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Assessing the Hygienic Status of Processed Fresh Water Clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Tonbarapagha Kingdom , Douye Victor Zige, Deborah Anesakeme
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(5), 219-222. DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-5-5
Published online: July 26, 2018

Abstract

This study was carried out to assess the sanitary quality of processed (fried) freshwater clam (Galatea paradoxa), sold in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. “Water snail” as it is popularly called is vended by women and children. This delicacy is widely consumed in Yenagoa and its environs. Sixteen (16) Samples were collected randomly from four different hawkers within the Swali market in Yenagoa. Analysis included cultural techniques and bacterial quality assessment by enumeration of viable bacterial colonies using dilution techniques. The microbial analysis revealed Total Coliform Count of 7.33 × 106 ± 1.18 ×106 cfu\ml, Total Thermotolerant Count of 3.3 × 105 ± 0.05 × 105 cfu\ml, Total Heterotrophic Count (22°C) of 5.6 × 106 ± 2.02 × 106 cfu\ml and Total Heterotrophic Count (37°C) of 5.13 × 106 ± 0.55 × 106 cfu\ml. Thus, the Total Viable Count ranged from 3.3 ×105 ± 0.5 × 105cfu\ ml to 7.33× 106± 1.18 ×106. A routine biochemical test was carried out to confirm the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria. The pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, Proteus spp and Salmonella Paratyphi A. The presence of indicator organisms from faecal sources, environmental contamination and relatively potential bacteria could be attributed to poor hygienic practices during handling and processing of the clams and waste management practices within the point of sales. A good health education package needs to be given to vendors on good handling practice of vended foods.

1. Introduction

The increasing demand for fish and fishery products is greatly challenged globally by microbial infection of fish and contamination of fish products. They are prone to contamination at various stages of handling, processing, and quality is a major concern to food processor and public health authorities 1. Food borne diseases continued to be a major public health problem on a global scale, especially in developing countries due to difficulties in safeguarding food from cross contamination 2.

However, street foods have been in transmission of foodborne diseases 3, 4, 5, 6. The problem of food safety in developing countries is usually attributed to poor hygiene practices during foods processing and packaging 7, 8, 9.

Processed freshwater Clam (Galatea paradoxa) is a well-known delicacy in towns and communities of the Niger Delta, including the city of Yenagoa, in Byaelsa State. It is commonly called “water snail” and “Gbou” by the Izon-speaking people of Bayelsa State. The processed Clams are prepared either smoked, fried or cooked and sold in the streets and markets of Yenagoa. They are readily available for purchase and consumption. Several pathogenic microorganisms have been associated with many street vended foods 10.

Published literatures on the microbial load in the processed clams, even though, a popular delicacy in Bayelsa State in particular and Niger Delta as a whole, is absent. Therefore, this study was therefore undertaken to examine the bacterial quality of processed freshwater Clam that is a highly patronised delicacy within the state and its environs.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

This study was carried out in Yenagoa Metropolis, capital of Bayelsa state, while facilities at the Federal Medical Centre was used for laboratory analysis.

2.2. Collection of Samples

Sixteen (16) samples used for this study were fried Clam (Galatea paradoxa). The samples were bought from four different hawkers around Yenagoa metropolis. Samples were put in zipper sterile polythene bags, properly labelled and carried to the Microbiology laboratory of the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa for analysis within two hours of collection.

2.3. Total Coliform Count and Thermotolerant Coliform Count

Using the spread plate technique as described by 11, 1 ml of the 105 dilution for each sample was seeded on already prepared McConkey agar plates for the enumeration of total colony forming units of thermotolerant coliform (E. coli) and total coliform colony forming units. The plates were incubated at 37°C for total coliform count and 45°C for thermotolerant coliform at 24 hours. The samples were analyzed in triplicates and enumeration for total colony forming units (CFU) was based on mean values 12.

2.4. Total Heterotrophic Count

Total heterotrophic plate counts were also carried out using the spread plate technique, but using Nutrient agar plates. Incubation was carried out at 37°C for 24 hours to enable the growth of bacteria of mammalian origin, and 22°C for 72 hours for bacteria derived principally from the environment. Enumeration of bacteria was also done in triplicates.

2.5. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria

The method adopted by 2 was used with slight modification for the isolation of food borne bacteria. Ten (5g each) of each food samples were homogenised with sterile mortar and pestle, the resulting homogenate were aseptically added to 9 ml prepared nutrient broth. Streaking on the media directly from the overnight broth culture was done aseptically on EMB, SSA, chocolate agar, nutrient agar and Macconkey agar and incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hours. The streaked plates after incubation were examined for colonies which showed dissimilar cultural characteristics and subcultured on respective media. Pure colonies where obtained by subculturing on nutrient agar. All presumptive isolates were further identified using conventional biochemical methods 13. These characteristics of differentiation for the isolated strains were read as described by 11 and 14.

2.6. Antibiotic Susceptibility

The Sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to different antibiotics was determined using the Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion technique. Discs used contained the following antibacterial agents: Ofloxacin (5ìg), Ciprofloxacin (5ìg), Gentamicin (10ìg), Ceftazidine (30ìg), Nitrofuratoin (300ìg), Augmentin (30ìg), Cefixime (5ìg) and Cefuroxime (30ìg). Oxoid sensitivity test agar plates were swabbed with cells from the bacteria stock solution, pre-adjusted to 0.5 McFarland’s turbidity standard. The discs were thereafter, carefully placed on the agar with a sterile forceps and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Zones of sensitivity was measured with a meter rule.

3. Results

Enumeration of colony forming units for bacteria with respective temperature and media gave total coliform count (TCC) of 7.33x 106 ± 1.18x106 cfu/ml, total thermotolerant count (E coli) of 0.33x106 ± 0.05x 106 cfu/ml, total heterotrophic count (THC 22°C) of 5.60 x 106 ± 2.02 x 106 cfu/ml and total heterotrophic count (THC 37°C) of 5.13x106 ± 0.55x 106 cfu/ml from this result obtained total coliform forming unit had the highest colony counts per ml of samples, while total thermotolerant colony showed the least count/ml of samples. However colony forming unit of bacteria from food sample rangeed from 0.33x106 ± 0.05 x 106 cfu/ml to 7.33 x 106 ± 1.18 x 106 cfu/ml.

Table 1 shows isolation and identification of foodborne bacteria from samples. It reveals eighteen (18) bacteria isolate based on cultural characteristics, morphological and biochemical characterizations. Out of the 18 bacteria isolated, 6 isolates were Escherichia coli, 3 Enterobacter spp., 1 Salmonella spp., 1 Proteus, 1 Shigella spp. 2 Streptococcus spp. and 4 Staphylococcus spp.

Table 2 shows the result of antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens isolated. The result indicate complete resistance for Augumentin and complete susceptibility for Ofloxacin. However other antibiotics used in this study showed variability in their susceptibility pattern.

4. Discussion

This study has showed that processed clams commonly sold by food vendors in Yenagoa metropolis is a potential threat to public health, as it contains viable colonies of potential pathogens. Several reports have shown that street vended foods have been implicated in transmission of foodborne disease 3, 4, 5, 6.

Total Viable Count (TVC) observed in this study was higher than the range of 9.6×102 to 2.8 × 103cfu\ml of fried fish in Owerri, Imo State of Nigeria, reported by 15. 1 also reported a lower TVC count of 6.5×103Cfu\ml from the skin of freshwater catfish in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. Coliforms are considered indicators for assessing general hygienic status of food contact surfaces 17. The most prevalent bacteria in fried clams sold in Swali market was E. coli (33%). This was similar to the findings of 15 who reported E. coli (57%) as the most prevalent bacteria isolated from fried fish in Owerri metropolis. The least prevalent bacteria was Salmonella paratyphi A (5%). Enterobacter spp, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella spp, Enterococccus spp and Staphylococcus epidermis had prevalences of 17%, 6%, 6%, 11% and 22% respectively. Shigella spp, and some strains of E. coli cause diarrhea. Salmonella is associated with enteric fever. Staphylococcus is associated with food poisoning while Enterobacter, Enterococcus and Proteus spp cause various infections in the human body. The high bacteria count in fried clams could be attributed to socio-cultural factors strongly influencing sanitation practices. Several pathogens of public health importance, especially those implicated in food borne diseases had been isolated and similar to finding by 5, 6, 17. Therefore, surveillance and monitoring should be of great concern in Yenagoa and early responses on the outbreaks of faeco-oral infections.

Finally, this study also reveals the extent of antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of food-borne bacteria pathogens isolated.

5. Conclusion/Recommendation

Food safety is best ensured by the shared responsibility of everybody involved with food from the professional to the consumer. The best way to practice food safety is to be well-informed about the basics of food and the consequences involved in unhygienic practices in handling and processing of food. Therefore, the study suggests that there should be high level of awareness campaign and health education on human hygiene behaviours and the role of food in diseases transmission. Finally the results also indicated that some of the food-borne pathogens are resistant to some of the common antibiotics, which if neglected become a very serious public health problem.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to sincerely thank the staff and management of Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State for providing the facilities for analysis.

Statement of Competing Interest

The authors have no competing interests.

References

[1]  Oramadike, C.E., Ibrahim, A.O., Kolade, O.Y. (2010). Biochemical and Microbiology quality of frozen fishes available in some supermarkets in Lagos State. Journal of Life and Physical Sciences, 3(2): 48-51.
In article      
 
[2]  Zige, D.V., Ohimain, E.I., Mynepalli, S.K.C. (2013). Enteric Bacteria from ready to eat food vended in Amassoama Community in Niger Delta and its health implication. ISOR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, (6)4: 62-69.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Chomvarin, C., Kotimanusvaniji, D.R. (1993). Study on the correction between the enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prepared food and cooks. Srinagarind Hospital Medical Journal, (6) 231-242.
In article      
 
[4]  Gillespie, I., Little, C., Mitchell, R. (2000). Microbiological examination of cold ready to eat sliced meat from catering establishments in United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88: 467-474.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Fang, T.J., Wie, Q. Liao, C., Hung, M., Wang, T. (2003). Microbiological quality of 180C ready-to-eat food product sold in Taiwan. Int. J. Food Microbiol, 80:241-250.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Mahale, D.P., Khade, R.G., Vaidya, V.K. (2008). Microbiological analysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 10: 31-34.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Barro, N., Ouattara, C.A.T., Nkiemu, A.P., Traore, A.S. (2002a). Evaluation dela qualite microbiologigque de quelques aliment de me dans laville de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Cah santé, 12: 369-374.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Barro, N., Ouattara, C.A.T., Nkiemu, A.P., Traore, A.S. (2002b). Evaluation de quelques de I’ hygeine et de qualite microbiologique de quelques aliments rue et less characteristques de consommateurs dans les villes de Ouagadou et de Bobo-Diou lasso (Burkinal Faso). Rev. Sci. Tec. Sci. Sante, 25: 7-21.
In article      
 
[9]  Mensah, P., Yeboah –manu, D., Owusu-Darko, K., Ablordey, A. (2002). Street foods in Accra, Ghana; How safe are they? Bill World Health Organisation, 80: 546-554.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Omemu, A.M., Edema, M.O., Bankole, M.O. (2005). Bacteriology assessment of street vended ready to eat (RTE) Vegetables and prepacked salad in Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Microbiology, 19(1-2): 497-504.
In article      
 
[11]  Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District laboratory practice in Tropical countries, 4th edition Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, part 2 pp 433.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Onyuka, J.H.O., Kakai, R., Onyango, D.M., Arama, P.F., Gichuki, J., Ofulla, A.V.O. (2011). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enteric bacteria isolated from water and fish in Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 75: 762-769.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Esha, S., Dwij, R.B., Binod, L. (2009). Occurrence of Salmonella in drinking water samples of urban water supply system of Kathmandu. Botanica OrientalisJournal of Plant Science, 6: 52-55.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  World Health Organisation (2003). Background documents: the diagnosis treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. Contaminate Disease Surveillance and response Vaccines and biological, Departments of Vaccines and Biological CH-121 1 Geneva 27, Switzerland, Pp. 7-11.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Ohalete, C.N., Obiajuru, I.O.C., Obiokwu, C.E., Uwazuoke, J.C., Nwaehiri, U.L., Daniel, U.N. (2012). Microbiological quality of fried and smoked fish in Owerri, Imo state Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1) 1-19.
In article      
 
[16]  Ajayi, A.O. (2012). Bacteriological Study of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from Fish Pond Sources in Akungba-Akoko community, Nigeria. British Microbiological Research Journal, 2(1): 1-9.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Odu, N.N., Njoku, H.O., Mepba, H.O. (2012). Microbiological quality of smoke- dried mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea gaser) sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 3(9): 360-364.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Tonbarapagha Kingdom, Douye Victor Zige and Deborah Anesakeme

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Tonbarapagha Kingdom, Douye Victor Zige, Deborah Anesakeme. Assessing the Hygienic Status of Processed Fresh Water Clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2018, pp 219-222. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/6/5/5
MLA Style
Kingdom, Tonbarapagha, Douye Victor Zige, and Deborah Anesakeme. "Assessing the Hygienic Status of Processed Fresh Water Clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 6.5 (2018): 219-222.
APA Style
Kingdom, T. , Zige, D. V. , & Anesakeme, D. (2018). Assessing the Hygienic Status of Processed Fresh Water Clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(5), 219-222.
Chicago Style
Kingdom, Tonbarapagha, Douye Victor Zige, and Deborah Anesakeme. "Assessing the Hygienic Status of Processed Fresh Water Clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 6, no. 5 (2018): 219-222.
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[1]  Oramadike, C.E., Ibrahim, A.O., Kolade, O.Y. (2010). Biochemical and Microbiology quality of frozen fishes available in some supermarkets in Lagos State. Journal of Life and Physical Sciences, 3(2): 48-51.
In article      
 
[2]  Zige, D.V., Ohimain, E.I., Mynepalli, S.K.C. (2013). Enteric Bacteria from ready to eat food vended in Amassoama Community in Niger Delta and its health implication. ISOR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, (6)4: 62-69.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Chomvarin, C., Kotimanusvaniji, D.R. (1993). Study on the correction between the enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prepared food and cooks. Srinagarind Hospital Medical Journal, (6) 231-242.
In article      
 
[4]  Gillespie, I., Little, C., Mitchell, R. (2000). Microbiological examination of cold ready to eat sliced meat from catering establishments in United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88: 467-474.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Fang, T.J., Wie, Q. Liao, C., Hung, M., Wang, T. (2003). Microbiological quality of 180C ready-to-eat food product sold in Taiwan. Int. J. Food Microbiol, 80:241-250.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Mahale, D.P., Khade, R.G., Vaidya, V.K. (2008). Microbiological analysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 10: 31-34.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Barro, N., Ouattara, C.A.T., Nkiemu, A.P., Traore, A.S. (2002a). Evaluation dela qualite microbiologigque de quelques aliment de me dans laville de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Cah santé, 12: 369-374.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Barro, N., Ouattara, C.A.T., Nkiemu, A.P., Traore, A.S. (2002b). Evaluation de quelques de I’ hygeine et de qualite microbiologique de quelques aliments rue et less characteristques de consommateurs dans les villes de Ouagadou et de Bobo-Diou lasso (Burkinal Faso). Rev. Sci. Tec. Sci. Sante, 25: 7-21.
In article      
 
[9]  Mensah, P., Yeboah –manu, D., Owusu-Darko, K., Ablordey, A. (2002). Street foods in Accra, Ghana; How safe are they? Bill World Health Organisation, 80: 546-554.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Omemu, A.M., Edema, M.O., Bankole, M.O. (2005). Bacteriology assessment of street vended ready to eat (RTE) Vegetables and prepacked salad in Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Microbiology, 19(1-2): 497-504.
In article      
 
[11]  Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District laboratory practice in Tropical countries, 4th edition Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, part 2 pp 433.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Onyuka, J.H.O., Kakai, R., Onyango, D.M., Arama, P.F., Gichuki, J., Ofulla, A.V.O. (2011). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enteric bacteria isolated from water and fish in Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 75: 762-769.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Esha, S., Dwij, R.B., Binod, L. (2009). Occurrence of Salmonella in drinking water samples of urban water supply system of Kathmandu. Botanica OrientalisJournal of Plant Science, 6: 52-55.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  World Health Organisation (2003). Background documents: the diagnosis treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. Contaminate Disease Surveillance and response Vaccines and biological, Departments of Vaccines and Biological CH-121 1 Geneva 27, Switzerland, Pp. 7-11.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Ohalete, C.N., Obiajuru, I.O.C., Obiokwu, C.E., Uwazuoke, J.C., Nwaehiri, U.L., Daniel, U.N. (2012). Microbiological quality of fried and smoked fish in Owerri, Imo state Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1) 1-19.
In article      
 
[16]  Ajayi, A.O. (2012). Bacteriological Study of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from Fish Pond Sources in Akungba-Akoko community, Nigeria. British Microbiological Research Journal, 2(1): 1-9.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Odu, N.N., Njoku, H.O., Mepba, H.O. (2012). Microbiological quality of smoke- dried mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea gaser) sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 3(9): 360-364.
In article      View Article