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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production

Tapsoba François , Bationo Frédéric, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse, Pacmogda Emmanuel, Zongo Oumarou, Cisse Hama, Zongo Cheikna, Savadogo Aly
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2022, 10(4), 191-199. DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-10-4-6
Received September 22, 2022; Revised October 27, 2022; Accepted November 08, 2022

Abstract

Balanites aegyptiaca is a forest species with high nutritional and medicinal value. Its transformation, which is always artisanal, contributes little to the exploitation of its potential. Thus, the present study aimed to valorize B. aegyptiaca by developing a freeze-drying technology for its nectar for better preservation. In his study, a survey was carried out to determine the food and medicinal use of the fruit of B. aegyptiaca, a freeze-drying technology was developed for B. aegyptiaca nectar production. The pulp and the lyophilisate produced were characterized using standard physicochemical analysis methods and sensory analysis. The survey showed that B. aegyptiaca was used for the treatment of constipation (60% of respondents), high blood pressure (45% of respondents), ulcers (31% of respondents), diabetes (7% of respondents) and diarrhea (4% of respondents). The physicochemical analysis revealed average contents of 0.52 ± 0.01% fat, 5.83± 0.05% protein, 73.1 ± 0.01% carbohydrates, and 320.48 ± 0.27 Kcal/100g of energy value for pulps. As for the lyophilisates, the average contents were 0.49% ± 0.01% fat, 4.44 ± 0.013% protein, 76.56 ± 0.54% carbohydrates and 328.40 ± 2.1 Kcal /100g of energy value. Potassium was the mineral with the highest content with respectively average values of 1882.50±0.3 mg/100 g (pulp) and 2051±0.6 mg/100 g (lyophilisate). The contents of phenolic compounds were 20 ± 0.17 mg EAG/100 mg (pulp) and 20.81 ± 0.22 mg EAG/100 mg (lyophilisate). The flavonoid contents were 8.49mgEQ/100 mg (pulp) and 8.07±0.37mg EQ/100 mg (lyophilisate). Nectar reconstituted from lyophilisates were highly appreciated by tasters with sensory characteristics close to those of pulp nectar.

1. Introduction

Forest ecosystems have great potential for non-timber forest products (NTFPS) and their exploitation in developing countries provides livelihoods for local populations 1, 2. In the Sahelian countries, agricultural production is supplemented by NWFPs while providing food, medicine and fodder to households. National NTFP production in Burkina Faso was estimated at 716,004 tonnes in 2016 3. This production makes it possible to contribute, on the one hand, to the nutritional balance of 43% of rural households by providing 23% of income and 566,353 jobs and, on the other hand, to the international trade of Burkina Faso 4. Traded NWFPs have a total added value of 406.79 million USD, representing 3.85% of the national gross domestic product (GDP) 4. The unprocessed harvested products dominating the national production of NTFPs consist essentially of Shea nuts, Adansonia digitata leaf powder, Parkia biglobosa fruit seeds and pulp, desert date palm seeds (Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile Tamarindus indica leaves and gum arabic 5. Most of the harvested products are marketed without added value, thus constituting a great shortfall on the local and national economic level. In view of the economic stakes offered by the transformation, the reinforcement towards products of high added value is a promising option. As a result, the valorization of the fruits of many local plants would offer great potential (nutritional and economic). Among these local plants is B. aegyptiaca, named the desert date palm. In Burkina Faso, B. aegyptiaca is one of the dominant species in the Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian climatic zones 6. The different parts of the species are used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, anticancer and antifungal activities 7. These pharmacological activities are mainly related to the presence of biologically active metabolites, such as saponin, steroids, phenolic acids and flavonoids 8. Several studies have indicated varying nutritional value of different dairy products of B. aegyptiaca 9. According to NRC 10, the pulp is quite nutritious with a carbohydrate content ranging from 40% (freshly picked fruit) to 70% (completely dried fruit). The pulp would contain proteins and lipids. In Burkina Faso, oil extraction is one of the few transformations made of this fruit. This oil is used to make a variety of products sold in the markets, namely soaps and ointments. However, these various products had not have great economic success. Balanites aegyptiaca is still under-exploited despite its strong potential and its virtues that can contribute to food security and poverty reduction. It is therefore necessary to set up a processing technology for this product. Thus, the atomization and the freeze-drying of the nectar of B. aegyptiaca could constitute potentialities of creation of added value. This work aimed to valorize the fruit pulp of B. aegyptiaca through the use of technologies for the transformation and conservation of its nectar.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Biological Material

The biological material used for this study is B. aegyptiaca (desert date palm) fruits. Sample collection was carried out in Burkina Faso in two cities, namely Kaya and Ouahigouya (Figure 1).

2.2. Production of Lyophilisate

The production of B. aegyptiaca nectar was carried out by adapting the process described by Munier 11. The CHRIST Alpha 1-2 LD plus type freeze dryer coupled to the POM-05 pump was used for the production of lyophilisate. For better monitoring of production, the mass balance from each unit operation was evaluated. The energy balance was also assessed, taking into account thermal energy and electrical energy. The production of the lyophilisate was done in several steps as described in Figure 2.

2.3. Sample Preparation and Processing

The fruits have undergone pretreatment (sorting and washing). The pulp was extracted manually using stainless steel knives. Pulp from samples collected in Kaya was coded (PK) and that of Ouahigouya (PO). Similarly, the lyophilisate from the pulp of Kaya samples was codified (PKL) and that of Ouahigouya (POL).

2.4. Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate

The physicochemical parameters studied were the pH, the titratable acidity, the soluble dry extract, the Moisture Content, the ash content, the lipid content, the total sugar content, the protein content, energy density, mineral content, total phenol, and flavonoid content.

The acidity and the pH of the samples were determined according to the NF V05-105 method 12. The soluble solids content (SSE) was measured (in°Brix) using a hand-held digital refractometer (ATAGO pocket PAL-α, Japan). The Moisture Content of the samples was determined according to the thermogravimetric method of the French Standard 13. The total ashes were obtained by incineration of the product at a temperature of 550°C for 12 hours according to the international standard 14. The total fat content (TMF) of the samples was determined according to the Soxhlet method 15. Total sugars were determined by the method 16. The estimaton of the protein content was carried out according to the Bradford assay method 17. The theoretical energy value was obtained according to the method described by Merrill and Watt 18. The dosage of minerals was carried out according to the standard AOAC 15. The assay of total phenolic was carried out according to the method described by Singleton 19. The total flavonoids were determined by the colorimetric method of Dowd adapted by Arvouet-Grand et al. 20. A hedonic test was carried out. It included the visual, olfactory and taste examination of the nectar produced. It is very important for the evaluation of the organoleptic quality of products. This analysis obeyed conventional rules in order to arrive at a fair judgment of the quality of the product. The analyses were carried out on the 4 nectars, namely the pulp nectars of B. aegyptiaca from the two localities and the nectars reconstituted from lyophilisates. Indeed, from the pulp, 2 nectars were produced. Similarly, the lyophilisates were transformed into nectar by dilution (10 g per 100 mL). Excel 2016 software was used for data entry and processing. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out using the XL-STAT 2016 software for the comparison of the means of the various parameters studied. The Turkey test was used at the probability threshold p=0.05. The Test is significant if p is less than 0.05 and not significant if p is greater than 0.05.

3. Results and Discussion

The results of the survey showed that B. aegyptiaca was used for the treatment of ulcers (31% of respondents), hypertension (45% of respondents), diabetes (7% of respondents), constipation (60% of respondents), diarrhoea (4% of respondents).

3.1. Material Balance of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate Production

Figure 3 presents the Nectar and the lyphilisate of Balanites aegyptiaca.

Table 1 presents the different unit operations for the production of B. aegyptiaca fruit powder and the amount of material for each operation. Thus, 10 kg of B. aegyptiaca fruit produced 20 L of nectar with a concentration of 1.09 kg/L. The freeze-drying of 1 L of this nectar allowed to obtain 150 g of lyophilisate. Thus, 3 kg of lyophilisate were produced from 10 kg of B. aegyptiaca fruit, hence a yield of 0.3.

3.2. Energy Balance of Production

For the energy balance of the production of the lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca, we have:


3.2.1. Thermal Energy Consumed during Soaking and Pasteurization

For soaking, heating of 10 L of water with a temperature of 30°C to 90°C resulted in a heat quantity of 2508 KJ (Q1). Regarding pasteurization, raising the temperature of 22 L of nectar from 40 °C to 72 °C resulted in a heat quantity of 3210.24 KJ (Q2). As for the useful thermal energy, it represents the sum of Q1 and Q2 used for carrying out unit operations (Thermal energy: 2508+3210.24= 5718.24 KJ). The losses are estimated at 10%, and the total thermal energy of the production is 6290.06 KJ (useful thermal energy × loss). A volume of 0.127 kg of butane gas (calorific value, 49510 KJ/Kg) was used for heating.


3.2.2. Electrical Energy Consumed during Freezing and Freeze-drying

The 100 W freezer consumed 0.5 kWh for 5 h to freeze the nectar. The freeze-dryer 230V, 3A) consumed 49.68 kWh for 72 h for the freeze-drying of 3 L of nectar, hence 364.32 kWh for 22L. The total electrical energy consumed is 364.82 kWh or, 1313352 KJ.

• Energy

The energy required for the production of 3 kg of B. aegyptiaca nectar lyophilisate is 1319642.06 KJ

• Cost of producing Balanites aegyptiaca nectar lyophilisate

The production cost of the lyophilisate takes into account all the costs generated by the various processes implemented. Thus, the inputs of the different stages as well as the energy consumption of different devices used during the processes have been taken into account. The data for the calculation of the production price of 3 kg of lyophilisate are given in Table 2. High power consumption has been reported with the use of the freeze dryer. The production cost of 3 kg of lyophilisate amounts to, 61,76 USD, i.e. a cost of 2,06 USD for the production of 100 g of lyophilisate.

Despite the excellent quality of the lyophilisates, the cost of the process was high due to the high energy consumption. The freeze-drying of 3 L of the nectar consumed 49.68 kWh. Marin et al. 21 pointed out that the energy consumption of freeze-drying is 1500 to 2500 kWh per ton of water to be eliminated. This disadvantage is directly related to the long operation times caused by the resistance of the dry material to heat transfer, by the configuration of the sample, its properties and the operating conditions 22. In our study, 72 h were required for the complete elimination of water. This very high energy cost led to a high production cost which was 2,06 USD for 100 g of lyophilisate powder. The energy required to produce 3 kg of lyophilisate was 1319642 KJ. To counteract this major constraint, several studies have been carried out to reduce the time of the process by analyzing the various possibilities for controlling the intensity of the heat and the level of the vacuum in order to optimize the process Kuu et al. 22. Barrett et al. 23 combined microwave drying and freeze-drying by adding gums to the product and compared this combination with conventional freeze-drying. They concluded that the combination of processes exhibits higher rehydrating power and structural integrity than freeze-drying alone. Litvin et al. 24, for their part, tried to combine different drying processes, namely freeze-drying, microwaves and hot-air drying in order to have the same quality as freeze-dried products but in a shorter time to reduce costs. They observed that there is not a great difference between the products obtained by the combination of these methods and those freeze-dried.

3.3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate
3.3.1. Titratable Acidity, pH and Soluble Solids

The values of the pH, the titratable acidity and the soluble dry extract of the samples analyzed are recorded in Table 3.

The pH of the analyzed samples varied from 4.89 ± 0.01 and 4.91 ± 0.01. These pH values indicate that the pulp and lyophilisate of are acidic. Which is in agreement with the results of Abdelaziz et al. (2020) 25 who observed a pH of 4.9 ± 0.01 for the pulps of Balanites aegyptiaca. Lyophilization therefore had no impact on the pH.

The titratable acidity of the samples analyzed varied from 0.08 ± 0.02 to 0.32 ± 0.01 g/100 g of dry matter (DM). Analysis of variance revealed that there is a significant difference for titratable acidity (p<0.05).

The titratable acidity of Balanites aegyptiaca pulps (0.31 ± 0.32 g/100 g) was higher than that of freeze-dried powders (0.086 ± 0.08 g/100 g). The value of the titratable acidity of the pulps is similar to that found by Abdelaziz et al. 25 which was 0.3 ± 0.1 g /100 g. Askar et al. 26 also reported a loss of titratable acidity after freeze-drying guava puree.


3.3.2. Carbohydrate Content

The average carbohydrate, fat and protein contents, expressed as a percentage of dry matter, then the energy value in kcal/100 g are recorded in Table 4.

The average carbohydrate contents of the pulps and lyophilisates of B. aegyptiaca were respectively 73.10 ± 0.01% and 76.56 ± 0.54%. B. aegyptiaca nectar lyophilisate therefore has a great potential to provide the human body with good amount of its main source of energy. These values are similar to that reported by Achaglinkame et al. 36 which was 73.63% and higher than that indicated by Abdelaziz et al. 25 which was 45.8 ± 7.1 g/100 g dry matter. The difference in the analysis method used, the age of the ripe fruit and the agro-ecological origins of the dates studied could explain these variations. Nutritionally, the role of sugars is not limited to energy intake; they play an essential role both in the taste of food and in the pleasure of eating.


3.3.3. Lipid Content

The fat contents were quite low, at an average of 0.52 ± 0.01% for the pulps and an average of 0.49 ± 0.021% for the lyophilisates. Sagna et al. 27 reported a similar content of 0.41%. The lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca nectar could therefore be a popular food for consumers in a world where our energy expenditure decreases as part of a sedentary lifestyle, where cardiovascular diseases claim many victims 37.


3.3.4. Protein Content

The results showed an average protein content of 5.83 ± 0.05% DM for the pulps and 4.44 ± 0.1% DM for the lyophilisates. These values were lower than those found by Achaglinkame et al. 36 on the pulp of B. aegyptiaca which was 9.19 g/100 g DM. They are higher than that reported by Cissé 32 for baobab pulp (3 g/100 g). High consumption of fruits such as papaya (0.5g/100g DM), Kiwi (1.14g/100g DM) and passion fruit (2.6 g/100g DM) 38 have lower contents than freeze-dried powders. With these inherent protein values, the pulp and lyophilisate can contribute to the body's daily protein needs.


3.3.5. Energetic Value

Caloric intake derived from protein, sugar and fat contents gave an average value of 320.48 ± 0.27 kcal/100 g of DM for the pulps and 328.40 ± 2.71 kcal /100g MS for lyophilisates. These values were lower than that reported by Achaglinkame et al. 36 who observed an energy value of 354.48 kcal /100 g and relatively similar to the value of 300 kcal /100 g indicated by Nour et al. 39 in fruits from Sudan. The fruit pulp of B. aegyptiaca provides a higher caloric intake than several tropical fruits, for example: banana (89 kcal /100 g), durian (126 kcal/100g) and avocado (139 kcal/100g) 40. It can therefore be an important energy source, especially in poor rural areas, where the diet is mainly based on cereals.


3.3.6. Total Phenol and Flavonoid Content

The medicinal value of plants lies in certain chemical substances called phytochemicals which have a certain physiological action on the human body. Among the most important of these bioactive plant constituents are flavonoids and phenolics 41. Polyphenols are known for their anti-free radical and anticancer properties due to their antioxidant activity, Ozcan et al. 42. The average contents of total phenols expressed in mg EAG/100 mg and Flavonoids expressed in mg EQ/100 mg of the samples analyzed are represented in Figure 4. For the contents of phenolic compounds, the average value of the lyophilisates of nectars was 20.00 ± 0.03 mg EAG/100 mg and that of the pulps was 20.82 ± 0.02 mg EAG/100 mg. These values are similar to that reported by Abdallah et al. 43 on methanolic extracts of B. aegyptiaca fruits from Sudan which were 21.2 mg GAE/100 mg DM. These values are higher than those found by Cissé 32 on Baobab pulp, which varied between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/100 mg for polyphenols. Scalbert and Williamson 37 reported that polyphenols participate in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca, because of its high polyphenol content, could be recommended to consumers. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the significance level α= 5% showed that there is no significant difference for the average flavonoid content of pulps and lyophilisates of nectars which are respectively 8.50 ± 0.09 mg EQ/100 mg and 8.08± 0.75 mg EQ/100 mg. These flavonoid contents found in the present study were higher than those reported by Abdallah et al. 43 in methanolic extracts of B. aegyptiaca fruits which is 1.15 mg QE/100 mg DM. This concentration is an asset for health since flavonoids, by their function, protect blood vessels from cholesterol-related damage 44. A study conducted by Mhya et al. 45 shows that the leaves, fruit mesocarp and stem bark of B. aegyptiaca exhibit hypoglycemic activity. The activity could be attributed to chemical compounds like phenolics and flavonoids that were present in the extracts.

Hedonic test

Figure 5 summarizes the main results obtained. Remember that this is a test in which the tasters know the nature of the products submitted.

The analysis showed that the tasters were able to detect differences between the products produced. In addition, the attributes were described in the same way by the majority of tasters. The nectar had the following characteristics: an average aroma, a sweet taste with a hint of bitterness, and an acceptable odor, a light brown color, an acceptable overall assessment. Bitterness is linked to the presence of sapogenins in the mesocarp 46 and sometimes bother consumers.

Most of the tasters detected an average aroma for the 04 nectars, 85% had detected an average aroma for the nectar reconstituted from Kaya fruit lyophilisate (PKL). The sweet taste with a hint of bitterness was detected by the majority of panelists. Similarly, 74% of the panelists had detected the same taste (sweet taste with a hint of bitterness) in the nectar obtained with the lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca from Ouahigouya (POL). Regarding the smell, 80% of the panelists had observed that the nectar of Ouahigouya (PO) has an acceptable smell. The panelists (85%) assigned the light brown color to the nectar obtained with Kaya lyophilisate (PKL). Overall, 73% of the panelists gave an acceptable appreciation to the nectar of Ouahigouya (PO) and 42% an excellent appreciation to the nectar obtained with the lyophilisate of Ouahigouya (POL) The results of this study reveal that there is no not a strong difference between the organoleptic characteristics of pulp nectars and freeze-dried nectars. Given that taste and smell largely guide the choice of food 47, it can be said that the nectars reconstituted from lyophilisates generally have good organoleptic quality and that freeze-drying does not modify their organoleptic quality.

4. Conclusion

This study allowed to valorize the fruit pulp of B. aegyptiaca through the use of technologies for the transformation and preservation of its nectar. It was used to develop a production diagram of a lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca pulp with an energy balance. The content of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates was determined using analysis of the nutritional. The mineral composition of pulp nectars and freeze-dried products by spectrometric method and total phenols and total flavonoids were also quantified. This work on the pulp and powder of B. aegyptiaca shows their richness in lipids, proteins, micronutrients and bioactive compounds; which testifies their importance for humans in the food domains and can be considered as an important source of nutritional and antioxidant properties. In the future, it would therefore be interesting to evaluate the vitamin and fatty acid contents, the microbiological quality of the pulp and the lyophilisate, study the stability of the lyophilisate and the effect of preservation on the organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of the lyophilisate.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Public Health Laboratory (LNSP) for their help during the sample analyzes as well as the Balanites aegyptiaca fruit suppliers.

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[37]  Deprez, S., Mila, I., Huneau, J. F., Tome, D., & Scalbert, A. (2001). Transport of proanthocyanidin dimer, trimer, and polymer across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Antioxidants and redox signaling, 3(6), 957-967.
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[45]  Mhya, DH, Amigo, KM, Umar, IA, Alegbejo, JO (2016). Evaluation of hypoglycemic potential of extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca parts. Int. J. Innov. Adv. Study, 3, 135-138.
In article      
 
[46]  Chothani, D. L., & Vaghasiya, H. U. (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5(9), 55.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Tapsoba François, Bationo Frédéric, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse, Pacmogda Emmanuel, Zongo Oumarou, Cisse Hama, Zongo Cheikna and Savadogo Aly

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Normal Style
Tapsoba François, Bationo Frédéric, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse, Pacmogda Emmanuel, Zongo Oumarou, Cisse Hama, Zongo Cheikna, Savadogo Aly. Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 10, No. 4, 2022, pp 191-199. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/10/4/6
MLA Style
François, Tapsoba, et al. "Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 10.4 (2022): 191-199.
APA Style
François, T. , Frédéric, B. , Clarisse, D. S. , Emmanuel, P. , Oumarou, Z. , Hama, C. , Cheikna, Z. , & Aly, S. (2022). Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 10(4), 191-199.
Chicago Style
François, Tapsoba, Bationo Frédéric, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse, Pacmogda Emmanuel, Zongo Oumarou, Cisse Hama, Zongo Cheikna, and Savadogo Aly. "Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production." American Journal of Food Science and Technology 10, no. 4 (2022): 191-199.
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  • Table 4. Contents of total carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and energy value of the pulp and lyophilisate of B. aegyptiaca
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In article      
 
[36]  Achaglinkame MA, Aderibigbe, RO, Hensel, O., Sturm, B.; Korese K. (2019) Nutritional characteristics of four underutilized wild fruits of dietary interest in Ghana. Foods, 8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  Deprez, S., Mila, I., Huneau, J. F., Tome, D., & Scalbert, A. (2001). Transport of proanthocyanidin dimer, trimer, and polymer across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Antioxidants and redox signaling, 3(6), 957-967.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Besco, E., Braccioli, E., Vertuani, S., Ziosi, P., Brazzo, F., Bruni, R., ... & Manfredini, S. (2007). The use of photochemiluminescence for the measurement of the integral antioxidant capacity of baobab products. Food chemistry, 102(4), 1352-1356.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Nour AAM, Ahmed AR, Abdel -Gayoum A. A. (1985). A chemical study of Balanites aegyptiaca LJ Sei . Food Agric. 36:1254-1258
In article      View Article
 
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In article      View Article
 
[41]  Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC, Pfundstein B, Spiegelhelder B, Bartsch H, Dwen R (2011). Evaluation of polyphenolic components and in vitro antioxidant properties of Syzygium aromaticum (L). Joyful and perry. EJEA Ch, 10(3), 1970-8.
In article      
 
[42]  Ozcan, T., Akpinar-Bayizit, A., Yilmaz-Ersan, L., & Delikanli, B. (2014). Phenolics in human health. International Journal of chemical engineering and applications, 5(5), 393.
In article      View Article
 
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In article      
 
[44]  Abdou BA, (2009) Contribution to the study of the development of a functional food based on spices from Cameroon: physico-chemical and functional characterization. National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine, University of Ngaoundere, Ensai, 228 p.
In article      
 
[45]  Mhya, DH, Amigo, KM, Umar, IA, Alegbejo, JO (2016). Evaluation of hypoglycemic potential of extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca parts. Int. J. Innov. Adv. Study, 3, 135-138.
In article      
 
[46]  Chothani, D. L., & Vaghasiya, H. U. (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5(9), 55.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Cheftel JC, Cheftel H, Besancon P. (1983). Introduction to Biochemistry and Food Technology. Technical Edition and Documentation, Lavoisier: Paris; 1. 420.
In article