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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Effectiveness of Extension Program Delivery Methods as Perceived by the Central Vietnamese Extension Workers

Hung Gia Hoang
American Journal of Rural Development. 2018, 6(2), 45-48. DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-6-2-3
Published online: August 06, 2018

Abstract

Success of extension programs depends upon appropriateness of extension delivery methods used. It can be argued that if we know what extension methods are appropriate to specific farmers, then it is possible to deliver extension programs which meet farmers’ needs and help bring about changes - knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices of farmers. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of extension delivery methods used in the Central region of Vietnam. A five-point Likert scale which ranged from 1= very ineffective to 5= very effective was used to measure the effectiveness of extension delivery methods. Descriptive statistical analysis methods were used to analyze collected data. Findings show extension methods including: training, farmer-to-farmer extension, farmers’ group meetings, and farm/home visits were most effective. In contrast, extension methods including the use of radio programs, posters, and booklets were not effective.

1. Introduction

Agricultural extension has contributed to the improvement of Vietnamese farmers’ incomes over the last decades 1, 2. Vietnamese farmers have adopted a number of technical advances developed by scientists through their participation in agricultural extension programs 1. Agricultural extension programs such as the agricultural production diversification program and the beef cattle production program have been delivered to farmers by using a variety of extension methods{1} in the Central region of Vietnam 3. In this region, a wide range of extension methods such as on-farm demonstrations, farmer-to-farmer extension, lectures, workshops, and farm/home visits have been used [3, 4] 3, 4. Diversifying the use of extension methods aims at transmitting information to farmers and helps working with them more effectively 5. The success of extension programs depends upon the appropriateness of the extension delivery methods used 6. It can be argued that if we know what extension methods are appropriate to specific farmers, such as the Central Vietnamese farmers, then it is possible to deliver extension programs which meet farmers’ needs and also help bring about changes - knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices of farmers. The effectiveness of extension methods as perceived by extension workers in the Vietnamese context is, however, not clearly understood 8. Investigating the effectiveness of extension methods used, provides useful insights into selecting the suitability of extension methods. Such insights will help to identify the most appropriate extension methods for delivering extension programs in the Central region of Vietnam as well as help to develop a national strategy for delivering extension programs in Vietnam.

The overall purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of extension program delivery methods as perceived by extension workers in the Central region of Vietnam. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) describe the demographic profile of extension workers; (2) identify extension methods used by extension workers in the Central region; and to (3) determine the effectiveness of extension methods as perceived by extension workers.

2. Methodology

This study used a cross-sectional survey research design. The subject of this study comprised all agricultural extension workers who participated in the agricultural diversification program conducted in the Central region of Vietnam. A questionnaire was developed to collect data. Extension program delivery methods were measured on a five-point Likert scale which ranged from: 1= very ineffective, 2= ineffective, 3= somewhat effective, 4= effective, and 5= very effective. The questionnaire was reviewed by a panel of experts for face and content validity. The questionnaires were self-administered. A total of 87 participants completed the questionnaires (73% of the total). Data were analyzed using descriptive tests 9.

3. Key Results

3.1. Demographic Profile of Extension Workers
3.1.1. Gender

Figure 1 shows the characteristics of the extension workers’ gender. It is clear that the majority of extension workers working at the Central region were male. In particular, approximately 70% of extension workers were men. Only about 30% of extension workers were women.


3.1.2. Age

Figure 2 indicates the characteristics of extension workers’ age. Overall, age of extension workers working at the Central region ranged from 18 to 54 years old. In particular, more than 98% of extension workers were 18- 54 years old. Only some 2% of extension workers were 55-65 years old.


3.1.3. Education

Table 1 describes the characteristics of extension workers’ education level. In general, most extension workers held a university degree. In particular, the majority of extension workers reported completing university (76.7%), followed by certificate/diploma (12.8%), high school (3.5%), and senior high school (3.5%). However, only some 3.5% of extension workers held a postgraduate degree.


3.1.4. Qualification

Table 2 describes the qualifications of extension workers. In general, the qualifications of extension workers are diverse. There were 21% of extension workers specialized in crop science; followed by agronomy (17.3%); aquaculture (14.8%); and animal science (13.6%). Only about 10% of extension workers held the qualification of agricultural extension.


3.1.5. Income

Table 3 reports the annual income from salary of extension workers. In general, the majority of extension workers earned from 31 to 45 million Vietnam dong (VND) per year. In particular, approximately 51% of extension workers earned about 31-45 million VND, followed by 1-30 million VND (34%) and 46 - 60 million VND (11.8%). In contrast, few extension workers (3.5%) had an annual income ranged within the 61 - 75 million VND.

3.2. Extension Methods Used

An extension method is defined as a specific procedure used by extension workers to accomplish changes of farmers’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors. Table 4 provides a breakdown of extension methods used. It is clear that the most common extension methods included farmers’ group meetings; farm/home visits; training; and farmer-to-farmer extension, accounted for 93.1%; 92%; 86.2%; and 80.5% respectively. Other extension methods included result demonstrations; farmer field school; field workshops; and telephone use were relatively commonly used, represented 63.2%; 63.2%; 60.9%; and 59.8% respectively. In contrast, extension methods included using mass media such as radio programs; booklets; and posters were limited in their use, comprising 18.4%; 29.9% and 31% respectively.

3.3. Effectiveness of Extension Methods

Table 5 shows a breakdown of the effectiveness of the extension method used. It is clear that extension delivery methods including: training (mean=4.33); farmer-to-farmer extension (mean=4.30); farmers’ group meetings (mean=4.24); and farm/home visits (mean=4.10) were the most effective. Other extension methods including: farmer field school; field workshops; results demonstration; methods demonstration; and service provision were relatively effective. In contrast, extension methods using mass media including the use of radio programs (mean=0.60), posters (mean=0.67), and booklets (mean=0.71) were not effective.

4. Discussion, Conclusions and Implications

Participants indicated that there were 16 extension methods used. These include: (1) training; (2) farmer-to-farmer extension; (3) farmers’ group meetings; (4) farm/home visits; (5) farmer field school; (6) field workshops; (7) result demonstrations; (8) method demonstrations; (9) service provision; (10) leaflet; (11) lectures; (12) telephone use; (13) TV use; (14) booklet; (15) posters; and (16) radio use. The results identified that the farmers’ group meeting method was the most commonly used, while the radio had limited use. In the mainstream agricultural extension literature 6, 7, 10, 11 little is written about the common and limited use of extension methods as perceived by extension officers.

Participants of this research perceived that the most effective extension methods for delivering information and acquiring knowledge and skills were: (1) the training, (2) farmer-to-farmer extension, (3) farmers’ group meetings and (4) farm/home visits. In contrast, somewhat ineffective extension methods were radio use, followed by posters, booklet and TV use. These findings have not been reported in previous studies 7, 12, exploring agricultural extension methods used in Vietnam. However, the result from this research partially supports 11’ findings who report that South African farmers perceived training to be a highly effective extension method for delivering information, acquiring knowledge and skills.

The findings from this research should be shared with agricultural extension workers, and extension workers in other regions to identify the most appropriate extension methods for delivering extension programs in the Central region of Vietnam and nationwide. More research should be conducted to understand why some extension program delivery methods are not effective so that appropriate delivery methods can be used to improve the effectiveness of extension programs. This study should be replicated in other regions of Vietnam to better understand the appropriateness of delivery methods used. Such knowledge will help us to develop a national strategy for delivering extension programs in Vietnam.

Note

1. An extension method is defined as a specific procedure used by extension workers to accomplish changes of farmers’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors [7].

References

[1]  Sattaka, P., Pattaratuma, S., & Attawipakpaisan, G., “Agricultural extension services to foster production sustainability for food and cultural security of glutinous rice farmers in Vietnam”. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences 38(1), 74-80. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  World BankVietnam: Sustainable Farming Increases Productivity and Improves the Environment. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/04/15/vietnam-sustainable-farming-increases-productivity-and-improves-the-environment.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Le, Đ. T., Policy on agriculture and rural development. Hanoi, Vietnam: The National Political Publisher. 2000.
In article      
 
[4]  Nguyen, T. H. M., Determinants of agricultural technology transfers for CoTu ethnic groups in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. 2003.
In article      
 
[5]  Van de Ban, A. W., & Hawkins, H. S., Agricultural extension. London; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1996.
In article      
 
[6]  Chandra, K. V. S., & Martin, R. A., “Teaching methods and tools used in food safety extension education programs in the North Central Region of the United States”. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development 1(3), 157-167. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Hoang, G. H., & Radhakrishna, R., “Effectiveness of extension program delivery methods as perceived by central Vietnamese farmers”. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education 20(2), 130-132. 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Truong, T. N. C., Rundquist, F.-M., Duong, V. C., & Jirstrom, M., “Case Study on Successful, Limited Successful and Unsuccessful Farmers in Agricultural Diversification in O Mon District, Can Tho Province, Mekong Delta”. Omonrice 17(2010), 179-189. 2010.
In article      
 
[9]  De Vaus, D., Surveys in social research (6 ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin Academic Publisher. 2014
In article      
 
[10]  Kassem, H. S., “Effectiveness of different agricultural extension methods in providing knowledge and skills in disease prevention: A case of Smallholder Poultry Production Systems in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt”. Asian J. Agr. Ext. Eco & Sociol. 3(2), 91-107. 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Maoba, S., “Farmers’ perception of agricultural extension service delivery in Germiston Region, Gauteng Province, South Africa”. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 44(2), 167-173. 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Minh, T. T., Larsen, C. E. S., & Neef, A., “Challenges to Institutionalizing Participatory Extension: The Case of Farmer Livestock Schools in Vietnam”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 16(2), 179-194. 2010.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Hung Gia Hoang

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Hung Gia Hoang. Effectiveness of Extension Program Delivery Methods as Perceived by the Central Vietnamese Extension Workers. American Journal of Rural Development. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp 45-48. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajrd/6/2/3
MLA Style
Hoang, Hung Gia. "Effectiveness of Extension Program Delivery Methods as Perceived by the Central Vietnamese Extension Workers." American Journal of Rural Development 6.2 (2018): 45-48.
APA Style
Hoang, H. G. (2018). Effectiveness of Extension Program Delivery Methods as Perceived by the Central Vietnamese Extension Workers. American Journal of Rural Development, 6(2), 45-48.
Chicago Style
Hoang, Hung Gia. "Effectiveness of Extension Program Delivery Methods as Perceived by the Central Vietnamese Extension Workers." American Journal of Rural Development 6, no. 2 (2018): 45-48.
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[1]  Sattaka, P., Pattaratuma, S., & Attawipakpaisan, G., “Agricultural extension services to foster production sustainability for food and cultural security of glutinous rice farmers in Vietnam”. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences 38(1), 74-80. 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  World BankVietnam: Sustainable Farming Increases Productivity and Improves the Environment. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/04/15/vietnam-sustainable-farming-increases-productivity-and-improves-the-environment.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Le, Đ. T., Policy on agriculture and rural development. Hanoi, Vietnam: The National Political Publisher. 2000.
In article      
 
[4]  Nguyen, T. H. M., Determinants of agricultural technology transfers for CoTu ethnic groups in Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. 2003.
In article      
 
[5]  Van de Ban, A. W., & Hawkins, H. S., Agricultural extension. London; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Science, 1996.
In article      
 
[6]  Chandra, K. V. S., & Martin, R. A., “Teaching methods and tools used in food safety extension education programs in the North Central Region of the United States”. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development 1(3), 157-167. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Hoang, G. H., & Radhakrishna, R., “Effectiveness of extension program delivery methods as perceived by central Vietnamese farmers”. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education 20(2), 130-132. 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Truong, T. N. C., Rundquist, F.-M., Duong, V. C., & Jirstrom, M., “Case Study on Successful, Limited Successful and Unsuccessful Farmers in Agricultural Diversification in O Mon District, Can Tho Province, Mekong Delta”. Omonrice 17(2010), 179-189. 2010.
In article      
 
[9]  De Vaus, D., Surveys in social research (6 ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin Academic Publisher. 2014
In article      
 
[10]  Kassem, H. S., “Effectiveness of different agricultural extension methods in providing knowledge and skills in disease prevention: A case of Smallholder Poultry Production Systems in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt”. Asian J. Agr. Ext. Eco & Sociol. 3(2), 91-107. 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Maoba, S., “Farmers’ perception of agricultural extension service delivery in Germiston Region, Gauteng Province, South Africa”. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 44(2), 167-173. 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Minh, T. T., Larsen, C. E. S., & Neef, A., “Challenges to Institutionalizing Participatory Extension: The Case of Farmer Livestock Schools in Vietnam”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 16(2), 179-194. 2010.
In article      View Article