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A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka

Dipa Saha , Sazdik Ahmed, Abu Towab Md. Shahriar, S. M. Naeem Hossain Mithun
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(3), 98-107. DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-4
Published online: July 06, 2017

Abstract

Dhaka, the one of the megacities in the world have been facing the pressure of new development and redevelopment due to rapid socio-economic development. Like the other part of the city in old Dhaka, this urban renewal is misunderstood as the process of demolition-reconstruction of old buildings and historical sites. Change in land use pattern, land scarcity, increased land value, lack of mature theoretical guidance and the awareness of preservation the old part of the city is losing its identity. This kind of development not only affecting the city fabric but also destroying the vernacular built environment, cultural values and collective memory of habitants. Introduction of heritage tourism and development of tourist trails in different part of the old city may become an effective and sustainable measure to protect the heritage sites and old fabric of the city. Heritage tourism not only has a positive effect on economic development activities but it also promotes and protects the intangible heritage resources. The study tries to explore some different ways in which tourist trail and heritage tourism can be developed in old Dhaka. Additional emphasis will placed on investigating how tourism can be used to promote awareness among local communities and the importance of assuring a balance between responsible tourism and the preservation and protection required for heritage sites.

1. Introduction

Heritage is a part of the cultural tradition of any society 16. In Dhaka, the distinctive physical morphology of the historical core extends its heritage value beyond the importance of each building. To take advantage of this, the heritage trail may be an effective approach to add value to cultural tourism in old Dhaka. A heritage trail is one physical manifestation of the interactions between tourists, locals, and the host place. This implies a mutual relationship between tourists and heritage sites .Heritage trails must respond to the interaction among the different areas important to cultural tourism: conservation and rehabilitation, interpretation, and local-economic development (Figure 1) heritage trail not only promotes the rehabilitation of historic areas but most important benefits of tourism are likely to be economic 2. These economic benefits can be classified in to three different types: direct, indirect and induced. Direct effects are a result of the direct involvement of local people in works related directly to the tourism industry. These include wages, salaries and profits. Additionally, direct effects include government revenues derived from taxes and fees. Indirect effects are a result of the needs of those working in the tourism domain to promote their business activities or to sustain them. These include labor, food, beverages, and other consumables.

Faster growing city like Dhaka urban regeneration has created problems for the heritage sites. Every new development and redevelopment is going to tear down the old fabric and socio-economic character the city. But heritage trail is one of the direct applications of the local ‘bottom- up’ approaches that not only work for conservation of intangible and tangible heritage 3. This approach indirectly protects the heritage by improving the lives and economic condition of residents by increasing incomes and job opportunities for them. thus This study tries to explore heritage tourism and tourist trial approach to ensure local community development, rather than just scattered tourism and conservation oriented projects in the context of old Dhaka.

2. Methodology

This “desk-top research” includes view of related literature and field survey where the theoretical part is based on literature review. Historical research method is adopted partly to understand the chronological growth and pattern of the Dhaka city. Then, qualitative research method is used to address the research problems. This study uses two approaches:

Literature survey: literature survey based on secondary data is conducted to understand the effect of on sustainable heritage tourism and tourist trail approach for urban renewal. Primary and secondary data are collected to identify the historically and culturally vibrant spots for designing tourist trails.

The field research: an empirical survey involves the collection and analyses of two types of data: Quantitative data which Involve architectural survey and analysis and small scale on-site investigation for present condition and location of the building and sites. Qualitative data are collected from analysis of data obtained through interviews and historical assessment and Documentary research. On Site investigations is helpful for identifying historic interventions and changing character of the area. This research includes data and information of the author's previous study on the same area.

3. Literature Survey


3.1. Heritage and Heritage Trail
3.1.1. What is Heritage?

The Oxford English Dictionary defines ‘heritage’ as ‘property that is or may be inherited; an inheritance’, ‘valued things such as historic buildings that have been passed down from previous generations’, and ‘relating to things of historic or cultural value that are worthy of preservation’. Heritage might be understood to be a physical ‘object’: a piece of property, a building or a place that is able to be ‘owned’ and ‘passed on’ to someone else.

In addition to these physical objects and places of heritage there are also various practices of heritage that are conserved or handed down from one generation to the next. These invisible or ‘intangible’ practices of heritage, such as language, culture, popular song, literature or dress, are as important in helping us to understand who we are as the physical objects and buildings that we are more used to thinking of as ‘heritage 6. We use objects of heritage (artifacts, buildings, sites, landscapes) alongside practices of heritage (languages, music, community commemorations, conservation and preservation of objects or memories from the past) to shape our ideas about our past, present and future.

Interventions are necessary to develop a harmonious relationship between historic artifacts and urban settings. The intangible meaning of historic artifacts has significant importance in our societal value. Historic artifacts are the material evidences of our past 13.


3.1.2. Heritage Trail

According to Chow 4 “heritage trail” refers to “a route which leads travellers to the heritage assets existing in an area”. “Heritage corridor”, “heritage walk” and “historical trail” are often interchangeably used to refer to the same thing. In most cases, a theme is set to the trail so as to serve its purposes for promoting heritage tourism, educating on history of a place or a person, or appreciating heritage values of a place. Heritage Trails are a way of encouraging people to get the best out of visiting environments of particular cultural, natural, social and historical interest. A trail can be designed to assist people visiting a single building or location. It can help visitors understand a particular village, town, or area of interest and, on the larger scale; it can be laid out across an entire county, or region.


3.1.3. Importance of Heritage Trail

According to INTACH 8, heritage walks are an important strategy to achieve the following objectives:

• Create awareness among citizens about the key historic areas withinn the city.

• Help citizens and tourists to relate to the historic parts of the city in a more personal and intimate manner.

• Draw the local people and tourists into areas of rich cultural and architectural Heritage, which are not yet on the tourist itinerary.

• Heightening sensitivity of the local populace towards the historic value of settlements and encouraging local communities to conserve and preserve their own heritage and inculcate a sense of pride and appreciation among them.

• Initiate community based conservation efforts involving citizens, volunteers, and other organizations.


3.1.4. Trail Geography

The best way to plan a Heritage Trail is to pick a series of special interest points, or areas where trail followers can stop to gather and investigate information. These represent Information Nodes that will help visitors to navigate the trail and create a valuable and complete experience 17.

Linear Routes: Linear trails are particularly useful when following a geographical feature such as a river, or a canal. They can also be useful to control access through, or across, sensitive or fragile environs where you want visitors to stay within defined areas. The nodes can highlight particular points of interest and the trail information can explain what to look for in the next section.

Circuit routes: Circuit trails can be used in circumstances such as flower meadows, woodlands, particular buildings, farm and factory locations where entry and exit are best through a specific access point and the trail follows a logical sequence of prospects or features of interest. Longer circuit trails can also be planned when the optimum entry point is a car park, or Cycle Park, or an entrance gate that controls access to the area.

Network Routes: Network trails offer the best option for towns and villages where visitors can enter and leave the trail at any point, pick their own routes through the trail and cover as many or as few points as they wish. In a network trail the information nodes are numbered for identification purposes only and require some sort of marker, or obvious feature, which allows easy navigation around the trail. Network trails are often best supported by fixed information boards, more of which later.


3.1.5. Picking the Node Locations

Selecting the Node locations is an early decision to make when planning a heritage trail. Four important considerations should be taken into account:

• The features that make the location a reasonable point of interest. ex. place of historical or social interest, particular building or set of buildings, natural feature such as pond and tree.

• The convenience of the location for easy navigation around the trail .number of node, how far or close the next node, sense of interest of the place.

• The ease with which trail users can gather in groups to review the node information

• In this age of litigation it is important that the trail and therefore each node is as safe as “reasonably practical” and entirely legal in its operation.

3.2. Historical Structures and Time Line
3.2.1. Pre-Mughal Settlements (before 1608)

Before the Mughal period, Dhaka was successively ruled by Sena, Turkish, and Afghans 19. Dhaka was a trading center for the pre-Mughal capital located at Sonargaon and consisted of a few market centers, along with few localities comprising craftsmen and businessmen. All of these Localities were confined within the circuit of the old Dholai Khal. The tantis (weaver) and the sankharis (shell cutter) are believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the city, and they still live in the area 5. In most of the localities, the houses of local craftsmen had small factories. The row houses of Shankhari Bazaar had a narrow frontage of 6–10 feet, depth of 30–40 feet, and a height up to 4stories 19. Tanti Bazaar also had similar types of settlements. The linear organization of houses at both sides along narrow lanes resulted in very compact settlement patterns.


3.2.2. Mughal Settlements (1608-1764)

The Mughal Dhaka inaugurated by Islam khan through the establishment of a fort, chandnighat and the chouk, experienced growth under the subsequent Mughal subahdars until 1717 14. During the Mughal period, flourish commercial growth coupled with administrative and defense need, led Dhaka to grow as a metropolis 10. The noteworthy feature of the city was the central fort, roads and with pedestrians, ghats and water traffic route through the rivers and canals 9.


3.2.3. Sites, Areas and Structures Listed for Conservation

The Government finally declared 93 heritage buildings and 7 heritage sites as protected, though a gazette on 12th February, 2009. Buildings to be included in the gazette notification in old Dhaka are: Binat Bibi Mosque, Bara Katra, Chhoto Katra, Lalbag Fort Complex, Nimtoli Dewri, Kartalab Khan Mosque, Khan Muhammad Mirdha Mosque, Shaista Khan Mosque, Gol Talab (pond), Buckland Bundh, Christian Cemetery, Hosaini Dalan, Dhakeshwari Temple, Joykali Temple and Ram Sita Temple, Armenian Church, Bara Dayra Sharif, Star Mosque, Bangshal Jame Mosque, North Brooke Hall, Kasaituli Mosque, St. Thomas Church, St. Gregory's Church, Radha Govinda Temple at Mill Barrack, Shashan Temple at Banianagar, Radha Govinda Temple (Sutrapur), Ram Sita Temple (Amligola), Tomb of Daroga Amiruddin, Gouri Moth, Ramkrishna Mission, Nawab Bari Mosque (close to Rajuk Bhaban), Bahadur Shah Park, Water Tank (at Bahadur Shah park), Laxmi Narayan Mandir, Shusila Kuthir, Brahmosamaj Temple, Raja Ram Mohan Library, Ruplal House, Ahsan Manjil, Mitford Hospital (old three buildings), Weiz House (Weisghat), Rose Garden, Shankhanidi Palace, Iskon Mandir, St Gregory's School, Pogose School, Manuk House (Bangha Bhaban), Balda Garden, Jagannath University Admin Building, Buildings at plots 7-9 (Koilash Ghosh Lane), building no-28 (Utsob Poddar Lane), buildings no. 8, 8/1, 8/2 (Jhulan Bari Lane), Dhaka Medical College (Arts Building, Hospital Building, Gate Houses),The gazette prohibits any demolition, amendment, selling or modification of these structures, even though several of them have already been modified and altered, with few illegally occupied.”

Department of Archaeology generally considers historic buildings as a heritage for protection only if they are at least 100 years old. In a change of scenario, the standing committee has enlisted several buildings and sites considering their outstanding historical, architectural, aesthetic, social, religious, political and cultural value, even if they were not 100 years old. “The listed heritage properties will be categorized roughly into three groups of structures in consideration of their heritage value.


3.2.4. Analysis of Existing Condition form Literature and Survey Data

Data collected from field survey and literature data from reference 7 is structured and shown in Table 3 and Figure 5.

4. Designing the Trail

4.1. Heritage Walks and Trails

The heritage trail is a designated journey that brings the trail explorer to learn more about the old Dhaka’s history, culture, architecture, lifestyle and festivals through visiting historical sites, buildings and streets. Thus it includes a number of historical buildings and places with accompanying material on local history, architectural forms, and conservation practices. In addition, it explores the traditional way of life in Old Dhaka by incorporating the local people and activities as an essential part of the trail. The journey can be covered by walking, cycling, rickshaw rides, horse carriage rides or even a combination of any modes of transportation.

Trail 1: Lal Bagh Fort - Khan Mohammad Mridha's Mosque - Dhakeshwari Temple - Hussaini Dalan - Kar talab Khan's Mosque - Old Fort - Chota Katra - Bara Katra - Showari Ghat.

Trail 2: Bahadur Shah Park/ Sadar Ghat - Buckland Bundh - Ahsan Monzil - Gol Talab - Armenian Church- Star Mosque - Bangshal Pond - Tanti Bazaar - Shakhari Bazaar - Pogose School - St. Thomas Church.

Trail 3: Bahadur Shah Park - Beauty Boarding - Dhankoda Jamider Bari - Lal Kuthi - Bk Dash Lane -Ruplal House - RM dash road -Laxmi Bazar -Binat Bibi Mosque - St. Gregory's Church.

4.2. River Route and Ghats

Dhaka was established on the north bank of the River Buriganga and it is encircled by a river system comprising Buriganga, Balu, Turag, Tongi Khal and Lakhya. A number of water channels like the Dholai Khal, the Gerani Khal, the Segun bagicha Khal or the Begun Bari Khal crisscrossed through and around the city in the past 15. River and water bodies are being the main source of transportation and communication line. Boats were the primary means of commuting through numerous Khals within Dhaka. The majority of these khals do not exist anymore as they have been filled in due to unplanned development 15. Buriganga River not only work as the life line of the city for over 500 years but still vital to the economy of the city and are being used by people for commercial, recreational and other purposes 18.

A city along a water-route, with the presence of water, creates a powerful aesthetic image for the city 12. The Buckland Bundh was created for a similar purpose back in the 19th century, and this was a very popular among the inhabitants at that time. The waterways of Dhaka were treated as neglected spaces or backyards of the city. But a city blessed with so many rivers and canals has a tremendous potentiality to develop an eco-friendly and sustainable waterways to cater transportation, tourism, place making, etc. Inland waterways are a living infrastructure. Physical and psychological improvement of it may create a tourism asset, and support the tourism industry through water-based recreational activities 11. Modern, integrated and sustainable use of waterways with heritage trail provides a link between land and river, existing and new attractions. It may boost up the regeneration of the old image of the city with breath-taking and stunning places along the river side. A river route from Showari Ghat to Lalkuthi Ghat is suggested to be developed as a connecting route for trail 1, 2, 3.

5. Recommendations and Development Proposals

The traditional neighborhoods of heritage value are particularly important in terms of conservation. A very little of the traditional urban fabric have been able to survive the onslaught of twentieth century modern developments having their unique localness, symbols, intangible assets, lifestyles, crafts and lived spaces intact. Old Dhaka is a combination of several traditional neighborhoods, many of them enclaves of traditional crafts and trades. Heritage walk along this neighborhoods and streets of the old Dhaka is recognized as an effective way to highlight the heritage and bring a sense of pride to the residents. Through this heritage walks tourists and residents can explore the rich architectural heritage and cultural heritage of in old Dhaka. In This heritage walk design is not aimed at restoration of monuments or the monuments were not seen in isolation. But this work should involve the local communities with the emphasis on its integration with other developmental activities for the area.

The main components of the proposal included the following components, which should be completed in different stages of completion:

5.1. Restoration of Model Street and Traditional Neighborhoods

Continuous facade of some old streets such as Shankhari Bazaar and Tanti Bazaar, represent a strong urban character. The street front should be considered as an important part of integration and should be preserved and restored to maintain the continuity of the street elevations of the old city. Model street restoration work should cover facade restoration, improvements to the street surface and walkways, and general improvements to services. Facades of the old building and houses will be restored to their original pattern and colour schemes including, replacement of damaged grills, repair and replacement of damaged wood rafters, battens, ceiling tiles, doors and windows, restoring column flutings and exposure of granite edging or original plastered surface etc. The restoration work also included redesigning the exteriors of the new buildings by providing necessary details, verandas and other features like traditional doors and windows to ensure they harmonize with the older buildings.

5.2. Traffic Control and Pedestrian Walk Ways

Narrow and curve streets in old Dhaka tailored for pedestrian movement, are not suitable for the modern mechanical traffic system. Now a day’s pedestrian is squeezed into left over space (if any) between the traffic and the building wall. Traffic vibration is a major constrain that needs to be considered to manage the damage and decay of the old fabric. Moreover, the unrestricted access of slow and fast-moving vehicles, irregular crossings, and the shortage of parking spaces results in protracted congestion. Introducing strong control over mechanical traffic at the area is needed. The center may be restricted to pedestrian movements, light vehicles, and a limited number of heavy vehicles. Combination of different form of transport may be adopted to serve the old city. These loops may be served by slow moving vehicles like bicycles, cycle rickshaws and horse carriages. Traffic load due to commercial activities should be bypassed through other adjacent area to reduce rising pressure on the old fabric.

5.3. Access, Exposer and Buffer

Urban renewal and conservation is more than merely preserving few historic buildings. It is a comprehensive approach to integrate focal urban elements of the past within the existing urban tissues. During conservation focus should be shifted from individual buildings to urban context to reinforce the urban pattern and to incorporate the new structures into the old fabric. The Dhaka Metropolitan Building Construction, Development, Protection, and Removal Rule of 2008 introduced construction restrictions with in a 250-meter radius of the encircling area around historic structures. This rule still needs to give specific guidelines for color, texture, material, façade design, height, function, orientation, and other design specifications for any new structures in the existing fabric, so that identical new structures may ensure the authenticity and integrity of the urban structures. Moreover, an effective buffer zone should be introduced to protect the old historic structures and zones from traffic vibration, noise pollution, air pollution, water pollution, and other threats. View corridors may also be created through the fabric to get a distant and interesting view of the old structures.

5.4. Preservation and Redevelopment of River Front

The River Buriganga was and still is a very important part of the urbanism of the Dhaka city. The old fabric along the river bank already lost their original approach from the river side and inner city because of the change in the river course and the newly imposed settlements on the fabric. The river side elevations of the old city need to be recovered to reveal the identity and integrity of the historic city. The access linkage between the artifacts and the Ghats should be improved to ensure an interesting approach from the river bank.

5.5. Regeneration of Historic Structure and Public Spaces

Conservation therefore may be judged as a planning concept and tool to justify the urban form to incorporate the new and the old to maintain the urban continuity. Many old Buildings in old Dhaka had substantial open spaces, such as gardens and courts, which are now mostly encroached by newly built informal settlements. These settlements create Obstacles to the visibility and access to the historic artifacts. Some of such open spaces were recovered during the conservation of Lalbagh Fort and Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque. Recovering such open spaces in other historic buildings, such as Bara Katra and Choto Katra, is needed to ensure proper access and visual exposure, as well as to establish a Substantial buffer for the historic buildings. The vacant land gained from relocating central jail introduces a large possibility for establishing a tourism hub with surrounding heritage building.

5.6. Conservation and Adaptive Re-use of Buildings

While we are talking about conserving the old core of the city, first question arise in mind is, ‘what to conserve and how to conserve?’ in the context of old Dhaka, it is essential to conserve not only the empty, isolated architectural relics of the past but the life and the intrinsic quality of this living city too. Sustainable Adaptive reuses of old building ensure the conservation of lifestyle, old trades, communities and traditional practices. In our country, after restoration the common practice is to convert a historic building (such as Lalbagh Fort and Ahsan Manzil) into museum. Historic buildings may not need to be converted into only museums. The historic buildings can be used for sustainable and aid generating purposes, such as serving as hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, art galleries, craft shops, libraries, and administrative buildings.

5.7. Revitalization of Local Markets, Corner Shops and Crafts

While in a few of the traditional neighborhoods (like in Shankhari bazar) the original economic activities have continued for centuries through subsequent generations of craftsmen or traders. Managing street details and maintaining the link between the shops and the streets is important for the continuity of the heritage. The initiatives to revitalize the local markets enable the economic regeneration of the market. It also retains the existing market activities, systems as well as the livelihood of the people who benefit from the market. Development proposals should not disturb the existing character and atmosphere of the local neighborhoods, streets and market places. The streets are periodically maintained by the local community bodies with contributions from the shop owners, for the area adjacent to their shops. The regular maintenance will help to retain the historic continuity of the street.

5.8. Infrastructural Developments Including Public Toilet and Waste Management

Relevant infrastructural development such as organizing the telecommunication lines, street lights, drains; waste disposal point etc. should be insured to the local community and visitors. Parking may be considered on the perimeter outside the ring road with loops into the center. Public toilet having facilities for the physically handicapped and food and beverage outlets should be located after regular interval or at a walking distance for any node point. Traffic points, bus stops, MRT stations, bicycle and pedestrian pathways and crossing should be design carefully.

5.9. Signage System and Publications

Trained Guides and a brochure with a map the various trails should be published in English, Bengali and other foreign languages. An introductory video on the architectural heritage of should be prepared. Another essential component is the development of appropriate signage wherein, private and public buildings providing brief information on their historical background and architecture. Street signs with clear instructions should be written in English and Bengali. Pedestrian crossing, bus stops, MRT stations, Traffic points and bicycle pathways should have appropriate signage and should mentioned properly in maps.

5.10. Community Participation and Management

To keep the heritage alive, it is important to allow the community to continue with them, and most importantly, enable them to voice their opinion and actively participate in the heritage management. Community support and engagement is crucial for heritage conservation at living heritage places, as the success depends on their active involvement through collaboration among different stakeholders, skilled heritage professionals, traditional craftsmen and the overall community.

6. Conclusion

Heritage connects to the communities past, and ensures the continuity into future. But urban renewal result rapid socio-economic transformations and create the global-local conflict in most cities in Asia. In this milieu, Heritage conservation and has become highly relevant to protect the cultural identity of the city. In old Dhaka a few local communities and traditional neighborhoods have retained their cultural continuity and managed their architectural heritage. This study tries to identify the sites, areas and buildings that contain the history and culture of the city. This study also tries to link up and creates easy and guided accesses to these sites for both local and foreign visitors. While designing tourist trail this study advocates some development proposal to conserve the historic fabric and age old tradition of old Dhaka. Development proposals such as model street restoration, pedestrian walk, community participation, regeneration of urban open space not only preserve the historical fabric but create a new breathing place for the city dwellers. Adoptive re use, revitalization of local market and craft and introduction of proper tourism facility can help to overcome Issues related to Economic support, maintenance cost and income generation. To ensure the conservation and urban renewal of the old core different degrees of intervention is needed including formulation of policies and plans to promote heritage tourism and heritage trail.

Acknowledgements

Primary data and photographs used in this study are collected form several field surveys from 2013-2016. Photographs from secondary sources are also used. We would like to thank all of the people who helped to make this investigation possible, in particular Dr. Qazi Azizul Mowla (Professor, Dept. of Architecture, BUET) for his continuous guidance, valuable suggestions and valuable acumen. We would like to thank Samira, Monika, Aniqua and Mahbuba for their generous help and last but not the least the Dept. of Architecture, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh for technical support.

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Dipa Saha, Sazdik Ahmed, Abu Towab Md. Shahriar, S. M. Naeem Hossain Mithun. A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp 98-107. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/5/3/4
MLA Style
Saha, Dipa, et al. "A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka." American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 5.3 (2017): 98-107.
APA Style
Saha, D. , Ahmed, S. , Shahriar, A. T. M. , & Mithun, S. M. N. H. (2017). A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 5(3), 98-107.
Chicago Style
Saha, Dipa, Sazdik Ahmed, Abu Towab Md. Shahriar, and S. M. Naeem Hossain Mithun. "A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka." American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 5, no. 3 (2017): 98-107.
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  • Figure 1. Heritage trail: conceptual framework. Heritage trails and different areas of interactions among key parties of cultural tourism in historical areas
  • Figure 5. Present condition of various listed site. (Photograph used in this paper includes author’s personal collection during survey work and past visit. Photographs from secondary sources are also used
  • Figure 9. Street section and 3d visualization for model street restoration proposal for Pari Das Lane. ( author’s pervious work in B.Arch. program)
[1]  Ahsan, R.Majid, Changing Pattern of the Commercial Area of the Dhaka City. In: Ahmed, Sharif Uddin (Ed.), Dhaka Past Present Future. The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 1991.
In article      
 
[2]  Archer, BH and Fletcher, JE . Multiplier Analysis in Tourism. Les Cahiers du Tourisme. Series C. Aix-en-Provence: Centre Des Hautes Etudes Touristiques. 1990.
In article      
 
[3]  Chang, T, Milne, S, Fallon, D and Pohlmann, C (1996) Urban heritage tourism, the global local exus. Annals of Tourism Research 23(2), pp 284-305.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Chow, Euphemia Tsz-yue. The Planning/ Design of a Heritage Trail in Hong Kong. Thesis presented for Master of Urban Design. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, July 2002.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Dani, A.H., Dacca-A Record fits Changing Fortune. Asiatic Society, Dhaka, 1962.
In article      PubMed
 
[6]  Harrison, R. (Ed.), Understanding the politics of heritage. Manchester University Press in association with the Open University, Manchester and Milton Keynes, 2010.
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