Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Can Nipah Virus be Considered as a Potential Pathogen for Next Pandemic? A Critical Appraisal

Mahendra Pal , Kirubel Paulos Gutama
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2021, 9(4), 122-128. DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-9-4-3
Received August 07, 2021; Revised September 10, 2021; Accepted September 22, 2021

Abstract

Nipah virus is an emerging paramyxovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae that infects humans as well as animals. It was first discovered in Malaysia in 1998 and has since spread across Southeast Asia. There are two strains of Nipah virus: the Malaysian strain (NiV-M) and the Bangladeshi strain (NiV-B) (NiV-B). NiV’s natural hosts are fruit bats of the genus Pteropus (“Flying bat”), which are the main risk factor for Nipah virus disease. Bats of the genus Pteropus are distributed across Asia's tropics and subtropics. Domesticated animals contract NiV after eating contaminated fruit, drinking polluted water or eating aborted bat fetuses or birth products. NiV is transmitted between bats and people through two main routes: intermediate hosts and food-borne transmission via date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat saliva or urine. The condition is extremely deadly, causing severe neurological and respiratory symptoms. A number of immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed for diagnosis and surveillance of disease. Diagnosis and management become more challenging when a new area is affected. The high mortality rate associated with infection, as well as the risk of infection spreading to other areas, has highlighted the significance of proper care and control of this life threatening zoonosis. For the time being, there is no treatment or vaccine available for Nipah virus infection. Preventing infection in livestock could be a valuable management method in places where they act as intermediate hosts. Humans can avoid contracting Nipah virus disease by avoiding direct contact with infected hosts (fruit bats and pigs) or their secretions.

1. Introduction

Emerging viral diseases have a large influence on communities around the world, generating significant mortality, morbidity, and economic losses. In order to infect humans, these viruses use a variety of tactics, either directly or through adaptation in the reservoir host species 1. Nipah virus, like the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus that debuted in 2003, Ebola virus, and, most recently, SARS-CoV-2 that erupted in Wuhan, China, in late 2019, has been one of several emerging zoonotic virus risks to global health security 2, 3, 4, 5.

Nipah (Nee-pa) virus disease is caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a RNA virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae of the genus Henipavirus that is spread by certain kinds of fruit bats, especially Pteropus species 6. Because of its considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as the possibility of rapid transmission in domestic animals and indications of zoonotic properties, the virus has been added to the World Organization for Animal Health's list of diseases relevant to international trade. As a result, NiV illness must be reported to the OIE 7. The World Health Organization has identified the Nipah virus as one of the most dangerous emerging viruses since 2015, owing to its ability to spread from person to person 8.

Nipah virus transmits through direct contact with infected bats, pigs, or other NiV-infected individuals. Nipah virus infection in humans manifests itself in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome with deadly encephalitis 9. Nipah virus infection symptoms in pigs range from no symptoms to a high temperature, difficulty breathing, and neurological problems 10. There is limited clinical information available for other domestic animals. The case fatality rate in humans varies according on the geographic location of outbreaks, ranging from 40% to 75% 11.

The disease is difficult to diagnose based on clinical signs alone, confirmation can be made through prescribed laboratory techniques. Guidelines for surveillance, diagnosis, case management, prevention and control of Nipah virus disease should be developed so that cases can be detected promptly and further human-to-human transmission can be prevented 12. Thus, as NiV is one of the deadliest viruses known to infect humans, this review is intended to fill the gap on the current state of knowledge on Nipah virus disease and counter measures on prevention of this emerging zoonotic disease.

2. Nipah virus Disease

2.1. Etiology

Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that can cause serious disease in both people and animals. It is a paramyxovirus (Henipavirus genus, Paramyxovirinae subfamily, Paramyxoviridae family) 13. NiV is a single-stranded RNA virus with an envelope 14. Nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), glycoprotein (G), and RNA polymerase are the six structural proteins encoded by RNA (L). Along with the viral RNA, the N, P, and L form the ribonucleoprotein complex, an essential complex that regulates viral RNA transcription and synthesis. The attachment and admission into the host cell are controlled by the F and G proteins 15.

Nipah virus comes in two strains: Malaysian strain (NiV-M) and Bangladeshi strain (NiV-B). The N and G gene sequences are the difference between the two strains 16. In Bangladesh and Indian epidemics, the virus was confirmed to be NiV-B, whereas outbreaks in Malaysia were proved to be NiV-M 17. Several variations between the strains have been discovered in clinical reports. In the Malaysian strain, transmission occurs through an intermediary amplifying host (pigs). Pig handling is the most common cause of outbreaks, and cases have shown increased neurological symptoms. Direct transmission by bat-infected sap, increased human-to-human transmission, and respiratory symptoms are more common in the Bangladeshi strain 16.

Nipah virus can persist for up to 3 days in some fruit juices or mango fruit, and for at least 7 days in artificial date palm sap stored at 22 0C. The virus has an 18-hour half-life in fruit bat urine. NiV is relatively stable in the environment, and it can survive for 1 hour at 70°C. It can be entirely deactivated by heating for more than 15 minutes at 100°C 18. Soaps, detergents, and many disinfectants, like other paramyxoviruses, quickly inactivate Nipah virus 19.

2.2. Epidemiology
2.2.1. Geographic Distribution

Nipah virus was discovered in Malaysia in 1998 following a 9-month outbreak of infectious respiratory and neurologic infection in commercially farmed pigs, possibly transmitted by Malaysian flying foxes. Pigs have been infected with Nipah virus, which has spread swiftly throughout pig herds causing respiratory symptoms in particular. Acute febrile encephalitis was caused by pig-to-human transfer in adult males who worked in the pig industry 20. In total, 276 cases with 106 deaths were reported 21. More than one million pigs were killed during NiV disease outbreaks, resulting in an economic loss of between $350 and $400 million 13. The epidemic expanded to Singapore after contaminated pigs were exported there 22.

In April 2001, In Bangladesh, a village in the Meherpur district registered the first Nipah virus disease outbreak 13. Since the first Meherpur NiV diagnosis in 2001, Bangladesh has had multiple Nipah virus epidemics in humans practically every year 9. Ingestion of raw date palm sap contaminated with NiV was the predominant mode of transmission 23. A total of 261 confirmed cases and 199 deaths were reported, with a 76.2 percent fatality rate 1.

The first NiV outbreak was recorded in India in 2001 in the area of Siliguri, West Bengal. There were no reports of animals being involved in the spread because it was mostly nosocomial. This outbreak claimed the lives of 45 people out of a total of 66 confirmed victims. In 2007, another Nadia district incident occurred, with all five NiV positive patients dying within ten days of infection 13. In 2018, the state of Kerala saw its third NiV outbreak, with 23 NiV positive patients and a 91 percent case fatality rate 24. Fruit bats have been recognized as the source of this outbreak 25. In the Kerala district of Ernakulum, one patient tested positive for NiV in 2019. The Kerala state government's foresight helped to contain the outbreak in 2019 26.

NiV-specific antibodies were discovered in Cambodian Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying foxes). Antibodies to NiV were also found by ELISA in serum taken from Pteropus vampyrus bats in Indonesia 1. The presence of NiV RNA in bat saliva and urine, as well as immunoglobulin G in the serum was discovered in Thailand, showing long-term NiV persistence 27. Serological evidence or molecular detection of the virus in the native reservoir (Pteropus bats species) and several other bat species has been found in China, Ghana, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Taiwan. These bats can be found from the east coast of Africa to the Philippines, Pacific islands, and Australia, as well as in South and Southeast Asia. As a human infection, Nipah virus can appear anywhere in these distribution zones 12.


2.2.2. Transmission and Risk Factors

Fruit bats of the species Pteropus (“Flying bat”) are NiV's natural hosts, and infected bats shed virus in their excretion and secretions, such as saliva, urine, sperm, and excreta, but they are asymptomatic carriers 28. During their seasonal migration, many bat species fly considerable distances. Fruit bats' long-distance flight capability plays an important role in the virus's propagation. When pigs forage in the fruit bat distribution region, they have a high possibility of consuming residues and seeds, and the danger of NiV infection is significant 29.

Ingestion of contaminated fruit, water, or aborted bat fetuses or birth products (e.g., by pigs) is suspected as a method of transmission of NiV to domesticated animals. After consuming saliva-contaminated fruits or fruit buds, pigs become infected with NiV 30. Pigs spread the Nipah virus through aerosols and direct contact because they shed the virus in their respiratory secretions and saliva 12. Vertical transmission across the placenta, by iatrogenic means and in semen has been suggested but not confirmed 14.

Epidemiological investigations of NiV epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and India revealed that a variety of factors play a critical role in NiV transmission to humans. Close contact with NiV-infected animals, reservoir animals, and contaminated food consumption are the main causes of NiV transmission 31. Hospital workers and those caring for those infected with the virus face a high risk of infection. In Malaysia and Singapore, Nipah virus disease was found in people who had close contact with infected pigs. In Bangladesh and India, the disease has been associated with consumption of contaminated raw date palm sap 32.

Nipah virus is transmitted to humans through two main routes: intermediate hosts and food-borne transmission via date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat saliva or urine 33. Pigs transmit NiV to humans by sputum, splashing urine, and huge respiratory droplets, which are aided by an infected pig's characteristic barking cough 34. Nipah virus can be shed in respiratory secretions, saliva, and urine, and respiratory secretions are assumed to be the main route of transmission. Direct contact with an infected patient results in human-to-human transmission 35.

2.3. Nipah Virus Disease in Animals
2.3.1. Species Affected

Fruit bats, often known as flying foxes, are the principal reservoir hosts, belonging to the genus Pteropus, family Pteropodidae, and order Chiroptera 36. Henipaviruses are found in a wide spectrum of frugivorous and insectivorous bats, not just those belonging to the genus Pteropus 37.

The virus does not appear to induce clinical disease in bats, whether they are infected naturally or artificially 36. Bats of the genus Pteropus can be found all over the world. They can be found in Asia's tropics and subtropics, including the Indian subcontinent, Australia, Indonesia, Madagascar, and some distant oceanic islands in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans 14.

Pigs serve as amplifiers host. The symptoms of the disease are similar to those of other pig diseases. If the Nipah virus infection in pigs had not happened at the same time as a human disease outbreak, it could have gone undiscovered 38. It has been proven that human encephalitis outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore, with a 40% case fatality rate, were caused by contact with sick swine. The outbreak in Singapore ceased when the importation of pigs from Malaysia was forbidden, and the outbreak in Malaysia ended when over 1 million pigs (45 percent of all pigs in Malaysia) were culled from the outbreak area and neighboring areas 13.

Many domesticated mammals appear to be susceptible to Nipah virus 39. Naturally infected dogs, cats, horses, and goats are not thought to be capable of spreading the virus to humans or other animals 40. Nipah virus appears to have affected horses in the Philippines in 2014, based on clinical indications and epidemiological linkages to human patients. However, no tissues from the horses were available for confirmation. Infected cats shed NiV through the nasopharynx and urine during the viremic phase 41. Guinea pigs, hamsters, ferrets, squirrel monkeys, and African green monkeys have all been infected with NiV experimentally 42.


2.3.2. Clinical signs

In pigs, the incubation period ranges from four to fourteen days. Signs of NiV in pigs can range from no symptoms to a high temperature, difficult breathing, and neurological symptoms 10. Sucking piglets can show leg weakness, muscle tremors, and neurological twitches. NiV infection in growing pigs might be asymptomatic or induce a febrile illness with respiratory and CNS symptoms (muscle fasciculation, leg weakness, ataxia, and spastic paresis). A “barking” cough is characteristic respiratory symptom in infected pigs, albeit it may just be laborious to open-mouth breathing 43. In adults, tongue drooping, frothy salivation, head pushing, anxiety, tetanic spasms and convulsions, and pharyngeal muscular paralysis are common neurological indications. A bloody nasal discharge may be seen in dead pigs. Abortions have also been reported during the first trimester of pregnancy 44.

In naturally infected goats, unproductive cough, poor growth, severe respiratory signs, febrile neurological syndrome, and deaths were reported. The disease resembled canine distemper in dogs, with fever, respiratory distress, conjunctivitis, and mucopurulent nasal and conjunctival discharges among the clinical signs 41. Horses suspected of being infected with the Nipah virus in the Philippines either died suddenly with no evident signs or had rapidly showed acute lethal neurological symptoms 45. Severe depression, serous nasal discharge, cough, dyspnea, tremors, and hind limb paresis were observed in experimentally infected ferrets. Some experimentally infected hamsters have also shown neurological and/or respiratory symptoms that can be severe 42.


2.3.3. Morbidity and Mortality

The morbidity rate in pigs is estimated to be 70-100% 41. Mortality is uncommon in NiV-infected sows or boars, though they may die unexpectedly without symptoms or within 24 hours of development of symptoms 12. Young piglets have the highest mortality rate (up to 40%). In general, mortality in growing pigs is minimal (5%) 34. NiV-M infection resulted in 50% mortality in African green monkeys, but NiV-B infection resulted in 100% mortality in all experimental individuals 46.

2.4. Nipah virus Disease in Humans

Nipah virus is a newly discovered zoonotic and very lethal virus that poses a pandemic risk, causing severe febrile infection and significant fatality rates in infected people 47. Because humans are already susceptible, there are strains capable of limited person-to-person transmission, NiV has an exceptionally high mutation rate as an RNA virus, and if a human-adapted strain infects communities in South Asia, high population densities and global interconnectedness would quickly spread the disease, the risk of it becoming a global pandemic increases 32.


2.4.1. Clinical Signs

Nipah virus infection in humans manifests itself in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory illness (mild or severe) and deadly encephalitis 8. During the Malaysian outbreak, the incubation period (time between infection and development of symptoms) ranged from 2 to 4 months, whereas it was 10 days in Bangladesh 13. In Kerala, the incubation period ranged from 6 to 14 days, with a median of 9.5 days 48. Late onset encephalitis can occur months or years after a mild or subclinical infection 49.

The signs and symptoms in people are flu-like initially, with fever, headache, sore throat, and myalgia. It is also possible to see nausea, vomiting, and coughing. Drowsiness, disorientation, signs of brainstem dysfunction, convulsions, coma, and other symptoms may accompany encephalitis 41. Aseptic meningitis, widespread encephalitis, and localized brainstem involvement were among the neurological manifestations. Cerebellar symptoms were fairly common 40. In NiV disease, respiratory symptoms are the second most frequent after neurological symptoms. Cough, cold, and dyspnea were the most prevalent respiratory symptoms 1. Septicemia can develop in conjunction with renal system dysfunction and gastrointestinal hemorrhage 14.

Although most people who survive acute encephalitis recover completely, survivors have been recognized as having long-term neurological issues. Approximately 20% of individuals experience persistent neurological effects, such as seizure disorder and personality abnormalities 8. Late onset or relapse encephalitis, which was deadly in some cases, has been reported anywhere from 4 months and 11 years after the first Nipah virus exposure 49.


2.4.2. Morbidity and Mortality

Human case fatality rates are said to be greater, with rates of around 40% in Malaysia/Singapore and 75% in Bangladesh and India 50. During an outbreak of disease in India in the year 2007, a case-fatality rate of 100% was reported 13. This rate can vary by epidemic depending on the virus strain, local epidemiological surveillance and clinical care capabilities 8.

2.5. Diagnosis

Nipah virus is diagnosed in enhanced BSL4 facilities in the laboratory. Molecular and serological assays, immune-histochemistry, histopathology, viral isolation, and neutralization are diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of Nipah virus 51.

Nipah antigens, as well as IgM and IgG antibodies produced against NiV antigens, can be detected directly using serological tests 52. Anti-NiV IgM detection in serum peaks after 9 days of sickness (based on hospital admission) and can last up to 3 months. IgG tests are mostly utilized for epidemiological investigations and surveillance because IgG can continue long after convalescence; detection of anti-NiV IgG peaks after 17 days of sickness and can last for more than 8 months. Gold-standard sero-neutralisation assays using live NiV are typically used to confirm NiV infection, which necessitates a high-containment BSL-4 facility 53.

The most sensitive approach for diagnosing active NiV infection is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 8. Nipah virus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments have focused on the conserved N, M, and P genomic segments. There have been several types of PCR assays developed for NiV, including conventional RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR (also known as quantitative PCR or qPCR). Real-time PCR has been proved to be 1000 times more sensitive than traditional PCR, and it is currently virtually exclusively utilized in research 36. In fatal cases, histopathology (immune histochemistry) is performed to confirm NiV diagnosis after death 51.

2.6. Treatment

There is currently no treatment for Nipah virus infection. In humans, the primary treatment is on symptom management, such as fever and neurological symptoms, by giving intense supportive care 32. Supportive therapy, including as hydration and ventilator support, are critical components of NiV case care 17. Because physical human-to-human contact is the largest risk factor for infection transmission, greater vigilance is required in the treatment of these patients 54.

Although no licensed therapeutic interventions for NiV disease exist, antiviral treatment appears to be the obvious choice. Ribavirin and acyclovir were two drugs used during earlier NiV outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore 55. Ribavirin, which is effective against other paramyxoviruses, has mixed results when used to treat infected patients in Malaysia 56. In the absence of a successful antiviral, the CDC recommends the use of oral or parenteral Ribavirin for all confirmed cases 57. Favipiravir, a medication registered in Japan for the treatment of influenza, was proven to be effective in a hamster model 58.

In preclinical investigations, monoclonal antibodies were employed to treat patients 42. An in vivo investigation using completely humanized monoclonal antibody m102.4 against NiV in a nonhuman monkey model revealed that a possible medicine for NiV disease treatment is available in the future 59. In 2018, the World Health Organization added Nipah virus infections to its list of priority diseases for investment in diagnostics, prevention, and therapies 8.

2.7. Prevention and Control

In areas where livestock act as intermediate hosts, preventing infection in livestock could be a useful technique. It entails maintaining fruit trees and bat roosting trees away from livestock farms and grazing pastures that are vulnerable to virus contamination. In certain areas, such as Malaysia, such initiatives have already shown to be quite effective. Wire screens can help to avoid bat contact when pigs are reared in open-sided pig sheds. Nipah virus sickness can be averted by avoiding contact with sick pigs and bats in endemic areas. Early detection of infected pigs can help in the protection of other animals as well as people. Mass culling of seropositive animals may be necessary because of high contagious nature of the virus in swine populations 42.

Humans can avoid Nipah virus disease by avoiding direct contact with infected host organisms (fruit bats and pigs) or their secretions, as well as avoiding intake of tainted food contaminated by saliva or bat dropping. Fruits and other items from trees that host fruit bats should be thoroughly checked and cleansed before consumption 1. During the year 2012-2014, the main strategy for preventing the disease in Bangladesh was to raise public knowledge about the dangers of drinking raw sap and to keep sap collection pots clean 60.

Disease control practices, such as isolation of patients, frequent hand washing, 70 percent ethanol sanitization, and avoidance of direct contact with body fluids like urine, saliva, and blood should be practiced as standard operating procedures in order to prevent person-to-person transmission 1. Contacts found through contact tracing are tested and monitored until they come back negative 35.

All proposed NiV vaccines are now at the pre-clinical stage, with animal models being used to assess their efficacy 61. Despite encouraging findings and the ongoing threat posed by NiV, no vaccine candidate for pigs or humans has made it to the market 62. The new Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has identified Nipah virus as one of three viruses (together with Lassa virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV)) that will be prioritized for vaccine development in 2017 63.

Nipah virus looks to be the most hazardous agent, and its spread into non-endemic areas is still a possibility, especially given the presence of NiV-susceptible animal species 47. It is not impossible that the virus may be introduced and spread by insectivorous bats, domestic pigs, or other wild animals like wild boars or mustelids, and then spread across the human population via person-to-person transmission 14. Monitoring the epidemiology of a dangerous pathogen such as Nipah virus is an important element to be able to rapidly adapt control plans in the case that it might become a new public health priority 12.

3. Conclusion and Reccomendations

Nipah Virus (NiV) disease and its current state as a potential pandemic infection of humans worldwide are the subjects of this review study. Before twenty years, NiV disease had emerged as a lethal zoonotic disease. Bats are the virus's natural reservoir host. Despite numerous warnings over the last two decades, NiV outbreaks have resulted in numerous deaths and morbidities in humans and animals. The disease is difficult to identify due to its acute nature and the dearth of readily available low-cost diagnostic procedures and facilities prepared to handle viral samples. There is no effective treatment or prophylaxis available. The avoidance of this disease is crucial due to its pandemic potential, and this condition may be exacerbated by virus mutation as infection spreads and progresses in the human population. Early discovery of the outbreak and the implementation of preventive measures as soon as feasible are critical to managing the outbreak and lowering fatalities. To completely understand how and when bats excrete the virus, strong inter-institutional and international coordination among human-animal virologists, as well as virologists and ecologists, is required. Simultaneously there is also a need for educating the common people about personal and food hygiene. Based on the above conclusion, the following recommendations are forwarded;

• The disease's knowledge and awareness should be improved and disseminated to health care professionals, veterinarians, farmers, and consumers.

• It is critical to create effective treatment and prophylaxis for both humans and animals.

• Strengthening the current and developing new capacities among health stakeholders in all nations is required so that they can better comprehend the human, animal, and environmental health aspects of zoonotic and other diseases.

• More research on the molecular epidemiology, mechanisms of transmission, and potential prevention and control techniques, as well as a greater understanding of bat ecology, is needed.

Acknowledgements

The authors are very thankful to Prof. Dr. R.K. Narayan for his suggestions during the preparation of manuscript and Anubha Priyabandhu for computer help. This paper is dedicated to the scientists who made important contribution in the field of viral zoonoses.

Contribution of Authors

All the authors contributed equally. They read the final version, and approved it for the publication.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have conflict of interest.

Source of Financial Grant

There was no financial support for this manuscript.

References

[1]  Sharma, V., Kaushik, S. and Kaushik, S. Emerging trends of Nipah virus : A review. Rev Med Virol, 2019, 29, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Pal, M. and Abdo, J. Nipah virus disease: A newly emerging viral zoonosis. Int J Livest Res, 2012, 2, 65-68.
In article      
 
[3]  Pal, M., Dave, P. and Mahendra, R. Ebola haemorrahgic fever: An emerging highly contagious and fatal viral zoonosis. Ethio Inter J Mult Res, 2014, 2, 1-2.
In article      
 
[4]  Pal, M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: A newly recognized viral zoonosis of public health concern. Acta Sci Microbiol, 2018, 1, 1.
In article      
 
[5]  Gurley, E., Spiropoulou, C. and de Wit E. Twenty Years of Nipah Virus Research : Where Do We Go From Here ?. J Infect Dis, 2020, 221, 359-362.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Halpin, K., Hyatt, A., Fogarty, R., Middleton, D., Bingham, J., Epstein, J., Rahman, S., Hughes, T., Smith C. and Field H. Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: A comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2011, 85, 946-951.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  OIE. Nipah Disease in Malaysia. OIE Disease Information. Animal Health Fact Sheet, 1999, Paris, France.
In article      
 
[8]  World Health Organization (WHO). Nipah Virus. 2018.
In article      
 
[9]  Vandali, V. and Biradar R. Nipah Virus ( Niv ) Infection : A Systematic Review. J Nur Heal Ca, 2018, 8, 1-5.
In article      
 
[10]  Weingarti, H. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination. Vac Devel Ther, 2015, 5, 59-74.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Pallister, J., Middleton, D., Broder C. and Wang L. Henipavirus vaccine development. J Bioterr Biodef, 2011, 1, 1-5.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Shrish, S. and Priyanka, T. The Review: Nipah Virus Infection. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 2019, 57, 33-42.
In article      
 
[13]  Kulkarni, D., Tosh, C., Venkatesh, G. and Senthil Kumar, D. Nipah virus infection: Current scenario. Indi J Vir, 2013, 24, 398-408.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Giangaspero, M. Nipah Virus. Trop Med Surg, 2015, 1, 1-8.
In article      
 
[15]  Harcourt, B.,Tamin, A., Ksiazek, T., Rollin, P., Anderson, L., Bellini, W. and Rota P. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus. Virol, 2000, 271, 334-349.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Raju, T. and Dontha, S. Infections and Immunity of Nipah Virus Outbreaks. Int J Drug Disc, 2019, 3, 1-9.
In article      
 
[17]  Singh, R., Dhama, K., Chakraborty, S., Tiwari, R., Natesan, S., Khandia, R.and Mourya, D. Nipah virus: epidemiology, pathology, immunobiology and advances in diagnosis, vaccine designing and control strategies–a comprehensive review. Vet Qua, 2019, 39, 26-55.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  de Wit, E., Prescott, J., Falzarano, D., Bushmaker, T., Scott, D., Feldman, H. and Munster, V. Foodborne transmission of nipah virus in Syrian hamsters. J Patho, 2014, 10, 1-4.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  de Wit, E. and Munster, V. Animal models of disease shed light on Nipah virus pathogenesis and transmission. J Pathol, 2015a, 235,196-205.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Chua, K., Bellini, W., Rota, P., Harcourt, B. and Tamin, A. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Sci, 2000, 288, 1432-1435.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Aljofan, M. Hendra and Nipah infection: Emerging paramyxoviruses. Vir Res, 2013, 177, 119-126.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Pulliam, J., Jonathan, H., Epstein, K., Jonathan, D., Sohayati, A., Michel, B., Aziz, A., Alex, D., Hume, E., Andrew, P. and Peter, D. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: A lethal bat-borne zoonoses. J R Soc Interface, 2012, 9, 89.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Dhillon, J. and Banerjee, J. Controlling Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh: Policy options. J Publ Hea Pol, 2015, 36, 270-282.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Plowright, R., Becker, D., Crowley, D., Washburne, A., Huang, T., Nameer, P., Gurley, E. and Han, B. Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India. Negl Trop Dis, 2019, 13, 1-12.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Paul, L. Nipah virus in Kerala: a deadly zoonosis. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2018, 18, 30480-4.
In article      
 
[26]  Pillai, V., Krishna, G. and Veettil M. Nipah Virus : Past outbreaks and future containment. Vir, 2020, 12, 1-15.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Wacharapluesadee, S., Boongird, K., Wanghongsa, S., Ratanasetyuth, N., Supavonwong, P., Saengsen, D., Gongal, G. and Hemachudha, T. A longitudinal study of the prevalence of Nipah virus in Pteropus lylei bats in Thailand: evidence for seasonal preference in disease transmission. Vect Bor Zoon Dis, 2010, 10, 183-190.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[28]  Yadav, P., Raut, C., Shete, A., Mishra, A. and Towner, J. Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2012, 87, 576-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[29]  Yu, J., Lv, X., Yang, Z., Gao, S., Li, C., Cai, Y. and Li J. The Main Risk Factors of Nipah Disease and Its Risk Analysis in China. Viru, 2018, 10, 1-12.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Ching, P., Reyes, V., Sucaldito, M., Tayag, E., Columna-Vingno, A., Malbas, F., Bolo, G., Sejvar, J., Eagles, D. and Playford, G. Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis, 2015, 21, 328-331.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[31]  Islam, M., Sazzad, H., Satter, S., Sultana, S., Hossain, M., Hasan, M., Rahman, M., Campbell, S., Cannon, D. and Stroher, U. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011-2014. Emerg Infect Dis, 2016, 22, 664-670.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  Luby, S. The pandemic potential of Nipah virus. Antivir Researc, 2013, 100, 38-43.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Enchery, F and Horvat, B. Understanding the interaction between henipaviruses and their natural host, fruit bats: Paving the way toward control of highly lethal infection in humans. Int Rev Immunol, 2017, 36, 108-121.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  Smith, A., Killoran, K. and Larson, K. Nipah virus. Swine Health Information Center and Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/shic-factsheet-nipah-virus. 2016, Accesed 3 June 2021.
In article      
 
[35]  Hassan, M., Sazzad, H., Luby, S., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Bhuiyan, M., Rahman, M., Islam, M., Stroher, U., Sultana, S. and Kafi, M. Nipah virus contamination of hospital surfaces during outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2013- 2014. Emer Infect Dis, 2018, 24, 15-21.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[36]  Wang, L. and Daniels, P. Diagnosis of henipavirus infection: current capabilities and future directions. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 2012, 359, 179-96.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Rahman, S., Hassan, S., Olival, K., Mohamed, M. and Chang, L. Henipavirus Ecology Research Group. Characterization of Nipah virus from naturally infected Pteropus vampyrus bats, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2010, 16, 1990-1993.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  deWit, E. and Munster, V. Nipah Virus Emergence , Transmission , and Pathogenesis. In: Shashak P., Sinnot J., Smboonwit C., Kuhn J. (eds). Global virology I- identifying and investigating viral diseases, Springer, Newyork, USA, 2015b.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Wahed, F. and Kader, S. Nipah Virus: An Emergent Deadly Paramyxovirus Infection In Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Soc Physiol, 2011, 6, 134-139.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Ang, B., Lim, T. and Wang, L. Nipah virus infection. J Cli Microb, 2018, 56, 1-10.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  Spickler, A. Nipah Virus Infection. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php. 2016, Accessed 6 June 2021.
In article      
 
[42]  Satterfield, B., Dawes, B. and Milligan, G. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Nipah virus. Vacc, 2016, 34, 2971-2975.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  Ames, I. Diseases of Swine. 10th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
In article      
 
[44]  Yaeger, M. Disorders of pigs. In: Njaa BL, ed: Kirkbride's Diagnosis of Abortion and Neonatal Loss in Animals. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Halsie, D. and Daniel, L. Enhancing preparation for large Nipah outbreaks beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a tragedy like Ebola in West Africa. Intern J Infect Dise, 2018, 72, 69-72.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  Mire, C., Satterfield, B., Geisbert, J., Agans, K., Borisevich, V., Yan, L., Chan, Y., Cross, R., Fenton, K. and Broder, C. Pathogenic Differences between Nipah Virus Bangladesh and Malaysia Strains inPrimates: Implications for Antibody Therapy. Sci Rep, 2016, 6, 309-316.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Thibault, P., Watkinson, R., Moreira-Soto, A., Drexler, J. and Lee, B. Zoonotic potential of emerging Paramyxoviruses: knowns and unknowns. Adv Virus Res, 2017, 98, 1-5.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[48]  Arunkumar, G., Chandni, R., Mourya, D., Singh, S., Sadanandan, R., Sudan, P. and Bhargava, B. Outbreak Investigation of Nipah Virus Disease in Kerala, India, 2018. J Infect Dis, 2019, 219, 1867-1878.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Abdullah, S., Chang, L., Rahmat, K., Goh, K. and Tan, C. Late-onset Nipah virus encephalitis 11 years after the initial outbreak: a case report. Neurol Asia, 2012, 7, 71-74.
In article      
 
[50]  Ramphul, K., Mejias, S., Agumadu, V., Sombans, S. and Sonaye, R. The Killer Virus Called Nipah: A Review. Cureus, 2018, 10, 31-68.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Mazzola, L. and Kelly-cirino, C. Diagnostics for Nipah virus : a zoonotic pathogen endemic to Southeast Asia. BMJ Glob Health, 2019, 4, 1-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[52]  Mazzola, L., Lowe, L. and Hummel, K. (Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis, 2012, 18, 248-55.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[53]  Daniels, P., Ksiazek, T. and Eaton, B. Laboratory diagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infections. Microb Infect, 2001, 3, 289-95.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Chua, K., Wong, E., Cropp, B. and Hyatt, A. Role of electron microscopy in Nipah virus outbreak investigation and control. Med J Malaysia, 2007, 62, 139-142.
In article      
 
[55]  Broder, C. Henipavirus outbreaks to antivirals: The current status of potential therapeutics. Curr Opin Virol, 2012, 2, 176-187.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[56]  Chong, H., Kamarulzaman, A. and Tan C. Treatment of acute Nipah encephalitis with ribavirin. Ann Neuro, 2001, 49, 810-813.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[57]  Aditi, A. and Shariff, M. Nipah virus infection : A review. Epid and Infect, 2020, 147, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[58]  Dawes, B., Kalveram, B., Ikegami, T., Juelich, T., Smith, J., Zhang, L., Park, A., Lee, B., Komeno, T. and Furuta, Y. Favipiravir (T-705) protects against Nipah virus infection in the hamster model. Sci Rep, 2018, 8, 7604.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  Geisbert, T., Mire, C., Geisbert, J., Chan, Y., Agans, K., Feldmann, F., Fenton, K., Zhu, Z., Dimitrov, D. and Scott, D. Therapeutic treatment of Nipah virus infection in nonhuman primates with a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. Sci Transl Med, 2014, 6, 242.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[60]  Nahar, N., Paul, R., Sultana, R., Sumon, S., Banik, K., Abedin, J., Asaduzzaman, M., Garcia, F., Zimicki, S. and Rahman, M. A controlled trial to reduce the risk of human Nipah virus exposure in Bangladesh. Ecohealth, 2017, 14, 501-517.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[61]  DeBuysscher, B., Scott, D., Marzi, A., Prescott, J. and Feldmann, H. Single dose live attenuated Nipah virus vaccines confer complete protection by eliciting antibodies directed against surface glycoproteins. Vacc, 2014, 32, 2637-2644.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[62]  McLean, R. and Graham S. Vaccine development for Nipah virus infection in pigs. Fron Vet Scie, 2019, 6, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  Rottingen, J., Gouglas, D., Feinberg, M., Plotkin, S., Raghavan, K. and Witty, A. New vaccines against epidemic infectious diseases. N Engl J Med, 2017, 376, 610-624.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Mahendra Pal and Kirubel Paulos Gutama

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Mahendra Pal, Kirubel Paulos Gutama. Can Nipah Virus be Considered as a Potential Pathogen for Next Pandemic? A Critical Appraisal. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2021, pp 122-128. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajidm/9/4/3
MLA Style
Pal, Mahendra, and Kirubel Paulos Gutama. "Can Nipah Virus be Considered as a Potential Pathogen for Next Pandemic? A Critical Appraisal." American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 9.4 (2021): 122-128.
APA Style
Pal, M. , & Gutama, K. P. (2021). Can Nipah Virus be Considered as a Potential Pathogen for Next Pandemic? A Critical Appraisal. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, 9(4), 122-128.
Chicago Style
Pal, Mahendra, and Kirubel Paulos Gutama. "Can Nipah Virus be Considered as a Potential Pathogen for Next Pandemic? A Critical Appraisal." American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 9, no. 4 (2021): 122-128.
Share
[1]  Sharma, V., Kaushik, S. and Kaushik, S. Emerging trends of Nipah virus : A review. Rev Med Virol, 2019, 29, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Pal, M. and Abdo, J. Nipah virus disease: A newly emerging viral zoonosis. Int J Livest Res, 2012, 2, 65-68.
In article      
 
[3]  Pal, M., Dave, P. and Mahendra, R. Ebola haemorrahgic fever: An emerging highly contagious and fatal viral zoonosis. Ethio Inter J Mult Res, 2014, 2, 1-2.
In article      
 
[4]  Pal, M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: A newly recognized viral zoonosis of public health concern. Acta Sci Microbiol, 2018, 1, 1.
In article      
 
[5]  Gurley, E., Spiropoulou, C. and de Wit E. Twenty Years of Nipah Virus Research : Where Do We Go From Here ?. J Infect Dis, 2020, 221, 359-362.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Halpin, K., Hyatt, A., Fogarty, R., Middleton, D., Bingham, J., Epstein, J., Rahman, S., Hughes, T., Smith C. and Field H. Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: A comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2011, 85, 946-951.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  OIE. Nipah Disease in Malaysia. OIE Disease Information. Animal Health Fact Sheet, 1999, Paris, France.
In article      
 
[8]  World Health Organization (WHO). Nipah Virus. 2018.
In article      
 
[9]  Vandali, V. and Biradar R. Nipah Virus ( Niv ) Infection : A Systematic Review. J Nur Heal Ca, 2018, 8, 1-5.
In article      
 
[10]  Weingarti, H. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination. Vac Devel Ther, 2015, 5, 59-74.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Pallister, J., Middleton, D., Broder C. and Wang L. Henipavirus vaccine development. J Bioterr Biodef, 2011, 1, 1-5.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Shrish, S. and Priyanka, T. The Review: Nipah Virus Infection. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 2019, 57, 33-42.
In article      
 
[13]  Kulkarni, D., Tosh, C., Venkatesh, G. and Senthil Kumar, D. Nipah virus infection: Current scenario. Indi J Vir, 2013, 24, 398-408.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Giangaspero, M. Nipah Virus. Trop Med Surg, 2015, 1, 1-8.
In article      
 
[15]  Harcourt, B.,Tamin, A., Ksiazek, T., Rollin, P., Anderson, L., Bellini, W. and Rota P. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus. Virol, 2000, 271, 334-349.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Raju, T. and Dontha, S. Infections and Immunity of Nipah Virus Outbreaks. Int J Drug Disc, 2019, 3, 1-9.
In article      
 
[17]  Singh, R., Dhama, K., Chakraborty, S., Tiwari, R., Natesan, S., Khandia, R.and Mourya, D. Nipah virus: epidemiology, pathology, immunobiology and advances in diagnosis, vaccine designing and control strategies–a comprehensive review. Vet Qua, 2019, 39, 26-55.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  de Wit, E., Prescott, J., Falzarano, D., Bushmaker, T., Scott, D., Feldman, H. and Munster, V. Foodborne transmission of nipah virus in Syrian hamsters. J Patho, 2014, 10, 1-4.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  de Wit, E. and Munster, V. Animal models of disease shed light on Nipah virus pathogenesis and transmission. J Pathol, 2015a, 235,196-205.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Chua, K., Bellini, W., Rota, P., Harcourt, B. and Tamin, A. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Sci, 2000, 288, 1432-1435.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Aljofan, M. Hendra and Nipah infection: Emerging paramyxoviruses. Vir Res, 2013, 177, 119-126.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Pulliam, J., Jonathan, H., Epstein, K., Jonathan, D., Sohayati, A., Michel, B., Aziz, A., Alex, D., Hume, E., Andrew, P. and Peter, D. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: A lethal bat-borne zoonoses. J R Soc Interface, 2012, 9, 89.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Dhillon, J. and Banerjee, J. Controlling Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh: Policy options. J Publ Hea Pol, 2015, 36, 270-282.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Plowright, R., Becker, D., Crowley, D., Washburne, A., Huang, T., Nameer, P., Gurley, E. and Han, B. Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India. Negl Trop Dis, 2019, 13, 1-12.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Paul, L. Nipah virus in Kerala: a deadly zoonosis. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2018, 18, 30480-4.
In article      
 
[26]  Pillai, V., Krishna, G. and Veettil M. Nipah Virus : Past outbreaks and future containment. Vir, 2020, 12, 1-15.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Wacharapluesadee, S., Boongird, K., Wanghongsa, S., Ratanasetyuth, N., Supavonwong, P., Saengsen, D., Gongal, G. and Hemachudha, T. A longitudinal study of the prevalence of Nipah virus in Pteropus lylei bats in Thailand: evidence for seasonal preference in disease transmission. Vect Bor Zoon Dis, 2010, 10, 183-190.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[28]  Yadav, P., Raut, C., Shete, A., Mishra, A. and Towner, J. Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2012, 87, 576-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[29]  Yu, J., Lv, X., Yang, Z., Gao, S., Li, C., Cai, Y. and Li J. The Main Risk Factors of Nipah Disease and Its Risk Analysis in China. Viru, 2018, 10, 1-12.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Ching, P., Reyes, V., Sucaldito, M., Tayag, E., Columna-Vingno, A., Malbas, F., Bolo, G., Sejvar, J., Eagles, D. and Playford, G. Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis, 2015, 21, 328-331.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[31]  Islam, M., Sazzad, H., Satter, S., Sultana, S., Hossain, M., Hasan, M., Rahman, M., Campbell, S., Cannon, D. and Stroher, U. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011-2014. Emerg Infect Dis, 2016, 22, 664-670.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  Luby, S. The pandemic potential of Nipah virus. Antivir Researc, 2013, 100, 38-43.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  Enchery, F and Horvat, B. Understanding the interaction between henipaviruses and their natural host, fruit bats: Paving the way toward control of highly lethal infection in humans. Int Rev Immunol, 2017, 36, 108-121.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  Smith, A., Killoran, K. and Larson, K. Nipah virus. Swine Health Information Center and Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/shic-factsheet-nipah-virus. 2016, Accesed 3 June 2021.
In article      
 
[35]  Hassan, M., Sazzad, H., Luby, S., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Bhuiyan, M., Rahman, M., Islam, M., Stroher, U., Sultana, S. and Kafi, M. Nipah virus contamination of hospital surfaces during outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2013- 2014. Emer Infect Dis, 2018, 24, 15-21.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[36]  Wang, L. and Daniels, P. Diagnosis of henipavirus infection: current capabilities and future directions. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 2012, 359, 179-96.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Rahman, S., Hassan, S., Olival, K., Mohamed, M. and Chang, L. Henipavirus Ecology Research Group. Characterization of Nipah virus from naturally infected Pteropus vampyrus bats, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2010, 16, 1990-1993.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  deWit, E. and Munster, V. Nipah Virus Emergence , Transmission , and Pathogenesis. In: Shashak P., Sinnot J., Smboonwit C., Kuhn J. (eds). Global virology I- identifying and investigating viral diseases, Springer, Newyork, USA, 2015b.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Wahed, F. and Kader, S. Nipah Virus: An Emergent Deadly Paramyxovirus Infection In Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Soc Physiol, 2011, 6, 134-139.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Ang, B., Lim, T. and Wang, L. Nipah virus infection. J Cli Microb, 2018, 56, 1-10.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  Spickler, A. Nipah Virus Infection. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php. 2016, Accessed 6 June 2021.
In article      
 
[42]  Satterfield, B., Dawes, B. and Milligan, G. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Nipah virus. Vacc, 2016, 34, 2971-2975.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  Ames, I. Diseases of Swine. 10th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
In article      
 
[44]  Yaeger, M. Disorders of pigs. In: Njaa BL, ed: Kirkbride's Diagnosis of Abortion and Neonatal Loss in Animals. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Halsie, D. and Daniel, L. Enhancing preparation for large Nipah outbreaks beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a tragedy like Ebola in West Africa. Intern J Infect Dise, 2018, 72, 69-72.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  Mire, C., Satterfield, B., Geisbert, J., Agans, K., Borisevich, V., Yan, L., Chan, Y., Cross, R., Fenton, K. and Broder, C. Pathogenic Differences between Nipah Virus Bangladesh and Malaysia Strains inPrimates: Implications for Antibody Therapy. Sci Rep, 2016, 6, 309-316.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Thibault, P., Watkinson, R., Moreira-Soto, A., Drexler, J. and Lee, B. Zoonotic potential of emerging Paramyxoviruses: knowns and unknowns. Adv Virus Res, 2017, 98, 1-5.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[48]  Arunkumar, G., Chandni, R., Mourya, D., Singh, S., Sadanandan, R., Sudan, P. and Bhargava, B. Outbreak Investigation of Nipah Virus Disease in Kerala, India, 2018. J Infect Dis, 2019, 219, 1867-1878.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Abdullah, S., Chang, L., Rahmat, K., Goh, K. and Tan, C. Late-onset Nipah virus encephalitis 11 years after the initial outbreak: a case report. Neurol Asia, 2012, 7, 71-74.
In article      
 
[50]  Ramphul, K., Mejias, S., Agumadu, V., Sombans, S. and Sonaye, R. The Killer Virus Called Nipah: A Review. Cureus, 2018, 10, 31-68.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Mazzola, L. and Kelly-cirino, C. Diagnostics for Nipah virus : a zoonotic pathogen endemic to Southeast Asia. BMJ Glob Health, 2019, 4, 1-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[52]  Mazzola, L., Lowe, L. and Hummel, K. (Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis, 2012, 18, 248-55.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[53]  Daniels, P., Ksiazek, T. and Eaton, B. Laboratory diagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infections. Microb Infect, 2001, 3, 289-95.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  Chua, K., Wong, E., Cropp, B. and Hyatt, A. Role of electron microscopy in Nipah virus outbreak investigation and control. Med J Malaysia, 2007, 62, 139-142.
In article      
 
[55]  Broder, C. Henipavirus outbreaks to antivirals: The current status of potential therapeutics. Curr Opin Virol, 2012, 2, 176-187.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[56]  Chong, H., Kamarulzaman, A. and Tan C. Treatment of acute Nipah encephalitis with ribavirin. Ann Neuro, 2001, 49, 810-813.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[57]  Aditi, A. and Shariff, M. Nipah virus infection : A review. Epid and Infect, 2020, 147, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[58]  Dawes, B., Kalveram, B., Ikegami, T., Juelich, T., Smith, J., Zhang, L., Park, A., Lee, B., Komeno, T. and Furuta, Y. Favipiravir (T-705) protects against Nipah virus infection in the hamster model. Sci Rep, 2018, 8, 7604.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  Geisbert, T., Mire, C., Geisbert, J., Chan, Y., Agans, K., Feldmann, F., Fenton, K., Zhu, Z., Dimitrov, D. and Scott, D. Therapeutic treatment of Nipah virus infection in nonhuman primates with a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. Sci Transl Med, 2014, 6, 242.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[60]  Nahar, N., Paul, R., Sultana, R., Sumon, S., Banik, K., Abedin, J., Asaduzzaman, M., Garcia, F., Zimicki, S. and Rahman, M. A controlled trial to reduce the risk of human Nipah virus exposure in Bangladesh. Ecohealth, 2017, 14, 501-517.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[61]  DeBuysscher, B., Scott, D., Marzi, A., Prescott, J. and Feldmann, H. Single dose live attenuated Nipah virus vaccines confer complete protection by eliciting antibodies directed against surface glycoproteins. Vacc, 2014, 32, 2637-2644.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[62]  McLean, R. and Graham S. Vaccine development for Nipah virus infection in pigs. Fron Vet Scie, 2019, 6, 1-6.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  Rottingen, J., Gouglas, D., Feinberg, M., Plotkin, S., Raghavan, K. and Witty, A. New vaccines against epidemic infectious diseases. N Engl J Med, 2017, 376, 610-624.
In article      View Article  PubMed