic processes involving reabsorption of proteins in the kidney; and also causes hypertension 17, 48. For Cr, Mn and Zn, the highest mean values of 0.09 ± 0.05 mg/L, 0.18 ± 0.13 mg/L and 0.11 ± 0.012 mg/L respectively were obtained in the well during the wet season, while the least values of 0.0001 ± 0.006 mg/L, 0.052 ± 0.004 mg/L and 0.080 ± 0.0067 mg/L respectively, were recorded in the borehole during the wet season (Table 3). Cr showed significant difference (P<0.05), while both Mn and Zn showed no significant difference across the water bodies. Reference 49 studied the physicochemical properties of soil within the vicinity of an iron smelting factory, and also observed higher values of Cr and Zn in the wet season, which they stated may be due to easy availability of these metals during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soluble and unabsorbed chromium complexes can leach from soil into groundwater 50. The higher Mn concentration in the well water found in this study may be due to the presence of Mn-containing materials deposited on the soil as a result of anthropogenic activities as reported by 51 who reported that anomalously high trace element found in the soil may be attributed to anthropogenic activities which may have seeped into the ground over time. The finding of this study was in agreement with 52, who reported higher level of Mn, though during the dry season, and attributed this to metal manufacturing industries, fertilizers and wastes.

The mean concentration of the cations in the overall samples during wet season and dry seasons were found to be in the order Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ > Mg2+ (Table 5). The same cationic order mentioned above occurred in stations 1, 2 and 5 (Awosun Well 1, Awosun Well 2 and Ogunwusi Borehole respectively) (Table 5). A different cationic order Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ occurred in Station 3 (Coker Borehole) and Station 4 (Fashina Borehole) Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ as presented in Table 5. The anionic order of mean concentration in sampling stations 2 and 5 (Awosun Well 2 and Ogunwusi Borehole respectively) is HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NO3-, while it is HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > NO3- in sampling stations 1 and 3 (Awosun Well 1 and Coker Borehole respectively) (Table 5). Also, from Table 5, sampling station 4 (Fashina Borehole) showed a totally different anionic order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > NO3-. The anionic order in the overall samples, in dry season and wet seasons is HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > NO3- as shown in Table 5. However, 53 recorded the sequence K+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ for cations and Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > F- for anions in their study of irrigation and drinking water quality index determination for groundwater quality evaluation in Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria. Our results on these physicochemical properties of ground waters in the study area are in line with that of 54 who reported that anthropogenic activities do impact the physicochemical properties of groundwater.

Table 6 showed the percentage ionic error balance (IEB) of values of major cations and anions in the investigated water bodies. Ionic balance of groundwater has also been done for a quality-assurance check of the chemical analyses. According to standard rules, the ion balance of a fresh water sample with low TDS is considered to be good if the value is between − 10% and + 10% 55, 56.

4. Conclusion

This study has been able to document the physicochemical quality of groundwater bodies around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry and assessed the impact on water bodies. Most of the detected parameters did not exceed the national and international standard except turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and heavy metals like cadmium, lead and iron which significantly exceeded the national and international standards. These high levels may pose serious health risks to people who drink the water and gives cause for concern. The Iron and Steel Recycling Industry might have contributed to the high levels of these heavy metals in addition to the natural content of the soil. Lastly, this study has provided baseline information on the physicochemical properties of groundwater bodies around the Iron and Steel Recycling Industry. It is highly suggested that frequent monitoring should be carried out for parameters such as turbidity, and heavy metals like Cd, Fe and Pb concentrations in the study area.

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[25]  Shittu, O.B., Olaitan, J.O., and Amusa, T.S. “Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in abeokuta, Nigeria”. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 11(3). 285-290. Sept.2008.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Oyebode, O.J., Adebanjo, A.S., and ND-Ezuma, S. R. “Conditions of available sources of water for domestic use in selected communities in ado-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria”. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13(2). 84-90. Feb.2019.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Olusola A., Adeyeye, O., and Durowoju, O. “Groundwater: quality levels and human exposure, southwest Nigeria”. Journal of Environmnetal Geography, 10 (1-2), 23-29. Apr.2017
In article      View Article
 
[28]  SON, Nigerian standards for drinking water quality (NSDQW), Industrial standards. “Nigerian standard for drinking water and wastewater”. SON, 554, 1-30. 2007.
In article      
 
[29]  Owoade, O.K., Awotoye, O.O., and Salami, O.O. (2014). “Ecological vulnerability: seasonal and spatial assessment of trace metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling factory in Southwestern Nigeria”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(8). Jul.2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Okoya, A.A., Elufowoju, M.A., Adepoju, K.A., and Akinyele, A.B. “Seasonal assessment of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and sediments in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling industry in Southwestern Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 12(1). 24-31. Mar.2020.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Adekunle, I.M., Adetunji, M.T., Gbadebo, A.M., and Banjoko, O.B. (2007). “Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 4(4). 307-318. Dec.2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  World Health Organisation (WHO) and International Programme on Chemical Safety. “Guidelines for drinking water quality”, vol. 2: Health criteria and other supporting information, second ed. World Health Organisation Press, Geneva, 1996a.
In article      
 
[33]  World Health Organisation (WHO). “Water quality monitoring: a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes”. E and FN SPON, London, UK, 1996b.
In article      
 
[34]  Bruvold, W. H. and Mitchell, R. N. Consumer Evaluation of the Cost and Quality of Domestic Water. Univ. of California Wtr. Resources CTR., Davis Calif. 1976.
In article      
 
[35]  Kumar, M., Singh, K., Ramanathan, A., and Saxena, R. “A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India”. Environmental Geology, 53(3). 553-574. Nov.2007.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Clair, N.S., Mc Carty P.L., and Parkin, G.F. (2003). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (5th ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003.
In article      
 
[37]  Koda, E., Miszkowska, A., and Sieczka A. (2017). “Levels of Organic Pollution Indicators in Groundwater at the Old Landfill and Waste Management Site”. Appl. Sci. 7(6). 638. Jun.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Wang, M., Liu, X., Pan, B., and Zhang, S. “Photodegradation of Acid Orange 7 in a UV/acetylacetone Process”. Chemosphere, 93(11). 2877-2882. Nov.2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Green Facts (2007). "Natural Organic Matter”. http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/mno/natural-organic-matter-NOM.htm.
In article      
 
[40]  Srinivasamoorthy, K. and Chidambaram, S. “Geochemistry of fluorides in groundwater: salem district, Tamilnadu, India”. J. Env. Hydrol., 16(1). 16-25. Jan.2008.
In article      
 
[41]  Saxena, V.K., (2004). Geothermal Resources of India, Allied Publisher, New Delhi, 2004, 123.
In article      
 
[42]  Idoko, O.M., Ologunorisa, T.E., and Okoya, A.A. “Temporal variability of heavy metals concentration in rural groundwater of benue state, middle belt, Nigeria”. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(2). 2-16. Feb.2012.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  Adereti K.F, Awotoye O.O, Adebola S. I., and Akinpelu B.A. “Assessment of heavy metal concentration in soil and leaves of tree species around a scrap metal recycling factory in ile-ife, osun state, Nigeria”. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment, Vol. 9(1). 23-33. Mar.2017.
In article      
 
[44]  Adepoju-Bello, A.A. and Alabi, O.M. “Heavy metals: A review”. The Nig. J. Pharm., 37: 41-45. Jan.2005.
In article      
 
[45]  Lawrence, W. “Toxic Metals and Detoxification”, The Center for Development Inc. retrieved July 5, 2014 from http://www.drlwilson.com/articles/TOXIC%20METALS.htm.
In article      
 
[46]  Duruibe, J., Ogwuegbu, M.O.C., and Egwurugwu, J. “Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects”. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(5). 112-118. May2007.
In article      
 
[47]  Mahaurpawar, M. “Effects of heavy metals on human health”. Int. J. Res.-Granthaalayah. A knowledge Repository. pp. 1-7. 2015.
In article      
 
[48]  Oko, O.J., Aremu, M.O., and Andrew C. “Evaluation of the physicochemical and heavy metal content of ground water sources in bantaji and rafin- kada settlements of Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 9(4). 43-53. Oct.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Olatunji, O.A., Komolafe, E.T., and Oke, S.O. “Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of soil within the vicinity of an iron smelting factory - implication on standing vegetation”. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 8(2). 220-225. Jun.2016.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Yu, L., Renguang, Z., and Mingguo, Y. “The relationships between magnetic susceptibility and elemental variations for mineralized rocks”. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 146. 17-26. Jul.2014.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Okoya, A.A., Asubiojo, O.I., and Amusan, A.A. “Trace element concentrations of soils in ife -ijesa area Southwestern, Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 3(7). 173-179. Jul.2011.
In article      
 
[52]  Kaonga, C.C., Chiotha, S.S., Monjerezi, M., Fabiano E., and Henry, E.M. “Levels of Cadmium, Manganese and Lead in Water and Algae; spirogyra aequinctalis”. International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, 5(4). 471-478. Sept.2008.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  Falowo, O.O., Akindureni, Y., and Ojo, O. “Irrigation and Drinking Water Quality Index Determination for Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Akoko Northwest and Northeast Areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria”. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering, 3(5). 50-60. Oct.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Awoyemi, O.M., Achudume, A.C., and Okoya, A.A. “The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria”. American Journal of Water Resources, 2(5). 126-133. Oct.2014.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  Kundu A. and Nag S.K. “Assessment of groundwater quality in kashipur block, Purulia district,West Bengal”. Applied Water Science, 8(33). Feb.2018.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Huh Y., Tsoi, M., Zaitiser, A., and Edward, J.N. “The fluvial geochemistry of the river of eastern Siberia: I. tributaries of lena river draining the sedimentary platform of the Siberia craton”. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, 62(10). 1657-1676. Feb.1998.
In article      View Article
 

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OKOYA A. A., ELUFOWOJU M. A.. Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp 164-172. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajwr/8/4/2
MLA Style
A., OKOYA A., and ELUFOWOJU M. A.. "Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria." American Journal of Water Resources 8.4 (2020): 164-172.
APA Style
A., O. A. , & A., E. M. (2020). Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Water Resources, 8(4), 164-172.
Chicago Style
A., OKOYA A., and ELUFOWOJU M. A.. "Seasonal Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Some Villages Around an Iron and Steel Recycling Industry in Southwestern Nigeria." American Journal of Water Resources 8, no. 4 (2020): 164-172.
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In article      
 
[25]  Shittu, O.B., Olaitan, J.O., and Amusa, T.S. “Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in abeokuta, Nigeria”. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 11(3). 285-290. Sept.2008.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Oyebode, O.J., Adebanjo, A.S., and ND-Ezuma, S. R. “Conditions of available sources of water for domestic use in selected communities in ado-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria”. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 13(2). 84-90. Feb.2019.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Olusola A., Adeyeye, O., and Durowoju, O. “Groundwater: quality levels and human exposure, southwest Nigeria”. Journal of Environmnetal Geography, 10 (1-2), 23-29. Apr.2017
In article      View Article
 
[28]  SON, Nigerian standards for drinking water quality (NSDQW), Industrial standards. “Nigerian standard for drinking water and wastewater”. SON, 554, 1-30. 2007.
In article      
 
[29]  Owoade, O.K., Awotoye, O.O., and Salami, O.O. (2014). “Ecological vulnerability: seasonal and spatial assessment of trace metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling factory in Southwestern Nigeria”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(8). Jul.2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Okoya, A.A., Elufowoju, M.A., Adepoju, K.A., and Akinyele, A.B. “Seasonal assessment of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and sediments in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling industry in Southwestern Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 12(1). 24-31. Mar.2020.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Adekunle, I.M., Adetunji, M.T., Gbadebo, A.M., and Banjoko, O.B. (2007). “Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 4(4). 307-318. Dec.2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  World Health Organisation (WHO) and International Programme on Chemical Safety. “Guidelines for drinking water quality”, vol. 2: Health criteria and other supporting information, second ed. World Health Organisation Press, Geneva, 1996a.
In article      
 
[33]  World Health Organisation (WHO). “Water quality monitoring: a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes”. E and FN SPON, London, UK, 1996b.
In article      
 
[34]  Bruvold, W. H. and Mitchell, R. N. Consumer Evaluation of the Cost and Quality of Domestic Water. Univ. of California Wtr. Resources CTR., Davis Calif. 1976.
In article      
 
[35]  Kumar, M., Singh, K., Ramanathan, A., and Saxena, R. “A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India”. Environmental Geology, 53(3). 553-574. Nov.2007.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Clair, N.S., Mc Carty P.L., and Parkin, G.F. (2003). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (5th ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003.
In article      
 
[37]  Koda, E., Miszkowska, A., and Sieczka A. (2017). “Levels of Organic Pollution Indicators in Groundwater at the Old Landfill and Waste Management Site”. Appl. Sci. 7(6). 638. Jun.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  Wang, M., Liu, X., Pan, B., and Zhang, S. “Photodegradation of Acid Orange 7 in a UV/acetylacetone Process”. Chemosphere, 93(11). 2877-2882. Nov.2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Green Facts (2007). "Natural Organic Matter”. http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/mno/natural-organic-matter-NOM.htm.
In article      
 
[40]  Srinivasamoorthy, K. and Chidambaram, S. “Geochemistry of fluorides in groundwater: salem district, Tamilnadu, India”. J. Env. Hydrol., 16(1). 16-25. Jan.2008.
In article      
 
[41]  Saxena, V.K., (2004). Geothermal Resources of India, Allied Publisher, New Delhi, 2004, 123.
In article      
 
[42]  Idoko, O.M., Ologunorisa, T.E., and Okoya, A.A. “Temporal variability of heavy metals concentration in rural groundwater of benue state, middle belt, Nigeria”. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(2). 2-16. Feb.2012.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  Adereti K.F, Awotoye O.O, Adebola S. I., and Akinpelu B.A. “Assessment of heavy metal concentration in soil and leaves of tree species around a scrap metal recycling factory in ile-ife, osun state, Nigeria”. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment, Vol. 9(1). 23-33. Mar.2017.
In article      
 
[44]  Adepoju-Bello, A.A. and Alabi, O.M. “Heavy metals: A review”. The Nig. J. Pharm., 37: 41-45. Jan.2005.
In article      
 
[45]  Lawrence, W. “Toxic Metals and Detoxification”, The Center for Development Inc. retrieved July 5, 2014 from http://www.drlwilson.com/articles/TOXIC%20METALS.htm.
In article      
 
[46]  Duruibe, J., Ogwuegbu, M.O.C., and Egwurugwu, J. “Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects”. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(5). 112-118. May2007.
In article      
 
[47]  Mahaurpawar, M. “Effects of heavy metals on human health”. Int. J. Res.-Granthaalayah. A knowledge Repository. pp. 1-7. 2015.
In article      
 
[48]  Oko, O.J., Aremu, M.O., and Andrew C. “Evaluation of the physicochemical and heavy metal content of ground water sources in bantaji and rafin- kada settlements of Wukari Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 9(4). 43-53. Oct.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Olatunji, O.A., Komolafe, E.T., and Oke, S.O. “Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of soil within the vicinity of an iron smelting factory - implication on standing vegetation”. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 8(2). 220-225. Jun.2016.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Yu, L., Renguang, Z., and Mingguo, Y. “The relationships between magnetic susceptibility and elemental variations for mineralized rocks”. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 146. 17-26. Jul.2014.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Okoya, A.A., Asubiojo, O.I., and Amusan, A.A. “Trace element concentrations of soils in ife -ijesa area Southwestern, Nigeria”. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 3(7). 173-179. Jul.2011.
In article      
 
[52]  Kaonga, C.C., Chiotha, S.S., Monjerezi, M., Fabiano E., and Henry, E.M. “Levels of Cadmium, Manganese and Lead in Water and Algae; spirogyra aequinctalis”. International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, 5(4). 471-478. Sept.2008.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  Falowo, O.O., Akindureni, Y., and Ojo, O. “Irrigation and Drinking Water Quality Index Determination for Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Akoko Northwest and Northeast Areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria”. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering, 3(5). 50-60. Oct.2017.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Awoyemi, O.M., Achudume, A.C., and Okoya, A.A. “The Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in Relation to Surface Water Pollution in Majidun Area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria”. American Journal of Water Resources, 2(5). 126-133. Oct.2014.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  Kundu A. and Nag S.K. “Assessment of groundwater quality in kashipur block, Purulia district,West Bengal”. Applied Water Science, 8(33). Feb.2018.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Huh Y., Tsoi, M., Zaitiser, A., and Edward, J.N. “The fluvial geochemistry of the river of eastern Siberia: I. tributaries of lena river draining the sedimentary platform of the Siberia craton”. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, 62(10). 1657-1676. Feb.1998.
In article      View Article