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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Seroprevalence of Salmonella Infection in Commercial Layer Chickens in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh

Abdullah Al Momen Sabuj , Mizanur Rahman, Nanda Barua, Zobayda Farzana Haque, Amrita Pondit, Kamrul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2019, 7(1), 19-23. DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-7-1-3
Received December 03, 2018; Revised January 11, 2019; Accepted January 24, 2019

Abstract

Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, usually transmitted from animal to human and vice versa and causes huge economic losses in poultry industry of Bangladesh. This study was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in commercial layer farms of Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh, during the period from February to April, 2016. A total of 200 blood samples were collected from 20 farms of 4 randomly selected upazillas of Cox’s Bazar considering the age groups, and flock sizes. Rapid serum plate agglutination test was done and 42% chickens were found positive for Salmonella infection. With respect to age groups, the seroprevalence was higher (68%) in adults compared to young (20%) chickens. However, the seroprevalence of Salmonella infection was recorded remarkably (54.28%) in large flocks compared to small flocks. In conclusion, we can say that, Salmonella infection is prevalent in the commercial layer chickens of Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh. Appropriate measures and strategies should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

1. Introduction

In Bangladesh, commercial poultry production has been developing quickly since early 1990 by utilizing enhanced hereditary traits, manufactured feeds and management. This dramatic development of poultry farms throughout the country has occurred without considering feasibility of the farm in the area. This change is happened principally in the private area as an additional tool of income and employment creation mainly in rural area. This process has been conducted by the project of various NGOs and the government 1.

There are a few limitations being developed of poultry industry in Bangladesh 2. Among bacterial diseases of poultry, Salmonellosis is one of the major diseases as it can cause heavy financial loss due to increased mortality and decreased egg production 3. The disease is highly significant because it can easily be transmitted vertically from parent to offspring. This disease in poultry caused by two non-motile types avian Salmonella namely Salmonella gallinarum responsible for causing fowl typhoid and Salmonella pullorum for pullorum disease respectively 4. Pullorum disease is generally limited to initial 2-3 weeks of age and merely occurs in adults. Fowl typhoid is frequently found in adults and there are also evident of high mortality in young chicks.

Environmental factors include air, dirty litter and unclean facilities, and vectors, such as insects, humans, and rodents are responsible for Salmonella contamination in poultry farm. There are several methods of diagnosis of Salmonella in field level such as an indirect enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), double ELISA, rapid plate agglutination and whole blood agglutination test 5. Rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test is commonly used in field condition to detect Salmonella as it can be performed easily and require less time as well as economic.

In recent time, Salmonella infections in commercial layer, broiler and breeder farms are increasing predominantly. Several number of research works has been performed on the prevalence of Salmonella infection by previous author in different districts of Bangladesh mainly focused on isolation, identification and serological tests 4, 6, 7, 8. However, more study on the seroprevalence of Salmonella disease covering wide geographical areas of Bangladesh is required to design effective control program. Due to be a zoonotic disease, the human health is always at risk of getting the resistant human pathogens through food channel. It is said that food from poultry origins are the main source of causing human salmonellosis as salmonella remains as a reservoir in most of the poultry products. Keeping the above said fact, the study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Salmonella infection using purchased Salmonella colored antigen in commercial layer birds at Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

The study was conducted in the four randomly selected upazilla under Cox’s Bazar districts where commercial layer farms were available. There are eight upazilla in Cox’s Bazar district and among them Cox’s Bazar Sadar, Ramu, Ukhiya and Chakaria were selected in this study conducted during the period of February to April 2016.

2.2. Sample Collection and Processing

A total of 200 blood samples comprising 50 samples from 5 farms of each upazilla were collected. Blood samples were collected aseptically from the wing vein using sterile 3 ml syringe and needles. From each bird 2 ml of blood was collected. The syringe containing blood was put in a standing position allowed to clot formation and serum was collected by decanting according to Hossain et al. 8. 1.5 ml micro centrifuge tubes were used for transferring and shipping of the harvested sera into laboratory through cold box. Serum sample were stored at until perform the Rapid Serum Agglutination Test following the methods described by Selvam et al. 9.

2.3. Salmonella Antigens

Antigens are the killed and colored Salmonella. In this surveillance program, Salmonella O group D (Somatic 9, 12) antigens were used for pullorum disease and fowl typhoid 10. The Salmonella antigen (Serotest® SP) used in this study were purchased from the S & A Reagents Lab Ltd., Part Thailand.

2.4. Rapid Plate Agglutination (RPA) Test

As indicated by the guidance of OIE Manual 11 the RPA test was performed. For this test 0.02 ml of antigen and 0.02 ml of chicken serum were set one next to the other with micropipettes on a glass slide. At that point test serum and antigen were mixed by using a tooth pick. The glass slide was lit up from underneath to observe the reaction, evading excessive warmth from the light source. In case of positive reaction, definite clumps was formed within 2 minutes after mixing of antigen (Figure 1) and test serum whereas it was mostly visible in peripheral region of clumps and agglutination was absent in negative case (Figure 2).

2.5. Statistical Analysis

The data obtained from this study were analyzed using STATA/IC-13.0. Significant differences among the variables were calculated using Pearson’s Chi-square test. ρ value less than 0.05 were considered as significant.

3. Results

3.1. Overall Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Selected Farm

Descriptive study shows that, out of 200 samples, 82 samples were found seropositive which means the seroprevalence of Salmonellosis in the layer farms of our research areas were 42% and it was given in the Table 1.

3.2. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Different Ages

The Table 2 shows the seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in different age groups of layer birds. The estimated seroprevalence of Salmonella infections were 20% in 15-24 weeks, 25% in 25-34 weeks, 35% in 35-44 weeks, 50% in 45-54 weeks and 68% in 55-above week of ages and the differences were significantly varied (ρ<0.05). According to different ages, the highest seroprevalence of Salmonella infections were reported 68% at above 55 weeks of age group whereas the lowest seroprevalence was reported 20% at less than 24 weeks of age group. The seroprevalence of Salmonella infection was significantly higher in adult in relation to young group of layer birds (ρ<0.05).

3.3. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection according to Flock Sizes

Regarding to prevalence based on flock sizes, the detailed Salmonella infections in layer birds were consequently 20% within (≤1000 birds) flocks, 30% within (1001-1500 birds) flocks, 48% within (1501-2000 birds) flocks as well as 54.28% within (≥2000 birds) flock sizes. The Table 3 demonstrates that the seroprevalence associated with Salmonella infections were larger (54.28%) within larger flocks (≥2000 birds) within resemblance in order to in small (≤1000) flocks. Flock size was not significantly varied with Salmonella infections in layer birds (ρ>0.05).

3.4. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Relation to Study Areas

The Table 4 presents the results of seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in layer birds based on different study areas. It was observed that the seroprevalence of Salmonella infections were 60% in Ramu, 36% in Cox’s Bazar, 28% in Chakaria and 44% in Ukhyia upazilla. In the study it was shown that the prevalence of Salmonella infections were highest 60% in Ramu upazilla in relation to others upazillas. Study areas were not significantly differ with Salmonella infection (ρ>0.05).

4. Discussion

In our study area, the overall seroprevalence of Salmonella infections in layer farms was high. The present finding agrees with several previous reports such as Kindu and Addis 12 described seroprevalence 41.9% in chickens flocks in Jimma town, Ethopia, Islam et al. 7 showed 43.4% sero-prevalence in layer farms of Dhaka and Gazipur regions of Bangladesh and Bhattacharya et al. 13 stated 37.7% seroprevalence in layer farms in India. The percentages of my investigation were higher than that of Alam et al. 14, Sikder et al. 6, Akter et al. 15, Hossain et al. 8 and Barua et al. 16 whose reported 23.8%, 23.46%, 23.11%, 25.3% and 18% sero-positive chickens for Salmonella infection in Dinajpur district, Patuakhali district, Gobindapur of Dinajpur district, Rajshahi and surrounding districts and Chittagong district of Bangladesh respectively. However, Nath et al. 17 found 60% seroprevalence in commercial layer farm of Chittagong district as well as Habib-Ur-Rehman et al. 18, Ashenafi et al. 19, Sundar et al. 20 and Jalil and Islam 21 noted 63.5%, 64.2%, 61.68% and 65.9% seroprevalence subsequently, which were comparatively higher than the present findings. The fluctuation might be due to differences in environmental, managemental and geographical location.

In present studies, within the different age groups, above 55 weeks of age showed highest sero-prevalence of Salmonella infection followed by others weeks of age and lowest prevalence showed in less than 15 weeks of age. Jalil and Islam 21 recorded higher seroprevalence (76.6%) in layer birds of 56 weeks of age than those of other age groups. Similarly, Hossain et al. 8 also found the highest seroprevalence of Salmonella infection was 37.6% at 64 weeks and above age group whereas the lowest seroprevalence was 16.6% at 16-23 weeks age group that supports our present findings. Suchlike report was noted by Sikder et al. 6 who reported 30.8% at 39 weeks of age and lowest was 13.3% at 32 weeks of age. Interestingly, Islam et al. 7, Akter et al. 15, Barua et al. 16 and Nath et al. 17 also found increased rate of seroprevalence of Salmonella infection with advancement of age. But Ahmed et al. 22 who reported highest seroprevalence in grower 63.4% stage in relation grower 56.2% and layer 35.4% respectively which was opposite to my study. Similar report also demonstrated by Rahman et al. 23 that reported highest Salmonella infection in grower 52.6% groups and lower in layer 38.4% groups. In this study the increase rate of seroprevalence in adult age may be due to concurrent infection of Salmonella.

According to present investigation, highest seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in layer chickens showed in large flocks (≥2000) in comparison to small (≤1000) flocks. Similar results was also observed by Hossain et al. 8 who noted higher 34.2% seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in large flocks (≥5001 birds) in comparison to small (≤1000 birds) flocks 21.3%. Identical observation was studied by Jalil and Islam 21 at Khulna district of Bangladesh. The present data were higher than those in report of Skov et al. 24 who listed 16% Salmonella infection in a flock containing 30-40 thousand chickens in comparison to 11.9% in a flock containing 10-20 thousand and 9.7% in a flock containing less than 10 thousands chickens. Mdegela et al. 25 stated that infection rate increased with increase of flock size and also recorded higher prevalence of Salmonella infection in commercial flock 18.4% than in scavenging chickens 6.3%. The variation of infection rate in larger flock might be due to faulty management and bio-security as well as the horizontal transmission of the organisms.

In my study, serological investigation showed highest seroprevalence of Salmonella infection in layer chickens in Ramu upazilla followed by others upazillas. Sikder et al. 6 and Salihu et al. 26 observed same findings at two union of Patuakhali district of Bangladesh and various village and town of Nasarawa State, Nigeria respectively. An identical result was noted by Jalil and Islam 21 at six upazilla s of Khulna district of Bangladesh. Mdegela et al. 26 reported 2.6% and 18.4% sero-prevalence in two village flock which was much lower than the present study. This might be due to large number of flock, bio-security and geographical location.

5. Conclusion

From the above findings, it may be concluded that the seroprevalence of Salmonella infections were high in the present study areas. However, further studies with cultural prevalence, pathological findings, serotyping and antibody sensitivity determination with isolated Salmonella from poultry may be performed in near future. And also effort should be made towards educating farmers. Moreover, for effective control measures such as bio-security should be improved especially in commercial layer farm.

Acknowledgements

The author also likes to acknowledge Upazilla Livestock Office, Ramu, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh for providing the lab facilities to conduct this research.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflicting interest with regards to the publication of this manuscript.

References

[1]  Raha, S.K., Poultry industry in Bangladesh: ample opportunities for improvement. Inproceedings of the seminar, 8th international Poultry Show and Seminar. World’s Poultry Science Association, Bangladesh Branch p. 3-19, 2013.
In article      
 
[2]  Das, P.M., Rajib, D.M., NOOR, M., Islam, M.R., A retrospective analysis on the proportional incidence of poultry diseases in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. In Proceedings of Seminar p. 33, 2005.
In article      
 
[3]  Haider, M.G., Chowdhury, E.H., Sharif, S.M., Hossain, M.M., Pathogenesis of Pullorum Disease (PD) in Chickens by Local Isolate of Salmonella pullorum in Bangladesh. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 11(2):1-6, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Hossain, M.S., Chowdhury, E.H., Islam, M.M., Haider, M.G., Hossain, M.M., Avian salmonella infection: isolation and identification of organisms and histopathoogical study. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4(1): 7-12, 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Feberwee, A., De Vries, T.S., Hartman, E.,G, De Wit, J.J., Elbers, A.R., De Jong, W.A., Vaccination against Salmonella enteritidis in Dutch commercial layer flocks with a vaccine based on a live Salmonella gallinarum 9R strain: evaluation of efficacy, safety, and performance of serologic Salmonella tests. Avian diseases 45(1): 83-91, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Sikder, A.J., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Rahman, M.B., Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the six model breeder poultry farms at Patuakhali district in Bangladesh. International Journal of Poultry Science 4(11): 905-910, 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Islam, M.M., Haider, M.G., Chowdhury, E.H., Kamruzzaman, M., Hossain, M.M., Seroprevalence and pathological study of Salmonella infections in layer chickens and isolation and identification of causal agents. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4(2): 79-85, 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Hossain, K.M., Hossain, M.T., Yamato, I., Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens in Rajshahi and surrounding districts of Bangladesh. International Journal of Biology 2(2): 74, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Selvam, A., Gunaseelan, L., Senthilkumar, K., Sekar, M., Assessment of carrier status of Salmonella Pullorum and Gallinarum Infection in Healthy Flocks. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 6(2): 99-101, 2010.
In article      
 
[10]  Proux, K., Humbert, F., Jouy, E., Houdayer, C., Lalande, F., Oger, A., Salvat, G., Improvements required for the detection of Salmonella Pullorum and Gallinarum. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66(3): 151-157, 2002.
In article      PubMed  PubMed
 
[11]  OIE. Office International des Epizooties, Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Rabies, 5th ed. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, 2004.
In article      
 
[12]  Kindu, A., Addis, M., A survey on Salmonella infection among chicken flocks in Jimma town, Ethiopia. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7(14): 1239-1245, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Bhatiacharya, A., Majumder, P., Fowl typhoid outbreak in broiler chick flocks in Tripura and its control. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71(11): 1034-1035, 2001.
In article      
 
[14]  Alam, J., Koike, I., Giasuddin, M., Rahman, M.M., Seroprevalence of poultry diseases in native chickens in Bangladesh. In 9th Annual Scientific Conference of the Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Education and Research p. 6-7, 2003.
In article      
 
[15]  Akter, M.R., Choudhury, K.A., Rahman, M.M., Islam, M.S., Seroprevalence of salmonellosis in layer chickens with isolation, identification and antibiogram study of their causal agents. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 5(1): 39-42, 2007.
In article      
 
[16]  Barua, H., Biswas, P.K., Olsen, K.E., Christensen, J.P., Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. PloS one 7(4): e35914, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[17]  Nath, S.K., Akter, S., Dutta, A., Sen, A.B., Chakrabarty, R., Gupta, M.D., Prevalence and Antibiogram of Salmonella in Hisex Brown Strain at Commercial Poultry Farm in Chittagong. International Journal of Current Research in Biology and Medicine 2(3): 14-9, 2015.
In article      
 
[18]  Habib-ur-Rehman, S., Khan, H., Khan, S., Ahmad, N., Bhatti, W.M., Incidence and gross pathology of salmonellosis in chicken in Hyderabad. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(3): 175-178, 2003.
In article      
 
[19]  Ashenafi, H., Shetu, Y., Oldemeskel, M., Identification of major infections of local chickens of Central Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa 51(2): 95-101, 2003.
In article      
 
[20]  Sundar, J., Rai, R.B., Kundu, A., Senani, S., Chatterjee, R.N., Jeyakumar, S., Seroprevalence of poultry diseases in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Veterinary Journal. 84(1): 95-6, 2007.
In article      
 
[21]  Jalil, M.A., Islam, M.T., Serological survey of Salmonella infection in non-vaccinated commercial layer birds in Khulna District of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 9(1): 27-31, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Ahmed, A.K.M., Islam, M.T., Haider, M.G., Hossain, M.M., Seroprevalence and pathology of naturally infected Salmonellosis in poultry with isolation and identification of causal agents. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 6(2): 327-334, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Rahman, M.R., Shahinuzzaman, A.B., Saha, A.K., Sufian, M.A., Rahman, M.H., Hossain., M.M., Prevalence of Salmonella infection in naturally infected layer of birds in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Veterinarian 28(1): 8-18, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Skov, M.N., Angen, O., Chriel, M., Olsen, JE., Bisgaard, M., Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks. Poultry Science 78(6): 848-54, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Mdegela, R.H., Yongolo, M.G., Minga UM, Olsen JE. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella gallinarum in chickens in Tanzania. Avian Pathology 29(5): 457-463, 2000.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Salihu, A.E., Onwuliri, F.C., Mawak, J.D., Kalshingi, H.A., Hassan, D.I., Seroprevalence of salmonella gallinarum infection in free-range chickens reared in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal 34(3): 665-680, 2014.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Abdullah Al Momen Sabuj, Mizanur Rahman, Nanda Barua, Zobayda Farzana Haque, Amrita Pondit, Kamrul Islam and Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Abdullah Al Momen Sabuj, Mizanur Rahman, Nanda Barua, Zobayda Farzana Haque, Amrita Pondit, Kamrul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan. Seroprevalence of Salmonella Infection in Commercial Layer Chickens in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh. American Journal of Microbiological Research. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp 19-23. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmr/7/1/3
MLA Style
Sabuj, Abdullah Al Momen, et al. "Seroprevalence of Salmonella Infection in Commercial Layer Chickens in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh." American Journal of Microbiological Research 7.1 (2019): 19-23.
APA Style
Sabuj, A. A. M. , Rahman, M. , Barua, N. , Haque, Z. F. , Pondit, A. , Islam, K. , & Hassan, M. M. (2019). Seroprevalence of Salmonella Infection in Commercial Layer Chickens in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh. American Journal of Microbiological Research, 7(1), 19-23.
Chicago Style
Sabuj, Abdullah Al Momen, Mizanur Rahman, Nanda Barua, Zobayda Farzana Haque, Amrita Pondit, Kamrul Islam, and Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan. "Seroprevalence of Salmonella Infection in Commercial Layer Chickens in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh." American Journal of Microbiological Research 7, no. 1 (2019): 19-23.
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[1]  Raha, S.K., Poultry industry in Bangladesh: ample opportunities for improvement. Inproceedings of the seminar, 8th international Poultry Show and Seminar. World’s Poultry Science Association, Bangladesh Branch p. 3-19, 2013.
In article      
 
[2]  Das, P.M., Rajib, D.M., NOOR, M., Islam, M.R., A retrospective analysis on the proportional incidence of poultry diseases in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. In Proceedings of Seminar p. 33, 2005.
In article      
 
[3]  Haider, M.G., Chowdhury, E.H., Sharif, S.M., Hossain, M.M., Pathogenesis of Pullorum Disease (PD) in Chickens by Local Isolate of Salmonella pullorum in Bangladesh. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 11(2):1-6, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Hossain, M.S., Chowdhury, E.H., Islam, M.M., Haider, M.G., Hossain, M.M., Avian salmonella infection: isolation and identification of organisms and histopathoogical study. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4(1): 7-12, 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Feberwee, A., De Vries, T.S., Hartman, E.,G, De Wit, J.J., Elbers, A.R., De Jong, W.A., Vaccination against Salmonella enteritidis in Dutch commercial layer flocks with a vaccine based on a live Salmonella gallinarum 9R strain: evaluation of efficacy, safety, and performance of serologic Salmonella tests. Avian diseases 45(1): 83-91, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Sikder, A.J., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Rahman, M.B., Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in the six model breeder poultry farms at Patuakhali district in Bangladesh. International Journal of Poultry Science 4(11): 905-910, 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Islam, M.M., Haider, M.G., Chowdhury, E.H., Kamruzzaman, M., Hossain, M.M., Seroprevalence and pathological study of Salmonella infections in layer chickens and isolation and identification of causal agents. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4(2): 79-85, 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Hossain, K.M., Hossain, M.T., Yamato, I., Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens in Rajshahi and surrounding districts of Bangladesh. International Journal of Biology 2(2): 74, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Selvam, A., Gunaseelan, L., Senthilkumar, K., Sekar, M., Assessment of carrier status of Salmonella Pullorum and Gallinarum Infection in Healthy Flocks. Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 6(2): 99-101, 2010.
In article      
 
[10]  Proux, K., Humbert, F., Jouy, E., Houdayer, C., Lalande, F., Oger, A., Salvat, G., Improvements required for the detection of Salmonella Pullorum and Gallinarum. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66(3): 151-157, 2002.
In article      PubMed  PubMed
 
[11]  OIE. Office International des Epizooties, Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Rabies, 5th ed. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, 2004.
In article      
 
[12]  Kindu, A., Addis, M., A survey on Salmonella infection among chicken flocks in Jimma town, Ethiopia. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7(14): 1239-1245, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Bhatiacharya, A., Majumder, P., Fowl typhoid outbreak in broiler chick flocks in Tripura and its control. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 71(11): 1034-1035, 2001.
In article      
 
[14]  Alam, J., Koike, I., Giasuddin, M., Rahman, M.M., Seroprevalence of poultry diseases in native chickens in Bangladesh. In 9th Annual Scientific Conference of the Bangladesh Society for Veterinary Education and Research p. 6-7, 2003.
In article      
 
[15]  Akter, M.R., Choudhury, K.A., Rahman, M.M., Islam, M.S., Seroprevalence of salmonellosis in layer chickens with isolation, identification and antibiogram study of their causal agents. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 5(1): 39-42, 2007.
In article      
 
[16]  Barua, H., Biswas, P.K., Olsen, K.E., Christensen, J.P., Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. PloS one 7(4): e35914, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[17]  Nath, S.K., Akter, S., Dutta, A., Sen, A.B., Chakrabarty, R., Gupta, M.D., Prevalence and Antibiogram of Salmonella in Hisex Brown Strain at Commercial Poultry Farm in Chittagong. International Journal of Current Research in Biology and Medicine 2(3): 14-9, 2015.
In article      
 
[18]  Habib-ur-Rehman, S., Khan, H., Khan, S., Ahmad, N., Bhatti, W.M., Incidence and gross pathology of salmonellosis in chicken in Hyderabad. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(3): 175-178, 2003.
In article      
 
[19]  Ashenafi, H., Shetu, Y., Oldemeskel, M., Identification of major infections of local chickens of Central Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa 51(2): 95-101, 2003.
In article      
 
[20]  Sundar, J., Rai, R.B., Kundu, A., Senani, S., Chatterjee, R.N., Jeyakumar, S., Seroprevalence of poultry diseases in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Veterinary Journal. 84(1): 95-6, 2007.
In article      
 
[21]  Jalil, M.A., Islam, M.T., Serological survey of Salmonella infection in non-vaccinated commercial layer birds in Khulna District of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 9(1): 27-31, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Ahmed, A.K.M., Islam, M.T., Haider, M.G., Hossain, M.M., Seroprevalence and pathology of naturally infected Salmonellosis in poultry with isolation and identification of causal agents. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 6(2): 327-334, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Rahman, M.R., Shahinuzzaman, A.B., Saha, A.K., Sufian, M.A., Rahman, M.H., Hossain., M.M., Prevalence of Salmonella infection in naturally infected layer of birds in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Veterinarian 28(1): 8-18, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Skov, M.N., Angen, O., Chriel, M., Olsen, JE., Bisgaard, M., Risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in Danish broiler flocks. Poultry Science 78(6): 848-54, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Mdegela, R.H., Yongolo, M.G., Minga UM, Olsen JE. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella gallinarum in chickens in Tanzania. Avian Pathology 29(5): 457-463, 2000.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Salihu, A.E., Onwuliri, F.C., Mawak, J.D., Kalshingi, H.A., Hassan, D.I., Seroprevalence of salmonella gallinarum infection in free-range chickens reared in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal 34(3): 665-680, 2014.
In article      View Article