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Review Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Herbal Immunomodulator in View of Omicron Virus - A Review

Neha Tyagi, Santosh Kumar Verma, Ajeet , Girendra Kumar Gautum, Ashwani Jagra
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2022, 10(1), 8-11. DOI: 10.12691/ajps-10-1-2
Received April 05, 2022; Revised May 09, 2022; Accepted May 19, 2022

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global medical crisis of unprecedented proportions. The death rate and infected people is rising on a daily basis all over the world. This situation is so much worse because of the potential for disasterous situations with variety of social and economic factors. Effective infection monitoring is still being developed, and efforts are being made to integrate traditional interventions with standard of care. With special reference to respiratory health, the Ministry of Aayush recommends the self-care guidelines for preventive health measures and boosting immunity. Ayurvedic literature and scientific publications back up these claims. There is a lot of research on natural substances that can affect immune function in addition to plant compounds. There are some examples suggest by Ministry of Aayush such as Gargle with a pinch of turmeric and salt in warm water. Gargling can also be done with water boiled with Triphala (dried fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica) or Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Once or twice a day, apply medicated oil (Anu taila or Shadbindu Taila), plain oil (Sesame or Coconut), or nasal application of cow's ghee (Goghrita), especially before going out and after returning home. Antimicrobials, or immune-boosters, are a class of plants that work directly on bacteria or viruses while also boosting the immune system's overall performance. Volatile oils are common, yet active pharmacological substances are numerous and complex. Herbs such as: Allium sativum (Garlic), Baptisia tinctoria (Wild Indigo), Echinacea sp. (Echinacea), Thuja occidentalis (Thuja), Usnea sp. (Old Man’s Beard).

1. Introduction

Several theories have surfaced to explain how the Omicron accumulated such a large number of mutations in such a short period of time. Few of them are higher mutation rates within a population subgroup and then its introduction to a larger population. Population, long-term virus persistence and development in immune-compromised patients and epizootic infection in animals from humans, where the virus mutated under different immune pressures and then spread humans have been reintroduced. 1

The multi-step screening of the South African Natural Compounds Database (SANCDB) yielded four medicinal drug compounds. These compounds are SANC01032 (amentoflavone), SANC00317 (quercetin), SANC00944 (1,2,3,6-Tetragalloylglucose), and SANC00992 (luteolin), whose simulation analysis revealed structural compactness as well as stable dynamics in complex. 2 In vitro antiviral activity of a natural 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) was demonstrated in Wuhan, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this study, we found that 5-ALA combined with SFC had an IC50 of 329 and 765/191, respectively, after in vitro infection with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that 5-ALA could be used as an antiviral drug candidate to treat patients infected with Omicron variant. 3 Given the multiplicity of reports from one side and contradictions in assessments from the other, the emergence of novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques necessitates instantaneous updates on the progress of clinical investigations. There is also growing public concern about COVID19 mutations, as evidenced by significant mortality and transmission from delta and Omicron variants, respectively. 4

Several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, including Thymoquinone, have been proposed as effective in the treatment of COVID-19. 5

Omicron is more transmissible and infectious (it spreads very easily from person to person) than other infected variants, as well as Delta. Omicron has been detected in the majority of states and areas of many states as of December 20, 2021, and it is rapidly increasing the quantity of COVID-19 cases it is instigating. 1 Omicron was discovered in Botswana and then in South Africa, but it has since spread to more than a dozen countries. The COVID-19 virus is constantly evolving in order to escape human immune responses and infect more people, but most of the changes are minor. 2 Every now and then, a new virus variant emerges that requires further research. Omicron is the latest such progression, coming after Delta, Gamma, Beta, and Alpha (in order of appearance). South African epidemiologists decoded the Omicron strain and reported their observations to the WHO on Nov. 24, noting that it has more than 30 mutants in the virus spike proteins, which permit it to penetrate and infect cells. Botswana place is the first to discover the variant. 3

On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organization elected the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant as a modified variant of concern. The number of individuals testing positive in affected areas of South Africa had also increased, but epidemiological data are critical to determining whether this is due to Omicron or other variables. According to preliminary data, hospitalization rates in South Africa are rising, and this could be due to an increase in the as a whole number of people to become infected instead of a specific Omicron infection. 4

There is absolutely no evidence that the symptoms of Omicron are different from other variants. The first cases were one of university students' younger people, who have a lighter form of the infection, but determining the intensity of the Omicron variant will take days or even weeks. 5 As other variants, widely used PCR tests continue to identify infection, such as Omicron infectious disease. Other testing methods, such as rapid antigen tests, are being studied and see if there is whatever effect. WHO is currently working with a lot of researches from all over the world to understand better Omicron. 6 Symptoms: As according provisional data published on December 16 by the COVID Symptoms Study, which would be run by the biomedical science company Zoe and King's College London, individuals with the novel Omicron variant the more commonly reported cold-like symptoms. 7 According to the data, the top five symptoms of Omicron infection reported in the were a runny nose, headache, fatigue, sneezing, and a sore throat. According to the data, the top five symptoms of Omicron infection reported a runny nose, headache, fatigue (mild or severe), sneezing, and a sore throat. 8

Socialization affection during covid-19: The coronavirus must have infected over 30 million citizens of India. COVID-19 has the ability to infect people of all sexes, ages, and genders. They spend 9.8 times quite so much time on unpaid house tasks as men do, as well as they spend 4.5 hours each day looking after children, the elderly, as well as the sick. Their proportion of unpaid care work increased by approximately 30% during the pandemic. 9 In addition, Indian women spent more time than men to do unpaid aid domestic work. As a consequence of the COVID-19 lockdowns, global domestic violence rates rose, trapping women at home to their abusers. During the first few months of the pandemic, domestic violence, child marriage, cyber violence, and women and girl trafficking all increased in India. As according data from the National Commission for Women, domestic violence in India enhanced 2.5 times between February and May 2020. 10 The Indian government has identified domestic violence shelter and support services as "essential," marking a significant step forward in the COVID-19 response. Throughout the first and foremost waves of the pandemic, India's 700 One-Stop-Crisis clinics remained open, helping over 300,000 women who was abused and mandatory shelter, legal assistance, and medical care. According to data from the National Commission for Women, domestic violence in India increased 2.5 times between February and May 2020. 11 Some Domestic violence reports increased during the first four phases of the lockdown, according to women's organisations, compared to the previous ten years for a comparable period of time. 12

2. Herbal Immunomodulators

There are some of points to know immunomodulators:

The effects of an aqueous leaf extract of the made by mixing herbal drugs Thujae summitates, Baptisiae tinctoriae radix, Echinaceae purpureae radix, and Echinaceae pallidae radix on cytokine induction and production of antibodies against sheep red blood cells were investigated in mice. 13

Immune stimulants cause our immune defences to be stimulated in a non-specific way. They have little influence on our immune memory cells, and their pharmacological effects disappear fast, therefore they must be given at regular intervals or on a continual basis. These herbs are more equivalent to traditional antibiotics, and they're useful for boosting the body's innate immune processes in immunocompromised patients and those with autoimmune illness. 14

Dietary supplementation with herbal immunomodulatory agents may be a promising adjunct to SRP, according to the observations of this clinical-biochemical study, and may aid in improving periodontal treatment outcomes. 15

Many chemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, lactones, and glycoside products, are responsible for changes in immunomodulatory properties. 16

Many chemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, lactones, and glycoside products, are responsible for changes in immunomodulatory properties. 17

This review's ability to provide an accurate portrait of the immunomodulatory activities of herbal preparations used by millions around the world is based on an inconsistent understanding of bioactive components and the delivery of effective human clinical trial performance. The immune system is a well-functioning network of cellular elements and chemicals that protects the organism's integrity from external slurs. Its proper functioning and balance are essential for preventing a variety of diseases. Evidence from the literature suggests that immunological diseases are on the rise, and much emphasis has been placed on the development of molecules that can modulate the immune response. 18

Based on the preceding explanation, we conclude that these herbal medicines may be able to regulate the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, interfere with virus development in host cells, and modify certain RAA-related molecular pathways. Herbal agents may be effective COVID-19 treatments. Finally, it is still not recommended for patients to take a supplement containing one of these compounds to prevent COVID-19. 19

According to many reviews and studies, most solanum plants contain steroidal glycosides, which have an anti-seizure effect due to the solasodine, solmine, and solamarginine, which inhibit the increase of sodium voltage ions, which is responsible for the convulsion, and in this review all they are mostly found for antivirals activity. 20

Further explorations of bioactive compounds from S. Xanthocarpum and S. khasianum, as well as their validation, promise the possibility of exploiting and developing novel antiviral agents and chemotherapeutic drugs from this natural resource in the future. 20 Thin layer chromatography is a simple, cost-effective, and convenient technique in phytochemistry with various applications for novel pharmaceuticals and various types of formulations derived from medicinal plants. More detailed information is required for education and research. 21

A group of medicinal plants grown in Iran, including Silybum marianum, Matricaria chamomilla, Calendula officinalis, Cichorium intybus, and Dracocephalum kotschyi, were extracted with 70% ethanol and their mitogenic activity was tested on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes. The effect of these extracts on the proliferation of human lymphocytes in response to phytohemagglutinin and the mixed lymphocyte reaction also investigated. 22

The decision to focus on plant constituents that modulate immune responses raises the question of whether traditional medicine has a conceptual basis for this. (H11, n.d.) under investigation for such a biological activity in other words, carry out the pathogenesis concepts and therapeutic methods that traditional system provides a relevant approach. 23

Herbal Kadha for Immunity: In the current pandemic scenario, taking precautions and boosting immunity are two of the best options for avoiding COVID19 infection. According to our findings, the use of spices and herbs may play an important role in the prevention of viral infections. 24 We discovered that cinnamon, black pepper, basil, and turmeric are effective against SARSCoV2 (COVID19) and other viral infections, which is supported by another recent research. Since ancient times, people in India have used spices and herbs for their taste, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunity boosting properties. 25

Since the outbreak of the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan, China in December 2019, it has spread to over 205 countries. 26 The ever-expanding list of corona virus-19 disease (COVID-19) patients has demonstrated the disease's high transmission rate among the human population. There are currently no FDA-approved drugs or vaccines to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the current state of affairs, there is an urgent unmet medical need to identify novel and effective approaches for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 through re-evaluating traditional medicine knowledge and drug repurposing. 27 The Government of India's Ministry of AYUSH has provided "Ayush Kwath" to improve the immune system and stabilise the situation. (Chandurkar et al., 2021) It is recommended that people use herbs and traditional medicinal products to boost their immunity and build their livelihood. Herbal kadha and chawanprash protect public health by increasing immunity and possibly resisting viral attacks in the body. In this survey, we attempted to understand the views of the people of Bhopal, MP, India on the use of herbs and spices such as tulsi, turmeric, ginger, giloy, ashwaghandha, cinnamon, and so on. boost their immunity in the face of a pandemic attack. 28 The Indian ayurvedic system is a natural source of ayurvedic medicine, as we all know. Corona plays an important role. "Prevention is preferable to cure" in relation to corona. Ayurvedic medicines are widely available, have no side effects, and are inexpensive. The topic of this review is "The Role of Herbs in Covid-19. 29 A wide range of phytochemicals have been isolated, characterised, and modified for use in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Phytocompounds have been used to create a number of cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics. However, the use of traditional or new medicinal plants as immunomodulators in the treatment of immune diseases is still relatively limited. 30, 31

3. Conclusion

The purpose of this review “Ayurveda trends as immunomodulators” along with numerous antivirals, antiseptics, antibiotics etc., as we know that India’s civilizations suffering and affected from the series of viruses that covid-19 to omicron, So the main content that if researchers should continuously evaluate the various variety of plant species it should be much better to our society and their health. To obtain the benefits of Ayurveda, the world's oldest system of medicine, a diverse set of health-care practises is required.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Neha Tyagi, Santosh Kumar Verma, Ajeet, Girendra Kumar Gautum and Ashwani Jagra

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Normal Style
Neha Tyagi, Santosh Kumar Verma, Ajeet, Girendra Kumar Gautum, Ashwani Jagra. Herbal Immunomodulator in View of Omicron Virus - A Review. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. Vol. 10, No. 1, 2022, pp 8-11. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajps/10/1/2
MLA Style
Tyagi, Neha, et al. "Herbal Immunomodulator in View of Omicron Virus - A Review." American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 10.1 (2022): 8-11.
APA Style
Tyagi, N. , Verma, S. K. , Ajeet , Gautum, G. K. , & Jagra, A. (2022). Herbal Immunomodulator in View of Omicron Virus - A Review. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 10(1), 8-11.
Chicago Style
Tyagi, Neha, Santosh Kumar Verma, Ajeet, Girendra Kumar Gautum, and Ashwani Jagra. "Herbal Immunomodulator in View of Omicron Virus - A Review." American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 10, no. 1 (2022): 8-11.
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[1]  Khandia, R, Singhal S., et al (2022). Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, salient features, high global health concerns and strategies to counter it amid ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112816.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Behl, T, Kaur, I., et.al (2022). There is nothing exempt from the peril of mutation – The Omicron spike, Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 Apr; 148: 112756.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Tun, M, M., Sakura, T., (2022). 5-Aminolevulinic acid antiviral efcacy against SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant in vitro, Ngwe Tun et al. Tropical Medicine and Health (2022) 50: 30.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Alibadi, A, H, Keihan, R, E, et.al. (2022). COVID-19: A systematic review and update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, MedComm (2020). 2022 Mar; 3(1): e115. Published online.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Abdelrahim, M, Ashmail, A., et.al (2022). Thymoquinone’s Antiviral Effects: It is Time to be Proven in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era and its Omicron Variant Surge, Front Pharmacol. 2022. 13: 848676. Published online 2022 Apr 5.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Karim, S. S. A., & Karim, Q. A. (2021). Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet, 398(10317), 2126-2128.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Garros, D., Austin, W., & Dodek, P. (2021). How Can I Survive This?: Coping During Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. In Chest (Vol. 159, Issue 4, pp. 1484-1492). Elsevier Inc.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Luo, C. H., Morris, C. P., Sachithanandham, J., Amadi, A., Gaston, D., Li, M., Swanson, N. J., Schwartz, M., Klein, E. Y., Pekosz, A., & Mostafa, H. H. (2021). Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant is Associated with Higher Infectious Virus Loads Compared to the Alpha Variant in both Unvaccinated and Vaccinated Individuals. MedRxiv: The Preprint Server for Health Sciences.
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