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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Fatty Acid Profile of Some Selected Locally Consumed Vegetable Oils in Enugu State, Nigeria

Nkwocha Chinelo Chinenye , Chukwuma Ifeoma Felicia, Umeakuana Chidimma Doris
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2019, 7(4), 130-135. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-7-4-3
Received September 14, 2019; Revised October 24, 2019; Accepted November 17, 2019

Abstract

The fatty acid profile of a foreign produced vegetable oil (Turkey Vegetable Oil) was compared with some locally produced oil (Mamador Oil, Kings Oil, Nsukka palm oil and Imo palm oil). The fatty acid contents were analyzed and quantified. The analysis was carried out using HPLC Waters 616/626 system. The result of PUFA showed that Kings Vegetable Oil has the highest value of 9.341 ug/g, Mamador Vegetable Oil (8.361 ug/g), Turkey Vegetable Oil (6.007 ug/g), Nsukka palm oil (0.208 ug/g) and Imo palm oil (0.184 ug/g). Results of MUFA showed that Kings Vegetable Oil had the highest value of 11.909 ug/g, Mamador Vegetable Oil (10.661 ug/g), Turkey Vegetable Oil (7.659 ug/g), Nsukka palm oil (0.265 ug/g) and Imo palm oil (0.234 ug/g). Result of SFA showed that Kings Vegetable Oil has the highest value of 31.758 ug/g, Mamador Vegetable Oil (28.429 ug/g), Turkey Vegetable Oil (20.425 ug/g), Nsukka palm oil (0.706 ug/g) and Imo palm oil (0.624 ug/g). The result also showed the overall total fatty acids (TFA) for each vegetable oil with Nsukka palm oil showing the highest value of 91.186 ug/g, Imo palm oil (90. 075 ug/g), Kings Vegetable Oil (63.005 ug/g), Mamador Vegetable Oil (53.986 ug/g) and Turkey Vegetable Oil (foreign produced oil) had the least, 47.996 ug/g. The findings of this study suggest that an excessive intake of these vegetable oils may pose a risk of CVD and other health implications.

1. Introduction

Vegetable oil, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats, vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides 1. Soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and cocoa butter are examples of fats from seeds. Olive oil, palm oil, and rice bran oil are example of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature 2. Vegetable oils should not be confused with essential oils such as lavender oil, clove oil, or bay leaf oil. Essential oils are not fats. The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds. This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered.

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are usually not found per se in organisms, but instead as three main classes of esters: triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for animals and they are important structural components for cells. Edible fats and oil are carriers of the important biological factors which relate to the presence of essential fatty acids. Vegetable oils are the primary source of essential fatty acids. Although the fats can be described as one of the basic nutritional components and they perform specific functions in the human body, currently they are perceived as a component associated with increased risk of disease. The problem is not in fats, but their over-consumption, especially in the unbalanced intake of fatty acids (3). This study was therefore aimed at comparing the fatty acid profile of some locally produced vegetable oils with a foreign produced vegetable oil.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

One foreign (Turkey Vegetable Oil produced by Ngo Chew Hong edible oil PTE limited) and four locally produced (Mamador Vegetable Oil by PZ Wilmar limited, Kings Vegetable Oil by Wilmar international limited, Imo palm oil(unbranded) and Nsukka palm oil (unbranded) were used for this study. Imo palm oil (unbranded) was bought from Imo state, Nigeria while the other oils were bought from Ogige market in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.


2.1.1. Equipment and Instruments

All apparatus used in this study were gotten from IITA, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.


2.1.2. Chemicals and Reagents

All chemicals and reagents used in this study were of analytical grade. They were from Sigma Aldrich, St Louis, USA, Millipore, Bedford, USA and Shanghai reagent co., China.

2.2. Methods
2.2.1. General Extraction

A total of 5 ml of oil samples each were measured with a measuring cylinder into tubes and acid hydrolysis was carried out with 2 mols of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) under nitrogen at 100°C for 6 hours.

It was then diluted with ultra-pure water of 60 ml volume and shaken for 10 minutes and then transferred into centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 5 minutes at 5000 rpm (revolution per minute). The supernatants were then transferred to a set of glass vials and stored for determination of parameters like Fatty acid profile, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, and TG.


2.2.2. Fatty Acid (FA) Determination Using HPLC Waters 616/626 System

About 10 ml of the supernatant from the glass vials were collected from each of the samples extracted into different extraction tubes. These tubes were labeled A, B, C, D and E. In each tube, 20ml of cold isopropanol was added, shaken and allowed to stand for 10 minutes.

A re-extraction with chloroform/methanol mixture took place in a ratio of 2:1 and was shaken for 30 minutes and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 5000rpm. The supernatants were then transferred to another set of clean vials for determination of fatty acid compositions using HPLC model Waters 616/626 system. These parameters were detected using fluorescence detector. Fluorescennce detector was used because it is a very sensitive analysis.

The mobile phase used was N-butanol/pyridine/water in a ratio of 7:3:1 ml. And the stationary phase was the column (medium) the sample path travel.

The Waters 616/626 HPLC system used was programmed with a software that converts the relationship of the mobile phase with the stationary phase and the molecular weight of the component in the samples e.g. SFA, USFA, MUFA, PUFA and is reported in ppm. The system software calculates it in either percentage (%) or in ug/g.

3. Results

Table 1 shows the fatty acid profile of the different vegetable oil sample. Nsukka palm oil shows the highest value of total fatty acids of 91.186 ug/g and Turkey Vegetable Oil showing the least value of 47.966 ug/g.

3.1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Values Present in the Different Vegetable Oil

Table 2 shows the PUFA values of five vegetable oils which ranges from 9.341-0.184 (ug/g), with Kings Vegetable Oil showing the highest value of PUFA and Imo palm oil having the least value of PUFA.

3.2. Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) Values Present in the Different Vegetable Oil

Table 3 shows the SFA values of the vegetable oils used. The result ranges from 31.758-0.624 (ug/g) with Kings Vegetable Oil having the highest value of SFA and Imo palm oil having the least.

3.3. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) Values Present in the Different Vegetable Oil

The MUFA values of five vegetable oils as shown in Table 4 ranges from 11.909-0.234 (ug/g), with Kings Vegetable Oil having the highest value and the least being Imo palm oil as represented in the table.

4. Discussion

The present study shows the fatty acid profile of different vegetable oils which were analysed using HPLC Waters 616/626 system and the mobile phase used was N-butanol/pyridine/water in a ratio of 7:3:1 ml. Table 2 shows that Kings Vegetable Oil has the highest value of PUFA followed by Mamador Vegetable Oil, Turkey Vegetable Oil, Nsukka palm oil and Imo palm oil with values 9.341, 8.361, 6.007, 0.208 and 0.184ug/g respectively. The present study showed that linolenic acid ranges from 2.25-8.86 ug/g and linoleic acid content in the vegetable oils ranges from 2.087-5.721 ug/g. A study carried out by Guarrasi 4 on different vegetable oils showed the linolenic acid content of 5-9% and an increase in the content of linoleic acid as 48-58%. A study carried out by Helena 5 in selected vegetable oils showed linolenic acid value of 0.17-56.02% and that of linoleic acid to be 6.51- 46.40%. The variation in these studies may be linked to the differences in the method of analysis, or method of processing the various oils.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contain more than one unsaturation in their molecules which make them very beneficial to health. The most studied fatty acids are the essential, namely: linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA); and those considered long-chain fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and arachidonic acid (AA), which can be divided into two classes, omega-3 (w-3, n-3): ALA, DHA, and EPA, and omega-6 (w-6, n-6): LA and AA and they can be found in fish oil and plant seeds such as flax seeds, safflower, olive oil and soy bean seed 6. Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs are essential for the body and compete for desaturase and elongase enzymes originating differentiated series of eicosanoids (prostacyclin, thromboxane, and leukotrienes), which will have specific functions in each tissue type, namely: production and inhibition of platelet aggregation; anti-inflammatory, chemotactic, and vasodilator effect; and uptake of cholesterol from the tissues. It is worth mentioning that polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids may interfere in the mechanism of these enzymes and inactivate the eicosanoids. The vast majority of the eicosanoids derived from omega-6 fatty acids have proinflammatory and proarrhythmic effects and induce fever, pain, bronchoconstriction, proaggregating effect, and vasoconstriction. Eicosanoids derived from omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic and anti-aggregation effects, and decreased oxidative stress 7, 8.

Omega-3 PUFAs have proven to be beneficial for health. In cardiovascular cases, they inhibit platelet aggregation (anti-thrombotic effect), stimulate vessel dilation, have anti-inflammatory effect, reduce chemotaxis of leukocytes, inhibit the synthesis of triacylglycerides in the liver by inhibiting the secretion of smaller VLDL particles which become larger LDL particles (atherogenic), stimulate the reverse transport of this cholesterol favouring its capture to the liver and its elimination through the bile duct 9.

Due to agrobusiness and modern agriculture Western diets contain excessive levels of omega-6 PUFAs but very low levels of omega-3 PUFAs, leading to an unhealthy omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 20:1, instead of 1:1 that was during evolution in humans 10, 11. An unbalanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in favor of omega-6 PUFAs is highly prothrombotic and proinflammatory, which contributes to the prevalence of atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes 12, 13, 14, 15. In fact, regular consumption of diets rich in omega-3 PUFAs have been associated with low incidence of these diseases, particularly in Icelandic populations, Inuit indigenous people, and Native Americans in Alaska 16, 17. However, using fish oil as the primary source of omega-3 PUFAs to treat type 2 diabetes has not always met with success 15, 18, 19. Nutritional studies suggest that high omega-6/omega-3 ratios have contributed significantly to the “obesity epidemic” 20, 21. Clinical trials using omega-3 PUFAs as weight-reducing agents have produced conflicting findings of both positive 22, 23, 24 and negative effects 25, 26, 27 due to many factors such as variation in the dose of omega-3 fatty acids, variation in the number of subjects, variation in the severity of disease, variation in the pharmacologic treatment and genetic variants predisposing to obesity 27.

However, a deficiency of essential fatty acids either omega-3s or omega-6s can cause rough, scaly skin and dermatitis 28.

Table 4 also presented MUFA values of each vegetable oil. Kings vegetable oil has the highest MUFA value followed by Mamador Vegetable Oil, Turkey Vegetable Oil, Nsukka palm oil and Imo palm oil having the least with values 11.909, 10.661, 7.659, 0.265 and 0.234ug/g respectively. Monounsaturated fats (MUFAs) are found in nuts, avocados, olives, animal fats including lard, duck, and tallow. Monounsaturated fats intake can reduce the risk of heart disease, help lose weight, improve immune function and diabetes symptoms 29. The most common MUFAs in daily nutrition are oleic and palmitoleic acids 30. Table 1 shows that Nsukka palm oil and Imo palm oil have a significant value of palmitoleic acid of 51.931 and 49.620 ug/g respectively. This could be compared with the findings of Kawada 31 and another study carried out by Sodamade 32 showed an increase in palmitoleic acid value of 49%. A study in China which compared palm, soybean, peanut oils and lard showed that palm oil actually increased the levels of good cholesterol and reduced the levels of bad cholesterol in the blood 33. Zhang 33 reported that in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects, the use of palm oil in the diet should be safe and will not increase the risk of Cerebro Vascular Disease (CVD).

Table 1 shows oleic acid to be higher in Kings Vegetable Oil with a value of 9.558 ug/g which is slightly higher than Nsukka palm oil (8.477 ug/g). A study carried out by Kawada 31 also shows a significant increase in the value of oleic acid in some vegetable oils within the range of 28.3-39.5% and that of palm oil to be 37.6%. The variations reported in these studies might be linked to the differences in the method of analysis. From nutritional viewpoint, the presence of oleic acid in diet is very useful. It has been shown that oleic acid is effective in lowering LDL (low density lipoprotein) content and LDL cholesterol content and atherosclerosis 34.

Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), such as the Mediterranean diet, may help with weight loss 30. In obese women, a diet high in MUFAs led to more weight and fat loss than high polyunsaturated fat diet or their habitual diet 35. However, in overweight/obese type 2 diabetics, a high-MUFA diet was as effective as a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in terms of weight loss (4% of body weight lost), HDL levels, blood pressure, and blood sugar improvements 36. A diet high in MUFA can also help lower cholesterol levels. The replacement of saturated fat with MUFA decreases LDL cholesterol, which is the main risk factor for heart disease 37.

Recent studies found out that food high in MUFAs may be healthier for diabetic patients than low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. The Mediterranean diet, which is high in MUFAs, improve glucose control and insulin sensitivity 35. Overweight/obese type 2 diabetes patients can better control their diabetes with a high-MUFA diet than a high-carbohydrate diet. In healthy subjects, replacing saturated fats by MUFAs in the diet helped improve insulin sensitivity. However, this favorable effect on insulin sensitivity only occurs along with a low total fat intake. Also, the high-MUFA diet had no effect on insulin secretion 38.

However, MUFA intake on their own does not have any toxic effects. An excessive fat intake can increase calorie consumption leading to weight gain 39. Foods high in MUFA can simultaneously be high in other fats. A high-fat (total fat, saturated, and monounsaturated fat) diet is associated with increased gallstone disease risk.

In contrast to oleic acid, uncommon MUFAs can increase the risk of heart disease. 7-hexadecenoic acid and cis-vaccenic acid were associated with higher heart attack (sudden cardiac arrest) risk in a prospective study of 2,890 elderly people 40. Although MUFA consumption can be the cause of the increased risk, the results of this study are also associated with higher carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol intake. Therefore, it was not clear if MUFAs consumption was problematic 40.

Table 3 reveals the saturated fatty acid content of different vegetable oil ranging from (31.758-0.624 ug/g) and kings vegetable oil shows the highest content of saturated fatty acid with a value of 31.758 ug/g. Saturated fat of plant or animal origin has been an important ingredient in Western and non-Western diets for centuries. For the past 30 or 40 years, dietary saturated fats have attained a poor reputation especially in relation to cardiovascular health; recommendations to reduce consumption persist even in the face of equivocal or contradictory evidence.

A meta-analysis by Siri-Tarino 41 showed that there was no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, whereas some dairy products contribute to the intake of dietary saturated fat, a meta-analysis in this theme issue of the available prospective studies showed that dairy consumption is associated with decreases in CVD risk 42. Although some long chain saturated fatty acids raise low-density (LDL) cholesterol in specific dietary interventions, these fatty acids may have a positive effect on the complex of other markers referred to as atherogenic dyslipidemia: increased concentrations of small, dense LDL particles, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and increased triglycerides, which may be a more important risk factor for myocardial infarction and CVD. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fats may have a limited effect and low omega-3 fatty acid intake may carry a much larger CVD burden 42.

However, dietary guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) recommend a total fat intake between 20 and 35% of total calories 43. The minimum of 20% is to ensure adequate consumption of total energy, essential fatty acids, and fat-soluble vitamins and prevent atherogenic dyslipidemia (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) which occurs with low-fat, high carbohydrate diets and increases risk of coronary heart disease 43. The maximum of 35% was based on limiting saturated fat and also the observation that individuals on higher fat diets consume more calories, resulting in weight gain 44. No Tolerable Upper Intake Level was set for total fat because there is no intake level for which there is an adverse event 43. Of note, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) placed emphasis on the types and quality of foods consumed and did not set an upper limit for total fat based on the lack of supporting evidence 43. This was reflected in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, which emphasizes types of fat within the context of a healthy dietary pattern 45.

5. Conclusion

The fatty acid composition of vegetable oils has a big impact on the properties and quality of food. It is important to limit the quantity of fats however good the quality of fat is. This is so because fats are high in calories and every gram increase in fat intake results in calorific overload and may pose adverse risk in our health such as CVDs. Knowing the health benefits and implications of these vegetable oils and the fatty acids they contain is of paramount importance. Monounsaturated fatty acids and proper proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids should form a large bulk of our oil intake and avoid excessive intake of saturated fatty acid. Hence, optimum balance of these fat components is necessary to achieve favourable effects on health.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Nkwocha Chinelo Chinenye, Chukwuma Ifeoma Felicia and Umeakuana Chidimma Doris

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Nkwocha Chinelo Chinenye, Chukwuma Ifeoma Felicia, Umeakuana Chidimma Doris. Fatty Acid Profile of Some Selected Locally Consumed Vegetable Oils in Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp 130-135. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/7/4/3
MLA Style
Chinenye, Nkwocha Chinelo, Chukwuma Ifeoma Felicia, and Umeakuana Chidimma Doris. "Fatty Acid Profile of Some Selected Locally Consumed Vegetable Oils in Enugu State, Nigeria." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7.4 (2019): 130-135.
APA Style
Chinenye, N. C. , Felicia, C. I. , & Doris, U. C. (2019). Fatty Acid Profile of Some Selected Locally Consumed Vegetable Oils in Enugu State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(4), 130-135.
Chicago Style
Chinenye, Nkwocha Chinelo, Chukwuma Ifeoma Felicia, and Umeakuana Chidimma Doris. "Fatty Acid Profile of Some Selected Locally Consumed Vegetable Oils in Enugu State, Nigeria." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7, no. 4 (2019): 130-135.
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