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Nutritional Quality of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves during Traditional Boiling

Dogni Kouassi Dappah , Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N’Dri, Georges N’Guessan Amani
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2021, 9(1), 43-48. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-9-1-6
Received January 13, 2021; Revised February 14, 2021; Accepted February 28, 2021

Abstract

Background and objectives: Green vegetables are considered an important source of some nutritionally constituents that have health benefits. Generally, food composition databases related to raw foods are available, but data on cooked foods in Cote d’Ivoire are still lacking. The current study aimed to evaluate antioxidant compounds, Fatty acids and determine nutritional profile using the LIM and SAIN system of Solanum nigrum leaves before and after boiling. Materials and Methods: The leaves were subjected to boiling in cooker for 10, 15 and 20 min. Fatty acids and carotenoids and were determined according to standard methods for nutritional guidelines. Results The polyunsaturated, unsaturated fatty, omega-6 and omega-3, were investigated and the results obtained were as follow: (880.52 ± 0.06 - 3634.32 ± 3.20 mg /100g), (1047.03±0.63-2466.76 ± 0.48 mg/ 100g), (177.96 ± 0.33 - 1415.42 ± 0.31 mg/100 g), (459.21 ± 0.31-969.29± 0.05 mg/100g). The Carotenoids, β-Carotene and lycopene contents were high with remarkable amount (65.70 ± 0.12 - 37.38 ±0.03 mg / 100g), (17.65 ± 0.12 - 26.37 ±0.31 mg / 100g) and (1.64 ± 0.03 - 6.33 ± 0.01 mg / 100g). All samples have score SAIN > 5 and LIM score <7.5, profile recommended for health. Conclusion: These results revealed that Solanum nigrum leaves was important source of some nutritionally constituent. However, longer time of boiling (higher than 10 min) caused negative impacts by reducing nutritive compounds. It suggested that the recommended time for domestic cooking must be less than 10 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population.

1. Introduction

Green leafy vegetables occupied an important place among the food crops as they provide adequate amounts of many vitamins and minerals. The importance and awareness of nutrient in public health issues have resulted in the increase demand of knowledge of the nutrient in vegetables 1. Their components are essential for rural subsistence livelihood, health and the most affordable sources of micronutrients and health promoting phytochemicals for human 2, 3, 4. For human, they are rich sources of oil, carbohydrates, carotenes, ascorbic acid, retinol, riboflavin, folic acid and minerals depending on the consumed vegetable 5. Solanum nigrum Linn (Family Solanaceae) is generally used in the traditional medicine as a remedy for treating various diseases. 6. This plant species also has medicinal significance among Africans who included decoction or extract of the leaves in some ethno medicinal preparations particularly for the treatment of dysentery, haemoptysis, haemorrhoids, wound sepsis, and laxatives 7. The leaves are used to heal open wounds and is known to possess hypotensive effect 8. It commonly consumed as cooked complement to the major staple food 9. However, cooking, such as boiling, steaming and frying may be caused deterioration of constituents 10. The impact of food transformations on final nutritional quality of food products is a major question that has been studied only partially 11. Nutritional profiling consisted of a classification of foods based on their nutritional composition 12. Nutrient profile concept implied that it is possible to discriminate between foods according to their contribution to a healthy diet on the basis of their nutrient contents of key component. 13. The SAIN and LIM system can be helped to choose the best food and contributed to reduce malnutrition 2. The aimed of this study was to evaluate antioxidant compounds, fatty acids and determine nutritional profile using the LIM and SAIN system to of Solanum nigrum leaves before and after boiling.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Material

Solanum nigrum was previously authenticated by National Floristic Center (University Felix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire). The leaves were collected fresh and at maturity from cultivated farmlands located at Dabou (latitude: 5°19′14″ North; longitude: 4°22′59″West) in the District of Abidjan.

2.2. Methods
2.2.1. Preparation of Raw and Cooked Leaves

Leaves were put into clean and dry containers and transferred to the laboratory of Food Biochemical and Tropical Products Technology (Nangui Abrogoua University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire) and were cooked after cleaning and washing with water 14.


2.2.2. Boiling of Leaves

The boiling of leaves was carried out as described previously 15. One (1) l of water was brought to boil in 2-l beaker. The beaker was covered to prevent water loss to evaporation. Five hundred grams of Solanum nigrum leaves were boiled separately for 0, 10, 15 and 20 min. After cooking, the vegetables were drained, cooled for a few minutes at room temperature homogenized, and. were oven-dried at 40°C for 72 h, grounded into flour and stored in polyethylene bags for biochemical analyzes


2.2.3. Determination of Total Carotenoids, β-Carotene and Lycopene

The method of Nayek et al. 16 was used for total Carotenoid contents determination using Diethyl-ether as solvents. The determination of β-carotene and lycopene was done according to the method of Kumara et al. 17. Dried sample was extracted using methanol and extract (100 mg) was mixed with 10 ml of acetone-hexane mixture (4 :6) for 1 min and filtered. The absorbance was recorded at wavelengths of 453, 505 and 663 nm and calculated as follows:

(1)
(2)

The results were expressed with mg/100 g of dried matter.


2.2.4. Determination Acids Fatty Profile

The method of AOAC. 18 was used for lipid extraction. The lipid extract was subjected to acidic methanolysis to prepare fatty acid methyl esters as described previously 19. One (1) μL of oil converted to methyl ester was injected into GC coupled with MS to obtain individual peaks of the fatty acid methyl esters. The amounts of each of the fatty acids were calculated from the areas of the internal standards (heptadecanoic acid) 20. The contents of the particular fatty acids are expressed as percentages of the sum of all of the fatty acids analysed.


2.2.5. Determination of Water-soluble Vitamins, Minerals and Nutritional Profile by the SAIN, LIM Systems.

The determination of water-soluble vitamin (folic acid) was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography according to Miglio et al 21. Vitamin C, Iron, Calcium, protein, fiber, saturated fatty acid, sodium and sugar were determined according to standard methods for nutritional guidelines and SAIN and LIM scores were calculated using the nutrient profiling system of the French Food Safety Agency 11, 13.


2.2.6. Data Analysis

Analyses were made in triplicate and the mentioned values were the average ± standard deviation (SD). These experimental data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test for mean separation at P = 0.05 in STATISTICA software version 7.1.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Results
3.1.1. Total Carotenoids β-carotene and Lycopene Contents

The total carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene contents of Solanum nigrum L. leaves are presented in Figure 1. In this study, the boiling significantly (p 0.05) increased initially from raw to 10 min (53.95 ± 0.38 to 65.70 ± 0.12 mg/100g) and decreased (65.70 ± 0.12 - 37.38 ± 0.03 mg/100g) at 10 and 20 min of boiling. The β-Carotene content of the uncooked leaves initially increased from raw to 10 min (18.17 ± 0.01 to 26.37 ±0.31mg/100g) and decreased (26.37 ±0.3 to 17.65 ± 0.12 mg/100g) at 10 to 20 min of boiling. For lycopene contents, significant (P= 0.05) differences were observed for all samples. Lycopene content was significantly increased initially from raw to 10 min (1.64 ± 0.03 - 6.33 ± 0.01 mg / 100g) and decreased (6.33 ± 0.01 - 3.58 ± 0.08 mg/100g) at 10 and 20 min of boiling.


3.1.2. Fatty Acids Contents

The fatty acids contents of the boiled and raw leaves were presented in Figure 2. The fatty acids parameters generally differed significantly (p < 0.05) from boiled to fresh leaves. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content of the uncooked leaves initially increased from raw to 15 min (880.5 to 3702.80 mg/100g) and decreased (3400.70 mg/100g) at 20 min of boiling unsaturated fatty acids contents after 10 min of boiling decreased significantly (P = 0.05) compared with the fresh leaves and ranged from 2466.77 ± 0.47 to 1047.03 ± 0.61 mg/100g (boiled at 20 min). Omega 6 content was decreased significantly (P = 0.05) from all boiled samples with the values of 1415.50 ± 0.36, 987.70 ± 0.10 and 177.96 ±0.92 mg/100 g respectively for uncooked, boiled at 10, 15 min and became null after 20 min of cooking. The Omega 3 content after 10 min of boiling decreased significantly (P = 0.05) compared to the fresh leaves and ranged from 157.45±2.73 to 73.82±1.22 mg/100 g (boiled at 20 min).


3.1.3. Vitamins B Content and Nutritional Profile

The impact of boiling on vitamins (vitamin B1 and B2) contents is depicted in Figure 3. The vitamins contents generally differed significantly (p < 0.05) from boiled to fresh leaves. Vitamin B1 contents after 10 min of boiling decreased significantly (P = 0.05) compared to the fresh leaves and ranged from 2.58 ± 0.00 to 0.18 ± 0.00 g/100 g (boiled at 20 min). The Vitamin B2 contents were significantly different (P = 0.05) in all samples with the values of 0.26 ± 0.00, 0.07 ± 0.00, 0.05 ± 0.00 and 0.04 ± 0.00 g/100 g respectively for uncooked, boiled at 10 min, 15 min and 20 min. Figure 4 shows the LIM and SAIN scores of S. nigrum leaves at different cooking time. All samples have LIM scores below 7.5 and SAIN scores above 5.

3.2. Discussion

Food quality often deals only with the influences of primary production and industrial processing. Food preparation at home as final step of the chain has also great influence on quality determining parameters 22. The effect of boiling on carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene contents of Solanum nigrum leaves is given in Figure 1. All parameters significantly (p 0.05) increased initially from raw to 10 min and decreased at 10 and 20 min of boiling. The temperature, instead of the presence of water, was the major factor influencing the carotenoids stability 23. In green vegetables, β-carotene is incorporated in the carotenoid-protein-complexes in the chloroplasts. Cooking led to a softening of the plant tissue and the denaturation of proteins so that the carotenoids can be extracted much easier 24. β-carotene, and more recently lycopene and other specific carotenoids, have been the subject of many observational studies assessing their association with chronic diseases 25. β-carotene from fruits was more effective in increasing plasma levels of β-carotene 26. High circulating levels of their biomarkers (carotenoids), have been associated with a relatively low incidence of cardiovascular disease, cataract, cancer and prevent Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis 27, 28, 29. In addition, high levels of circulating lycopene have been associated with cholesterol serum levels decreasing and have been shown to be effective against several common diseases including atherosclerosis, and heart disease 30, 31. The fatty acids content of the boiled and raw leaves was presented in Figure 2. The fatty acids parameters generally differed significantly (p < 0.05) from boiled to fresh leaves. The unsaturated fatty content of the uncooked leaves initially increased from raw to 15 min and decreased at 20 min of boiling. During cooking, the oils and fats are exposed to high temperature which may result in changes in their chemical properties 32. It is an triester of fatty acids and glycerol heating oil at a temperature above its smoke point results in breaking down its triglyceride to glycerol and fatty acids. Furthermore, heating break-down the glycerol to acrolein which ends up in losing flavour and nutritional value of the specific oil. In addition, the heating of oils and fats without catalysts produces secondary lipid peroxidation abducts such as carbonyls and cyclic fatty acids which are toxic to human body 33. The amount of polyunsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6 of boiled leaves, significantly (p<0.05) decreased during boiling compared to the control. The long-chain of polyunsaturated are susceptible to oxidation during heating and other culinary treatments 34. The polyunsaturated fatty acids are essentials in human diets and their deficiency leads to a slowing of growth and development, an alteration of the integrity of the skin and kidney 35. α-linolenic acid is part of the n-3 series present in many plants 36. Intake of omega-6 fatty acids shifts the physiological state to one that is prothrombotic, whereas omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, hypolipidemic and vasodilatory properties 37. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for normal growth and development and may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, other inflammatory, autoimmune disorders, and vasodilatory discover 38. The effect of boiling on vitamins composition of Solanum nigrum leaves is given in Figure 3. The residual contents of vitamins after 10 min of cooking were: Vitamin B1 (1260-180 mg/100 g) and vitamin B2 (70-40 mg/100 g). Vitamin B1 and B2 are water-soluble vitamins, the reduction of vitamin content may be due to leach into the boiling water 39. Water-soluble vitamins are essential compounds for adequate functioning of the human body. In metabolic processes, several B-group vitamins act mainly as coenzymes to produce energy and play important roles 40. Also, they are involved in the processes of normal metabolism and cell regulation, and they are necessary for growth and development; thus, they are chemicals that we all need to stay healthy 41. Figure 4 showed the LIM and SAIN scores. All samples have high SAIN (SAIN> 5) and low LIM (LIM <7.5). SAIN and LIM system can be helped to choose the best food and contribute to reduce malnutrition 2. The food which have higher SAIN high and lower LIM are a good profile and recommended to prevent diseases 2, 42. However, boiling impact significantly nutritional quality of leaves. Boiling at 10 min was considered the best to preserve Solanum nigrum leaves contents.

4. Conclusion

Solanum nigrum leaves are good source of essential fatty acids, carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene which could contribute to their medicinal value. Their leafy leaves if consumed in sufficient amount would contribute greatly to the human nutritional requirement for normal growth and adequate protection against diseases arising from malnutrition. Boiling has great influence on quality determining parameters. It caused the loss of nutrients, this might be due to leaching during heat application. It was noted a significant reduction of nutrient content of leaves after boiling. Thus, the study suggests that the time of domestic boiling must be less than 10 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Dogni Kouassi Dappah, Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N’Dri and Georges N’Guessan Amani

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Normal Style
Dogni Kouassi Dappah, Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N’Dri, Georges N’Guessan Amani. Nutritional Quality of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves during Traditional Boiling. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2021, pp 43-48. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/9/1/6
MLA Style
Dappah, Dogni Kouassi, et al. "Nutritional Quality of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves during Traditional Boiling." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 9.1 (2021): 43-48.
APA Style
Dappah, D. K. , Kouamé, C. A. , Kouassi, N. K. , N’Dri, D. Y. , & Amani, G. N. (2021). Nutritional Quality of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves during Traditional Boiling. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 9(1), 43-48.
Chicago Style
Dappah, Dogni Kouassi, Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N’Dri, and Georges N’Guessan Amani. "Nutritional Quality of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves during Traditional Boiling." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 9, no. 1 (2021): 43-48.
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[1]  Chinma, C. E. and Igyor, M. A. Micronutrients and antinutrient content of selected tropical vegetables grown in south east Nigeria. Nigeria. Food Journal, 25(1): 111-116, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Koné, M. B., Traore, S. and Brou, K. Use of SAIN and LIM system for determination of nutritional profile of foods consumed by under-five children in the District of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Global Journal of Biology Agriculture and Health Sciences, 5(1): 1-6, 2016.
In article      
 
[3]  Gunn, C. A., Weber, J. L., McGill, A. T. and Kruger, M. C. Increased intake of selected vegetables, herbs and fruit may reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal women. Nutrients, 7: 2499-2517, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Oyedeji, O. A., Azeez, L. A. and Osifade, B. G. Chemical and nutritional compositions of flame of forest (Delonix regia) seeds and seed oil. South African Journal Chemical, 70: 16-20, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Fasuyi, A. O., Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetables meals. Chemical characterization and functional properties. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(1): 49 53, 2006.
In article      
 
[6]  Mallika, J. and Shyamala, C. S. D. Antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum berries on aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemestry, 19(1): 57-61, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
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