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Original Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Enhancement of Nutritional Value and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cassava Semolina (Attiéké) Enriched with Soy Flour

KOUAKOU Christelle Marina, GBOGOURI Grodji Albarin , EBAH-DJEDJI Cathérine
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(4), 138-144. DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-4-2
Published online: April 25, 2018

Abstract

Attiéké is a fermented and steamed cassava semolina made in Côte d’Ivoire. It is an excellent source of energy, but it contains a low quantity of proteins and micronutrients. This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value and sensory properties of soy-enriched attiéké. Pearson’s square method was used to determine the cassava and soy proportions. Three soy flours were combined with cassava in proportions ranging from 8 to 30%. The ferment contents and fermentation duration were ranged from 6 to 12% and from 12 to 24 hours respectively. Chemical and sensory characteristics of soy-enriched attiéké formulations were determined according to standard methods. Results showed that protein contents (1.24 to 12.33%), fat (0.26 to 3.42%), ash (0.60 to 1.83%) and energy (352.50 to 378.73 Kcal/100 g) of soy-enriched attiéké were increased significantly in relation to their soybean contents. Moreover, addition of soy flour induced a significant increase of the pH from 4.46 to 5.18; while increase of ferment content and fermentation duration decreased it from 4.46 to 4.10. The incorporation of soy flours increased the stickiness of attiéké which is less valued by consumers whereas increasing ferment and fermentation duration improved this parameter. In addition, beyond 10% of ferment added and 18 hours of fermentation duration, the sourness of soy-enriched attiéké was more accentuated. The pre-cooked soy flour added to cassava before fermentation process gave the most acceptable foods compared to soy flour that had undergone fermentation process and that was obtained with soy residue. This work suggests that addition of pre-cooked soy flour to attiéké and adequate fermentation improve both nutritional value and sensory properties of soy-enriched attiéké.

1. Introduction

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots play important role in human feeding in Côte d’Ivoire. It is the second food mostly consumed by Ivorian with a production of 4.5 million tons in 2016 1. In Côte d’Ivoire, it’s transformed in about ten dishes of which the most known are attiéké, placali, gari, attoukpou and tapioca 2, 3. However, cassava has three major disadvantages: (i) toxicity associated with presence of cyanogenic compounds and potentially responsible for neurological and metabolic disorders 4; (ii) enormous post-harvest losses due to its short life; (iii) low protein content contributing to protein-energy malnutrition, especially in areas where cassava accounts for more than 60% of daily energy intake 5. Though the first two constraints mentioned above have been resolved through innovative processing technologies and scientific research, the one related to protein value remains a major concern because of the persistence and the increase of protein-energy malnutrition in Africa 6.

The processing of cassava into attiéké is as follow: crushed cassava fermentation, mash dewatering followed by sieving, granulating, sun drying and steaming of granular product 7. It is consumed two or three times a day with either meat, fish or vegetables 8, 9. Attiéké is known for its high caloric value and low levels in proteins and micronutrients contents 5.

Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are the most nutritional problems in developing countries 10, 11. Food fortification is therefore a recommended strategy for food nutritional quality improving 12.

Enrichment of attiéké with vegetable protein sources, especially soybean, could improve its nutritional quality. Indeed, soybean is an excellent source of proteins (40%), lipids (20%) and fibers (18%) 13, 14, 15. Protein composition of these seeds largely covers needs of essential and semi-essential amino acids of human. It is one of the oleaginous seeds rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids accounting for 54 to 72% of total lipids 16. Among these polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acids (omega 6) and alpha-linolenic (omega 3) are essential for human body 17. It could be a good substitute for animal protein 18. To improve nutritional properties of cassava products, several studies have been carried out on its products 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, but little on attiéké (fermented cassava semolina).

This work aims to enrich cassava semolina (attiéké) with soy flour using “Pearson's square” method to improve its nutritional value.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Raw Materials

The main raw materials used in this project work are cassava roots and soybeans. Fresh cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yellow soybeans (Glycine max L. Meril) were purchased from the market of Bonoua (Côte d'Ivoire) and the National Center of Agricultural Research of Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire) respectively.

2.2. Methods
2.2.1. Preparation of the various soy flours

Soybeans underwent several treatments (pre-cooking, fermentation and obtaining the soy residue by elimination of the "soymilk") as shown in Figure 1. These treatments led to three various flours of soy.

The first soy flour was obtained after pre-cooking of soybeans and the second soy flour after fermentation. The third soy flour was obtained after wet milling of soybeans and removal of "soymilk".


2.2.2. Preparation of soy-enriched attiéké

Pearson’s square method below (Figure 2, Table 1) was used to determine proportions of the two feed ingredients which are cassava and soy flour.

X is the required proteins.

A et B represent the protein contents of the cassava (I1) and soy (I2) to get the required proteins.

C is difference between B and X ignoring the sign; It’s the share of cassava in the mixture.

D is difference between A and X ignoring the sign; it’s the share of soybean in the mixture.

Cassava proportion (I1) = .

Soybean proportion (I2) = .

Soy-enriched attiéké was prepared following the method described in Figure 3. Samples were produced by incorporation of soy flour into cassava dough in two steps: (A: fermentation or B: granulating). A traditional biological ferment (whole cassava roots cooked for 10 minutes and fermented for 48 hours) commonly named "mangnan" was added to cassava dough at rates from 6 to 12% (w/w). Cassava dough obtained was fermented in the synthetic fibre bags from 12 to 24 hours to allow the development of aroma and taste as well as texture of soy-enriched attiéké.


2.2.3. Chemical Analysis

Dry matter, ash, protein, fat, pH, and titratable acidity were determined using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods 27. Dry matter was determined by oven drying at 105°C for 24h and ash using a muffle furnace at 550 ° C for 24 h. Crude Protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method and its content was obtained by multiplying the corresponding total nitrogen content by a factor of 6.25 28. Fat content was determined according to the Soxlhet method using hexane as solvent. Total carbohydrates were determined by difference of the total material to other biochemical compounds. The energy value was calculated using the Atwater’s calorie conversion factors: 4 kcal/g for crude protein, 9 kcal/g for crude fat and 4 kcal/g for available carbohydrate 28. pH and total titratable acidity were determined with a pH-meter and acid-base assay respectively.


2.2.4. Sensory Evaluation

A descriptive test was conducted to evaluate the stickiness, firmness and sourness of the semolina 29. Therefore, a focus group (6 people) was recruited based on their experience in the production of attiéké. The test consisted in describing each formulation on a descriptive scale at seven (7) points according to the intensity of stickiness, firmness and sourness.

A hedonic test was also performed 29. The panel consisted of 30 people was recruited based on their availability. Each panelist, isolated from others, received samples of about 50 g of samples. The test consisted of recording each formulation on a hedonic five (5) point scale ranging from very bad (1) to very good (5). The studied parameters were colour, aroma, taste and overall acceptability.


2.2.5. Statistical Analysis

All the analyses were carried out in triplicate. The statistical package in IBM SPSS STATISTICS 22.0 computer program was used. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Differences between means were evaluated using Duncan’s test and significance accepted at α=0.05 level.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Chemical Characteristics of the Soy-enriched attiéké

The formulation of the foods consists of mixing two or more ingredients to optimally satisfy the nutritional needs of body.

The chemical composition of the three soy flours is shown in Table 2. Protein levels were ranged from 36.33 to 37.86%. Results didn’t show any significant difference (p<0.05) between these three soy flours protein contents. Moreover, fat and ash values are affected by treatments. It can noticed that fat contents of soy flour SF2 and SF3 (20% and 18.60%) are significantly lower than those of SF1 (24.20%). For SF1, pre-cooking for 15 minutes would lead to less fat loss, whereas for SF3 flour, the separation of the soy residue from "soymilk" induces a significant loss of lipids in the soy residue. Kolapo and Sanni 30 have shown that the separation of the soy residue from "soymilk" leads to a distribution of lipids between these two by-products. In addition, SF3 has the highest ash content of 4.10% compared to 3.25% and 3.20% for SF1 and SF2 respectively.

The particularity of soy flour SF2 is that it has a higher acidity (pH = 5.56) compared to other two soy flours (pH = 6.56 for SF1 and pH = 6.12 for SF3). The fermentation process adopted to produce this flour may be the reason of the pH lowering 31, 32.

Table 3 presents the chemical characteristics of soy-enriched attiéké samples. Dry matter contents of cooked semolina are between 44 and 49%, while those of dehydrated attiéké are between 86 and 92%. These values are close to those of Yao et al. 33, whose contents are 53.40% for fresh attiéké and 89.40% for dehydrated attiéké. The low moisture of dehydrated semolina inhibits the growth of microorganisms 34, which would promote a better stability and extend the shelf life of products.

The addition of the soy flour (SF1) from 0 to 30 % led an increase of the protein, fat and ash contents respectively 1.24 to 12.33%; 0.26 to 3.42% and 0.60 to 1.80%. As for SF2, the addition soy flour from 0 to 17% induced an increase of protein, fat and ash contents respectively from 1.24 to 8.00%; 0.26 to 2.82% and 0.60 to 1.80%. For soy flour SF3, its addition from 0 to 22% led an increase of 1.24 to 7.00% of proteins, 0.26 to 3.35% of fats and 0.60 to 1.83% of ashes. Those increase could be attributed of soy flour because of it high protein and fat contents. The results obtained are in accordance with those of Folake et al. 35 who reported an increase in protein content with addition of the soy flour. Despite increases in initial protein value, better results are observed with soy flour SF1. The applied treatments during production of these different soy flours would have an impact to nutrient content of samples 24.

The protein contents of the samples obtained are comparatively lower than the protein requirements fixed with the "Pearson's square". The wringing, steaming and dehydration steps during the manufacturing process would be responsible for this loss of protein. Indeed, the incorporation of soy flour before wringing crushed cassava causes significant losses of nutrients, including proteins and ashes. In their work, Sotomey et al. 36 showed that the wringing stage caused significant mineral losses (79% ash loss). The results obtained on the one hand with the formulations F3 and F4 and on the other hand with the formulations F6 and F7 corroborate this argument, since the protein contents are 9.12% and 12.33% for F3 and F4 and 6.19% and 8% for F6 and F7. The formulation F4 has the highest protein content. According to Labat 37, soy contains in equilibrium proportions proteins of good biological value containing all the essential amino acids. As a result, the incorporation of soybeans could improve the quality of the proteins of the enriched attiéké at the same time as their contents. The increase in protein content in attiéké would allow the prevention of protein-energy malnutrition.

Increasing the lipid content is beneficial for the human body. In addition to providing energy, consumption soy-enriched attiéké could have other advantages, because according to Demaison and Moreau 17, omega-type fatty acids present in soybean (54 to 72% of total lipids) are responsible for the cardiovascular and immune balance. Also, the presence of lipids in a food is essential to prevent the deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins, particularly vitamin A.

The pH of the food products was ranged from 4,1 to 5.2. These values are consistent with the accepted pH range for attiéké quality as defined by CODINORM 38 which is between 4 and 5, except for the formulation F7. As for titratable acidity, it changes inversely with pH. The increase in pH observed with the F5, F6 and F7 formulations relative to the control would be related to the gradual addition of soybeans. This result agrees with Ogunlakin et al. 24. On the contrary, fermentation decreases the pH value. Akely et al. 39, Adsokan et al. 40, Emire and Buta 41 reported in theirs studies that the fermentation increased the acidity. During this process, microorganisms, including lactic acid bacteria produce organic acids 42, responsible for the acidity of the food. Afoakwa et al. 43 stated in their study that enrichment of gari with soybeans by up to 20% causes only minimal changes in pH and acidity. A pH above 5 exposes the food to rapid degradation, while a pH below 5 promotes its preservation.

3.2. Sensory Characteristics of the Soy-enriched attiéké

Table 4 and Figure 4 show that the sensory parameters are influenced by the amounts of added soy and ferment, as well as the fermentation duration.

The increase in the stickiness of semolina is due proportionally to the soy incorporation rate. This is reflected with the formulation F1 versus F4 and F2 versus F3. These results are corroborated with those of Ezinwanyi and Ndaeyo 25. The protein structure influences stickiness of enriched semolina. The presence of hydrophilic chains in the protein structure could be responsible of changes observed in cooking semolina 44. In addition, it is higher when soy flour is added to cassava dough during semolina. The evaluation of stickiness was used to classify the quality of semolina in a decreasing manner according to the three different soy flours used as follows: attiéké enriched with SF1 flour, then attiéké enriched with flour SF2 and finally attiéké enriched with flour SF3. In addition, the sticky nature changes inversely with the ferment rate and the fermentation duration. This result agrees with those of Adegunwa et al. 45. In fact, fermentation produces organic acids that are responsible for modifying the rheological behaviour of foods during cooking 31. A ferment content of 10% and a fermentation duration of 16 hours are the optimum values of the semolina manufacturing process. Akely et al. 39 suggested that low ferment content and insufficient fermentation duration lead to poor cooking of cassava semolinas. The stickiness can be improved with the addition of oil before granulating or steaming 46. The oil could facilitate the formation of grains (semolina) and avoid the caking (agglomeration) of these during steaming 47. Firmness is the ability of semolina to resist crushing 48. The incorporation of soy reduces the firmness of the semolina. The high starch content found in cassava is behind this firmness. In addition, the levels of fiber, protein, and the amount of water absorbed could affect the texture of semolina 37, 49. The addition of soybean with low starch content to cassava could be responsible of the change in firmness, which would explain the decrease in semolina resistance when adding soy.

Fermentation is the main factor affecting the sourness of semolina. Beyond 10% of ferment and 18 hours of fermentation, the sourness is significantly pronounced. The production of organic acids by the microorganisms would be at the origin of this phenomenon.

The addition of soy modifies the colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability of the formulations, except for the 8.82% SF2 (F5) soy flour formulation which is comparable to the control (ordinary attiéké).

Figure 3 shows that the formulations are generally appreciated when soy flour SF1 is used for the enrichment of attiéké. On the other hand, the addition of SF3 soy flour to attiéké is less appreciated. Formulations F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F7 are those whose colour and taste are accepted. Taste is the main factor that determines the acceptability of a product 50. The incorporation of soy also influences the aroma of the formulations. Those having the tolerable aromas are the formulations F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F8.

4. Conclusion

The objective of this study was to formulate and characterize soy-enriched cassava semolina (attiéké). This study showed that the enrichment with soy flour from 0 to 30% improves the nutritional composition of attiéké. The soy flour and traditional ferment contents, as well as the fermentation duration influenced the stickiness, firmness and sourness of semolina. The pre-cooked soy flour incorporated to attiéké before fermentation gave the best sensory of soy-enriched attiéké. The wringing of the cassava dough previously incorporated soy flour causes a significant loss of nutrients. Thus, to limit nutrient losses and improve the sensory quality of semolina, it would be appropriate to incorporate the soy flour after the wringing step. The enrichment of attiéké would help to fight against protein deficiency. Protein digestibility and conservation studies could be performed on this novel food.

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[46]  Houssou, P.A.F., Padonou, S.W., Vodouhe, M.C.D.N., Djivoh, H., Dansou, V., Hotegni, A.B. and Metohoue, R., Amélioration de la qualité de yêkè-yêkè (couscous de maïs) par enrichissement aux différentes légumineuses au Bénin. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 16 (3), 573-585, 2016.
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[49]  Serrem, C., Henriette, L, de Kock, and Taylor, J., Nutritional quality, sensory quality and consumer acceptability of sorghum and bread wheat biscuits fortified with defatted soy flour, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 74-83, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Banureka, VD and Mahendran, T., Formulation of wheat-soybean biscuits and their quality characteristics, Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension, 12 (2), 62-66, 2009.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 KOUAKOU Christelle Marina, GBOGOURI Grodji Albarin and EBAH-DJEDJI Cathérine

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KOUAKOU Christelle Marina, GBOGOURI Grodji Albarin, EBAH-DJEDJI Cathérine. Enhancement of Nutritional Value and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cassava Semolina (Attiéké) Enriched with Soy Flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp 138-144. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/6/4/2
MLA Style
Marina, KOUAKOU Christelle, GBOGOURI Grodji Albarin, and EBAH-DJEDJI Cathérine. "Enhancement of Nutritional Value and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cassava Semolina (Attiéké) Enriched with Soy Flour." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 6.4 (2018): 138-144.
APA Style
Marina, K. C. , Albarin, G. G. , & Cathérine, E. (2018). Enhancement of Nutritional Value and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cassava Semolina (Attiéké) Enriched with Soy Flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(4), 138-144.
Chicago Style
Marina, KOUAKOU Christelle, GBOGOURI Grodji Albarin, and EBAH-DJEDJI Cathérine. "Enhancement of Nutritional Value and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cassava Semolina (Attiéké) Enriched with Soy Flour." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 6, no. 4 (2018): 138-144.
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  • Table 4. Influence of the soybean content, ferment content and fermentation duration on sensory properties of soy-enriched attiéké
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In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
[49]  Serrem, C., Henriette, L, de Kock, and Taylor, J., Nutritional quality, sensory quality and consumer acceptability of sorghum and bread wheat biscuits fortified with defatted soy flour, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 74-83, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  Banureka, VD and Mahendran, T., Formulation of wheat-soybean biscuits and their quality characteristics, Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension, 12 (2), 62-66, 2009.
In article      View Article