Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Attributes of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat, Rago Sheep Milks, Their Blends and Cow Milk

Sunday Edet Enidiok , Edisua Horgan Itam, Eyong Ubani Eyong
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2019, 7(2), 49-54. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-7-2-3
Received May 07, 2019; Revised June 13, 2019; Accepted July 02, 2019

Abstract

One of the dairy products with high nutritional value and healthful properties is yoghurt. Considering the therapeutic value of Akwiyáa milk, nutritional content of Rago milk and health benefits of carrot, the present study was designed to produce functional yoghurt based on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of these ingredients. Physicochemical, mineral and sensory attributes of yoghurts produced from Àkwiyáa milk(X1), Rago milk(X2), blends of Àkwiyáa and Rago milk samples enhanced with carrot (X1X2YC) and 100% cow milk(X0) as control, were evaluated. Milk samples X1, X2 and X0 were asceptically obtained manually, screened and pasteurized at 70° -75°C for 30 minutes. Twenty (20g) of carrot juice at the rate of 10% was added to 180g of each milk sample for production of yoghurts, X1YC and X2YC. Àkwiyáa/Rago milk blend yoghurt samples X1X2YC1 (50/50), X1X2YC2 (60/40), X1X2YC3 (70/30), X1X2YC4 (80/20) with 20g carrot; X1X2Y0 (50/50) and X0Y0 (100%) without carrot were produced with 5% sugar addition. Fermentation using mixed starter culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus at the rate of 18g/L was carried out at 43°C for 6hr and terminated at pH 4.5. Minerals: calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron in X1YC and X2YC were higher than the control (X0Y0). Treatment samples were also nutritionally richer than the control with X1X2YC1 averagely having the highest values. In sensory evaluation, the treatment samples had similar organoleptic rating with the control. However, X2YC and X1X2YC3 were rated best in general acceptability. Sample X1X2YC3 would be most acceptable to consumers as nutraceutical: based on the nutrient rich quality of ruminants’ milk, carotenoids and fibre from carrot which could be harnessed for healthy living.

1. Introduction

Dairy products are considered to be one of the main food groups important in a balanced diet because they provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and are good sources of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and energy. These nutrients aid in proper functioning of the human system including maintenance of normal vision, red blood cells, protection of DNA, protection of proteins and lipids from oxidative changes, normal functioning of the immune system, neurological and psychological functions, reduction of oxidative stress, healthy growth and maintenance of teeth and bones 1, 2. The major source of milk for human consumption is dairy cow. However, other domesticated ruminants such as goat and sheep provide milk for the same purpose in other parts of the world 3, 4. Goat milk has special nutritional properties that make it attractive to consumers such as digestibility, longer shelf life, smaller structure of casein micelles and high concentration of medium chain fatty acids which play important role in imparting unique health benefits 5, 6. The milk allergy problems with associated symptoms as gastrointestinal disturbances, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, constipation and respiratory problems can be eliminated when cow milk is substituted with goat milk 7.

Similarly, sheep milk has very high nutritional value compared to cow milk and it also contains twice more solids than cow milk with higher levels of vitamin E, water soluble vitamins and minerals 3, 7. Sheep milk as well as yoghurt and cheese made from it may give the lactose intolerant individual the chance to enjoy milk again. Although it contains higher levels of butter fat, it is actually lower in saturated fat than other types of milk, and therefore a good source of short and medium chain triacylglycerol. Medium chain fatty acids minimize cholesterol deposition in the arteries, aid in dissolving cholesterol and gallstones and significantly contribute to normal growth of infants 8. Sheep milk is higher in solids than milk from cow or goat. It is a rich source of important minerals such as calcium, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorous as well as vitamins A, B, D and E. It is also slightly higher in proteins than other forms of milk 3, 7.

Yogurt, a fermented milk product which originated from Turkey is one of the dairy product with high nutritional value and healthful properties. Yoghurt is a food obtained by controlled fermentation of milk by a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria selected to produce flavor and aroma 9. It is a very popular fermented food product widely consumed all over the world. Traditionally, yoghurt is made from animal milk. However, over the years, production of yoghurt from non dairy materials as tiger nut, soy bean, coconut and yam-bean has been reported in the literature 10, 11, 12. Yoghurt consumption offers health benefits which include the reduction of blood cholesterol level, anti-cancer effects and the improvement of antimicrobial activity and immunity 13, 14, 15. Fermented foods containing live cultures are considered as functional foods with health benefits. As the popularity of yoghurt products grows, manufacturers are continuously investigating the use of value added materials such as functional ingredients to satisfy health-conscious consumers. Functional ingredients are non-conventional biomolecules in food which possess the capacity to modulate one or more metabolic processes or pathways in the body resulting in improved health and promotion of well-being 16. Among these ingredients are probiotics and prebiotics. Equally, plant components known as phytonutrients have health promoting properties. Carrot is a significant source of phytonutrients 17. Carrot is rich in β-carotene, ascorbic acid and tocopherol and is classified as vitaminized food 18. Carrot contains variety of different desirable compounds including fibre at appreciable level; and so carrot is considered as a functional food with significant health promoting properties 19, 20. Carrot contains carotenoids, a group of natural pigments used commercially as food colorants and oxycarotenoids such as leutin which is protective against colon cancer in human 21, 22. This work was therefore designed to evaluate the effects of carrot on the quality and sensory attributes of carrot-enhanced yoghurts produced from Àkwiyáa milk, Rago milk, and their blends.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Sources of Materials

Samples of fresh Àkwiyáa goat milk (X1), Rago sheep milk (X2) and dairy cow milk (X0) were aseptically obtained by manual milking from a local Hausa farm in Uyo, Nigeria. The samples were stored at 4°C in a refrigerator (Model: CF- KR 195N) until the time used. Sugar, gelatin and mixed starter culture (Yògourmet: J8H4G4, LYO-SAN INC. Canada) were purchased from a shop in Akpan-Andem market in Uyo metropolis. Fresh tubers of carrot and plastic containers were also bought at Akpan Andem market while the de-ionized water was obtained from the microbiology laboratory of the University of Uyo.

2.2. Sample Preparation

The milk samples were screened to remove hair strands and any undesirable material and thereafter pasteurized at 70° - 75°C for 30 minutes to destroy undesirable microorganisms. Dry mixed starter culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Yògourmet: J8H4G4, LYO-SAN INC. Canada) was propagated for 1h at room temperature using pasteurized milk sample prepared for yoghurt production. Gelatin at the rate of 2% was dissolved in milk sample and used as stabilizer. Fresh Carrot tubers were washed in flowing tap water, shredded and blended using electric powered Philip blender (Model: HR-2818) with de-ionized water added in the ratio of 1:6 (w /w). The carrot mash was thereafter filtered using cheese cloth. The Juice obtained was pasteurized at 65°C for 30 minutes, cooled rapidly to 4°C and stored at that temperature in a refrigerator until when needed.

2.3. Production Process

Method of Bano et al. 7 was used for the production of the yoghurts. A total of eight 8 yoghurt samples were produced: Àkwiyáa goat milk with carrot juice (X1YC), Rago sheep milk with carrot juice (X2YC), samples of Àkwiyáa / Rago milk blend with carrot juice (X1X2YC1), (X1X2YC2), (X1X2YC3), (X1X2YC4); Àkwiyáa / Rago milk blend without carrot juice (X1X2Y0) and dairy cow milk without carrot juice (X0Y0) as control. The sample treatments were made up of 180g of pasteurized Àkwiyáa/Rago milk blend in different ratios of 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 80/20 with added 20g carrot juice at the rate of 10%. To each sample treatment, 5% (10g) sugar was added, homogenized using electric powered blender and there after cooled to 45°C. The treatment samples were inoculated at 43°C with 3.6g of the prepared mixed starter culture at the rate of 18g/L.

Fermentation was done in an incubator under anaerobic conditions for 6 hours at 43°C. When the yoghurt- mix pH decreased from initial 6.7 to 4.5, the fermentation was terminated by rapid cooling in refrigerator to 4°C. The mature yoghurt samples were then homogenized with addition of 4g gelatin (2%) as a gelling agent to obtain good texture, consistency and desirable mouth feel. The yoghurts were packaged in air-tight plastic containers, stored in refrigerator at 4°C and used for analyses within 24h.

2.4. Analysis of the Yoghurt Samples

The yoghurt samples were analysed for physico-chemical properties: moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, ash, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total solids, and carotene and also for mineral elements. Protein, fibre, fat, ash and total solids were determined by the methods of AOAC 23. The pH was measured using pH meter (PHS-3C, B. Bran scientific instrument, England), TTA as per cent lactic acid (titration against 0.1N NaOH) and carotene and vitamin C (lesany UV-VIS spectrophotometer, AE1011041). Mineral elements: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (UNICAM model 393) while potassium determination was by (Gallenkamp flame photometer (CL 378 ELCO). Sensory analysis method described by Iwe 24 was used to evaluate the yoghurt samples.

A 20 - member semi-trained panel with good sensory acuity, drawn from students and staff of University of Uyo carried out the sensory test. Rating was done using 9-point hedonic scale on the following attributes: colour, taste, consistency, mouth feel, flavour and general acceptability. Panelists were served potable drinking water to rinse their mouth after each sample before they proceeded to taste another.

2.5. Statistical Analysis

Data generated were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Significance was accepted at 5% probability level (P<0.05).

3. Result

The physicochemical properties of the yoghurts produced from Àkwiyáa goat milk with carrot juice (X1Yc), Rago sheep milk with carrot juice (X2Yc) in the ratios 180g milk : 20g carot juice; Àkwiyáa / Rago yoghurt samples X1X2YC1 from 50:50 milk, X1X2YC2 from 60:40 milk, X1X2YC3 from 70:30 milk and X1X2YC4 from 80:20 milk with added 20g carrot juice; Àkwiyáa/ Rago milk yoghurt X1X2Y0 from 50:50 milk without carrot juice and 100% dairy cow milk yoghurt (XoYo) as control are presented in Table 1.

The results (Table 1) showed significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatments and parameters evaluated. Moisture content ranged from (82.19±0.01% in X2Yc to 87.03±0.04% in X1Yc), protein (3.53±0.01% in X1Yc to 5.97±0.01% in X2Yc), carbohydrate (2.79±0.01% in X1X2Yc3 to 4.30±0.00% in X2Yc ), fibre (0.13±0.01% in X0Y0 to 0.73±0.04% in X1Yc ), fat (3.93±0.05% in X0Y0 to 6.65±0.01% X2Yc), ash (0.82±0.00% in X0Y0 to 0.87±0.01% in X2Yc), pH (4.49±0.06 in X0Y0 to 4.76±0.04 inX1X2Yc2), titratable acidity (0.78±0.01% in X2Yc to 0.84±0.01% in X1Yc and X1X2Yc), total soluble solids (12.71±0.03% in X1Yc to 17.85±0.01% in X2Yc), and carotene (2.50±0.03mg/100g in X0Y0 to 54.56±0.02mg/100g in X2Yc). Addition of the carrot juice increased the carotene and fibre contents of the yoghurt samples.

The results of the mineral composition of the yoghurt samples are presented in Table 2.

The mineral contents of dairy cow milk yoghurt (X0Y0) were significantly lower (P<0.05) in calcium 254.27±0.17mg, potassium 104.24±0.33mg, magnesium 14.77±0.07mg, phosphorus 275.08±0.13mg, zinc 0.44±0.01mg, and iron 0.15±0.01mg than the values of Rago milk yoghurt (X2YC) and all the blends of Àkwiyáa and Rago milk yoghurt samples: X1X2YC1, X1X2YC2, X1X2YC3, X1X2YC4 and X1X2Y0; but compared favourably with Àkwiyáa milk yoghurt X1YC. The levels of all the minerals except calcium in X1X2YC1 and X1X2Y0 yoghurt samples were slightly higher than those of individual Àkwiyáa X1YC, Rago X2YC and Dairy cow X0Y0 yoghurt samples and the blends X1X2YC2, X1X2YC3 and X1X2YC4.

Presented in Table 3 are the results of the sensory evaluation of yoghurts from Àkwiyàa milk (X1YC), Rago milk (X2YC) and their blends, (X1X2YC1), (X1X2YC2), (X1X2YC3) and (X1X2YC4) enhanced with carrot juice; also (X1X2Y0) and (X0Y0) yoghurt samples without carrot juice. Significance was accepted at (P < 0.05). The panel ratings were, X1X2YC1 (1.83±0.01) and X1X2Y0 (1.82±0.02) best in colour, X1X2YC2 (2.31±0.02) taste, X1X2 YC3 (1.85±0.01) consistency, X2YC (2.23±0.02) and (1.88±0.02) mouthfeel and flavor respectively. On general acceptability, the best ratings were obtained in X2YC (1.90±0.01) and X1X2YC3 (1.85±0.01).

4. Discussion

The observed differences in the moisture content of the yoghurt samples may be ascribed to the differences in casein-fat ratio values of the different milk used. Casein-fat ratio reported by Mallatou and Pappas 25 for sheep, goat and cow milk showed that the higher the moisture content, the lower the fat content, and vice versa. Of all the sample treatments, highest fat content was observed in yoghurt made from Rago milk with carrot juice (X2Yc), and this could be attributed to the lowest moisture content associated with sheep milk as reported by Park et al 26 and Clarence et al 27.

The highest ash content (0.87±0.01 %) also obtained in X2YC was expected since sheep milk contained higher amount of ash than goat or cow milk 25.

However, the ash content of the yoghurt samples produced from Àkwiyáa, Rago and dairy cow milk with and without carrot juice which ranged from 0.77±0.15% to 0.87±0.01% were not significantly different (P<0.05) from each other; again the results agreed with the work of Ozer et al 28, who reported a value of 0.79% for Labnel, a whole cow milk concentrated yoghurt. The amount of carbohydrate (Lactose) in X2YC yoghurt was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the value of X1YC, blends of Àkwiyáa/Rago milks with carrot juice: X1X2YC1 to X1X2YC4, blend of Àkwiyáa/Rago milk without carrot juice X1X2Y0 and the control X0Y0 (Table 1). This result was expected since the carbohydrate content of Rago was higher than that of Àkwiyáa and dairy cow milk and the result was in agreement with the work of Bano et al. 7 who also reported higher value of lactose in sheep milk than goat milk. The fibre contents of the yoghurt samples enhanced with carrot (0.45±0.03% – 0.73±0.04%) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those without carrot (0.13±0.01% – 0.17±0.01%). Incorporation of dietary fibre into yoghurts, other dairy products and jam can modify textural properties, reduce syneresis, and give better mouth feel with increased shelf life of the products 29, 30. A high intake of soluble dietary fibre inhibits absorption of cholesterol and bile acid from the small intestine, thereby reducing blood cholesterol and possibly reducing the risk of developing gallstones 31. Significant variations in protein content were noticed among the yoghurt samples in this study. These differences were linked to the differences in protein contents of milk from the three different animal species as shown in Table 1. Hardy 3 has also reported that sheep milk is slightly higher in protein content than other forms of milk. Rago milk yoghurt with carrot juice (X2Yc) had the highest total solid content among the yoghurt samples. This might be ascribed to the lower moisture but higher fat, protein and carbohydrate contents of Rago milk when compared to Àkwiyáa and cow milk. Bano et al. 7 has also reported that sheep milk contains two times more solids than other forms of milk. This attribute reflected in the firmer consistency and overall acceptability of X2Yc and X1X2Yc yoghurt samples compared to that of the control (X0Y0). It is also reported that curd stability in yoghurt is one of the most important quality properties and that it is influenced by total solids, protein content and the acidity of yoghurt. Equally, reported as important quality attributes of yoghurt are the rheological properties which are dependent on the content of total solids in milk 32. The pH values of the yoghurt samples were within the acceptable limits for quality yoghurt; since higher acidity usually stimulates syneresis in yoghurt 33. The slight differences in the pH values of the yoghurts may be attributed to the lower buffering capacities of Àkwiyáa and Cow milk due to their lower protein content. These results are similar to the works reported by Mallatou and Pappa 25. Guler- Akin and Akin 34 have also reported that the pH value is inversely proportional to the lactic acid content in yoghurt. The total titratable acidity (TTA) of this work which ranged from 0.78±0.01% to 0.84±0.01% was within acceptable limit. International Dairy Federation has recommended the minimum value of acidity in yoghurt to be 0.70% 35.

The values of the mineral elements obtained in this study showed good levels of availability among the yoghurt samples from all the three ruminants. It was also observed that, increase in the portion of Rago (X2) milk increased the levels of the mineral elements in the yoghurt samples. This is attributed to the higher level of ash in (X2) in relation to (X1) and (X0). It may also be accounted for by animal feed, breed, species, stage of lactation, and genetic make-up 36. It has also been reported that calcium level of mix goat and sheep milk yoghurt increases with increase in sheep milk ratio 37.

The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that, there were significant differences (P<0.05) among parameters and treatments. This can be attributed to variation in levels of different nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate and minerals in the individual samples resulting from material composition. Samples X1X2YC1 and X1X2Y0 were rated best in colour, X1X2YC2 taste, X1X2YC3 consistency, X2YC mouthfeel and flavour while sample X1X2YC3 was adjudged best in general acceptability.

5. Conclusion

Physicochemical properties of both the treatment samples and the control yoghurt showed high nutritional contents with treatment samples being hihger. Mineral elements of the yoghurt treatments were also significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control. Carrot gave added value to the yoghurt quality by providing fibre and increasing carotene content (phytonutrients) of the products. Sample X1X2YC3 (70/30 milk ratio plus 20g carrot) was rated best in general acceptability and therefore recommended for production at both domestic and commercial levels; as this would promote health of the consumers through nutritional and therapeutic properties of the combined milks and the carrot.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Mrs. Udosen of the Department of Microbiology, Mrs. Mary Inyang and Mr. Udosen of the Department of Food Science and Technology, all in University of Uyo for their assistance and making available for use, their instruments/equipment in the curse of this study.

References

[1]  FSA. McCance and Widdowsons. The composition of foods. Sixth Summary edition. Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, UK, 2002.
In article      
 
[2]  EFSA. Scientific Opinion on lactose thresholds in lactose intolerance and galactosaemia. EFSA Journal, 8(9): 1777. 2010
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Hardy, G. The nutritional value of Sheep milk: a natural supplement Proceedings, international symposium, Development strategy for sheep for clinical nutrition. In: sheep and goat Dairy sector. Brit. Sheep Dairy News, Nicosia, Cyprus 17:23-24.2000
In article      
 
[4]  Ramos, M. and Juarezs, M. Sheep milk. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Elsevier. 2539-2545. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Kumar, S., Kumar, B.S., Khatkar and Kanawjia, S. K. Nutrition Features of Goatmilk. A review. Indian journal Dairy science, 65. 2012.
In article      
 
[6]  Haenlein, G.F.W. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Rumin. res 51:155-163. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Bano, P., Abdullah, M., Nadeem, M., Babar, M.E. and Khan, G.A. Preparation of Functional yoghurt from sheep and goat milk blends. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 48 (3), 211-215. 2011.
In article      
 
[8]  Ohiokpehai, O. Processed food products and nutrient composition of goat milk. Pak. J. Nutr. 2: 68-71. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Reddy, S.M. Basic Food Science and Technology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2015, 328- 339.
In article      
 
[10]  Farinde, E.O., Obatolu, V.A., Fasoyiro, S.B., and Agboola, E.R. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. African journal of Biotechnology.7(18): 3339- 3345. 2008.
In article      
 
[11]  Kolapo, A. L. and Olubamiwa, A. O. Effect of different concentrations of coconut milk on the chemical and Sensory properties of Soy-coconut milk based yoghurt. Journal of Food and Public Health. 2(4): 85-91. 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Akoma, O., Elekwa, U. O., Afodunribi, A. T. and Onyeukwu, G. C. Yoghurt from Coconut and Tigernuts. Journal of Food Technology in Africa, 5(4): 132-134. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Pereira and Gibson. Effects of consumption of Probiotics and Prebiotics on serum lipid levls in human. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37: 259-281. 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Rijkers, G. T., de Vos, W. M., Brunner, R. J., Morelli, L., Corthier, G.and Marteau, P. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing. Br. J. Nutr. 106(9): 1291-6. 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Hirayama and Rafter. Role of Probiotic bacteria in Cancer prevention. Microbes. Infect. 2: 681- 686. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Abuajah, C.I., Ogbonna, A.C. and Osuji, C.M. Functional components and Medicinal properties of food: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5), 2522-2529. 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[17]  Kidmose, U., Hansen, S.L., Chritensen, L.P., Edelenbos, M., Larsen, M. and Norback, R. Effects of genotypes, root size, storage and processing on bioactive compounds in organically grown Carrot. J. Food Sc. 69: 388-394.2004.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Hashimota, T. and Nagayama, T. Chemical composition of ready- to eat fresh carrot. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 39: 324-328. 2004.
In article      
 
[19]  Hager, T. J. and Howard, L. R. Processing effects on Carrot phytonutrients. Hortic Sci. 41: 74-79. 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Schieber, A., Stintzing, F. C. and Carle, R. By products of Plant foods processing as a source of functional compounds- recent developments. Trend Food Sci. Technology. 12: 401- 405. 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Slattery, M.L., Banson, J., Curtin, K., Schaeffor, D. and Potter, J.D. Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71:575-582. 2000.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Jaswir, I., Dedi N., Reno, F.H. and Fitri, O. Carotenoids: Sources, medicinal properties and their application in food and nutraceutical industry (Review). Journal of Medicinal plants Research. 5(33): 7119-7131. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis: Association of Official analytical Chemist. Washington D.C. 2000.
In article      
 
[24]  Iwe, M.O. Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis. 2nd ed. Rojoint Communication services Ltd., Enugu, Nigeria: 78-83. 2010.
In article      
 
[25]  Mallatou, H. and Pappas, E.C. Comparison of the Characteristics of teleme cheese made from ewes, goat’s and cow’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk. International Dairy Journal of Technology. 58(3):158-163. 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Park, Y.W., Juarez, M., Ramos, M. and Haeinlein, G.F.W. Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68:88-113. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Clarence, H.E., Wilies, B.C. and Harold, M. Milk and Milk products. 4th Edition. 2004.
In article      
 
[28]  Ozer, B.H., Stenning, R.A., Grandison, A.S. and Robinson, R.K. Rheology and Microstructure of Labneh (concentrated yoghurt). Journal Dairy Science. 82: 682-689. 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blacker, C. and Attai, H. Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: characterization, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food chemistry. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Dello Staffolo, M., Bertola, N., Martino, M. and Bevilaqcua, A. Influence of dietary fibre addition on sensory and rheological properties of yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 14:263-268. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Tufts University. Dietary Fibre: Soluble and Insoluble. Nutrients Review. Com. 1999.
In article      
 
[32]  Ana lucia Baretto Penna, Attilio Converta and Marice Nogueira de Oliveira. Simultaneous effect of total solids content, milk base, heat treatment, temperature and sample temperature on the rheological properties of plain stirred yoghurt. Food Technology Biotechnol. 44(4):515-578. 2006.
In article      
 
[33]  www.foodqualityand safety.com. Measuring pH of yoghurt . Accessed July 15, 2016.
In article      
 
[34]  Guler-Akin, M.B. and Akin, M.S. Effect of Cysteine and different incubation temperatures on the microflora, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of bio-yoghurt made from goat`s milk. Food chemistry. 100(2):788-793. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Obi, T., Henshaw, F. and Atanda, O. Quality evaluation of plain-stirred probiotic yoghurt produced from skim and whole milk powder during refrigerated storage. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Foodchem. 9: 1203-1213. 2010.
In article      
 
[36]  Chia Jade & Burrow., Keegan & Carne., Alan & Mcconnell., Michelle & Samuelsson., Linda & Day., Li Young., Wayne & Bekhit., and Alaa. Minerals. 2017.
In article      
 
[37]  Susana Matos., Antonio Pinto., Conceicao Castilho., Paula Reis Correia., and Antonio Cardoso Monteiro. Mix Goat and Sheep Yoghurt: Development and product characterization. 2013.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Sunday Edet Enidiok, Edisua Horgan Itam and Eyong Ubani Eyong

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Sunday Edet Enidiok, Edisua Horgan Itam, Eyong Ubani Eyong. Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Attributes of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat, Rago Sheep Milks, Their Blends and Cow Milk. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp 49-54. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/7/2/3
MLA Style
Enidiok, Sunday Edet, Edisua Horgan Itam, and Eyong Ubani Eyong. "Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Attributes of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat, Rago Sheep Milks, Their Blends and Cow Milk." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7.2 (2019): 49-54.
APA Style
Enidiok, S. E. , Itam, E. H. , & Eyong, E. U. (2019). Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Attributes of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat, Rago Sheep Milks, Their Blends and Cow Milk. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(2), 49-54.
Chicago Style
Enidiok, Sunday Edet, Edisua Horgan Itam, and Eyong Ubani Eyong. "Nutritional Assessment and Sensory Attributes of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat, Rago Sheep Milks, Their Blends and Cow Milk." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7, no. 2 (2019): 49-54.
Share
  • Table 1. Physicochemical Properties of Carrot-enhanced Yoghurts Produced from Àkwiyáa Goat milk, Rago Sheep milk, their Blends and Cow milk (%)
  • Table 2. Mineral Composition of Àkwiyáa, Rago, and Cow milk Yoghurts with and without Carrot juice (mg/100g)
[1]  FSA. McCance and Widdowsons. The composition of foods. Sixth Summary edition. Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, UK, 2002.
In article      
 
[2]  EFSA. Scientific Opinion on lactose thresholds in lactose intolerance and galactosaemia. EFSA Journal, 8(9): 1777. 2010
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Hardy, G. The nutritional value of Sheep milk: a natural supplement Proceedings, international symposium, Development strategy for sheep for clinical nutrition. In: sheep and goat Dairy sector. Brit. Sheep Dairy News, Nicosia, Cyprus 17:23-24.2000
In article      
 
[4]  Ramos, M. and Juarezs, M. Sheep milk. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Elsevier. 2539-2545. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Kumar, S., Kumar, B.S., Khatkar and Kanawjia, S. K. Nutrition Features of Goatmilk. A review. Indian journal Dairy science, 65. 2012.
In article      
 
[6]  Haenlein, G.F.W. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Rumin. res 51:155-163. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Bano, P., Abdullah, M., Nadeem, M., Babar, M.E. and Khan, G.A. Preparation of Functional yoghurt from sheep and goat milk blends. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 48 (3), 211-215. 2011.
In article      
 
[8]  Ohiokpehai, O. Processed food products and nutrient composition of goat milk. Pak. J. Nutr. 2: 68-71. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Reddy, S.M. Basic Food Science and Technology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2015, 328- 339.
In article      
 
[10]  Farinde, E.O., Obatolu, V.A., Fasoyiro, S.B., and Agboola, E.R. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. African journal of Biotechnology.7(18): 3339- 3345. 2008.
In article      
 
[11]  Kolapo, A. L. and Olubamiwa, A. O. Effect of different concentrations of coconut milk on the chemical and Sensory properties of Soy-coconut milk based yoghurt. Journal of Food and Public Health. 2(4): 85-91. 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Akoma, O., Elekwa, U. O., Afodunribi, A. T. and Onyeukwu, G. C. Yoghurt from Coconut and Tigernuts. Journal of Food Technology in Africa, 5(4): 132-134. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Pereira and Gibson. Effects of consumption of Probiotics and Prebiotics on serum lipid levls in human. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37: 259-281. 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Rijkers, G. T., de Vos, W. M., Brunner, R. J., Morelli, L., Corthier, G.and Marteau, P. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing. Br. J. Nutr. 106(9): 1291-6. 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Hirayama and Rafter. Role of Probiotic bacteria in Cancer prevention. Microbes. Infect. 2: 681- 686. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Abuajah, C.I., Ogbonna, A.C. and Osuji, C.M. Functional components and Medicinal properties of food: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5), 2522-2529. 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[17]  Kidmose, U., Hansen, S.L., Chritensen, L.P., Edelenbos, M., Larsen, M. and Norback, R. Effects of genotypes, root size, storage and processing on bioactive compounds in organically grown Carrot. J. Food Sc. 69: 388-394.2004.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Hashimota, T. and Nagayama, T. Chemical composition of ready- to eat fresh carrot. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 39: 324-328. 2004.
In article      
 
[19]  Hager, T. J. and Howard, L. R. Processing effects on Carrot phytonutrients. Hortic Sci. 41: 74-79. 2006.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Schieber, A., Stintzing, F. C. and Carle, R. By products of Plant foods processing as a source of functional compounds- recent developments. Trend Food Sci. Technology. 12: 401- 405. 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Slattery, M.L., Banson, J., Curtin, K., Schaeffor, D. and Potter, J.D. Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71:575-582. 2000.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Jaswir, I., Dedi N., Reno, F.H. and Fitri, O. Carotenoids: Sources, medicinal properties and their application in food and nutraceutical industry (Review). Journal of Medicinal plants Research. 5(33): 7119-7131. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis: Association of Official analytical Chemist. Washington D.C. 2000.
In article      
 
[24]  Iwe, M.O. Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis. 2nd ed. Rojoint Communication services Ltd., Enugu, Nigeria: 78-83. 2010.
In article      
 
[25]  Mallatou, H. and Pappas, E.C. Comparison of the Characteristics of teleme cheese made from ewes, goat’s and cow’s milk or a mixture of ewe’s and goat’s milk. International Dairy Journal of Technology. 58(3):158-163. 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Park, Y.W., Juarez, M., Ramos, M. and Haeinlein, G.F.W. Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68:88-113. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Clarence, H.E., Wilies, B.C. and Harold, M. Milk and Milk products. 4th Edition. 2004.
In article      
 
[28]  Ozer, B.H., Stenning, R.A., Grandison, A.S. and Robinson, R.K. Rheology and Microstructure of Labneh (concentrated yoghurt). Journal Dairy Science. 82: 682-689. 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blacker, C. and Attai, H. Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: characterization, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food chemistry. 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  Dello Staffolo, M., Bertola, N., Martino, M. and Bevilaqcua, A. Influence of dietary fibre addition on sensory and rheological properties of yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 14:263-268. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Tufts University. Dietary Fibre: Soluble and Insoluble. Nutrients Review. Com. 1999.
In article      
 
[32]  Ana lucia Baretto Penna, Attilio Converta and Marice Nogueira de Oliveira. Simultaneous effect of total solids content, milk base, heat treatment, temperature and sample temperature on the rheological properties of plain stirred yoghurt. Food Technology Biotechnol. 44(4):515-578. 2006.
In article      
 
[33]  www.foodqualityand safety.com. Measuring pH of yoghurt . Accessed July 15, 2016.
In article      
 
[34]  Guler-Akin, M.B. and Akin, M.S. Effect of Cysteine and different incubation temperatures on the microflora, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of bio-yoghurt made from goat`s milk. Food chemistry. 100(2):788-793. 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Obi, T., Henshaw, F. and Atanda, O. Quality evaluation of plain-stirred probiotic yoghurt produced from skim and whole milk powder during refrigerated storage. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Foodchem. 9: 1203-1213. 2010.
In article      
 
[36]  Chia Jade & Burrow., Keegan & Carne., Alan & Mcconnell., Michelle & Samuelsson., Linda & Day., Li Young., Wayne & Bekhit., and Alaa. Minerals. 2017.
In article      
 
[37]  Susana Matos., Antonio Pinto., Conceicao Castilho., Paula Reis Correia., and Antonio Cardoso Monteiro. Mix Goat and Sheep Yoghurt: Development and product characterization. 2013.
In article