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Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Ursolic Acid Derivative Obtained from Lantana Camara

Anjali Singh, Chhater Singh
American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2020, 8(2), 47-53. DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-8-2-4
Received May 30, 2020; Revised June 22, 2020; Accepted July 01, 2020

Abstract

Lantana camara is to be a tackler in Indian ethanopharmacology. It is found commonly every where even on waste land, road side, dry places and spread vigorously on cultivated ground. The aim of present study is to evaluate pharmacological effect ursolic acid steroyl glucoside obtained from lantana camara on lipid profile of high fat diet (58%) induced hyperlipidemia. Administration of high fat diet increase the lipid profile of the animals significantly as compared to normal control. Treatment with the ursolic acid steroyl glucoside for 12 weeks. Decreased the lipid parameters as compared to disease controls. The study shown promising effect in lowering of body weight and by other pharmacological parameter. we concluded that ursolic acid derivative of lantana camara have a potent anti hyperlipidemic activity.

1. Introduction

Hyperlipidemia refers to elevated levels of Total cholesterol, TG, HDLs in the blood, and is also identified as dyslipidemia, to describe the manifestations of different disorders of lipoprotein metabolism.

Although elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) is thought to be the best indicator of atherosclerosis risk 1, Cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids are the major lipids in the body. They are transported as complexes of lipid and proteins known as lipoproteins.

Plasma lipoproteins are spherical particles with surfaces that consist largely of phospholipid, free cholesterol, and protein and cores composed mostly of triglyceride and cholesterol ester 2. It is major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis related condition like coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and pancreatitis 3, 4.

The etiology of hyperlipidemia can be classified into primary and secondary causes.

1. Primary due to 5:

• A single gene defect: is familial and called ‘monogenic’ or genetic and

• Multiple genetic, dietary and physical activity related causes: ‘polygenic’ or malfactorial.

2. Secondary:

• Associated with diabetes, myxoedema, nephritic syndrome, chronic alcoholism, drugs (corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, beta blockers).

• Cholesterol and other fatty substances combine in the bloodstream and deposited in blood vessel forming plaque. Which leading obstruction of blood flow and causing heart attack, stroke and atherosclerois.

Lantana camara Linn. is regarded both as a notorious weed and a popular ornamental garden plant and posseses various uses in folk medicine in many parts of the world. 6 Lantana camara, also known as Spanish Flag or West Indian lantana, is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family; Verbenaceae. The plant has reported as anticonvulsant 7, anticancer 8, 9, antiulcer 10, antioxidant 11, anti-diabetic 12, 13, antifungal, antibacterial 14, 15, anti-feedant, larval mortality/repellency 16, 17, anti-motility 18, analgesic and anti-inflammatory 19 activities.

2. Material and Method

The fresh leaves of plant Lantana camara were collected from plant for extraction and then isolation of ursolic acid derivative from this plant with the help of column chromatography.

Albino rats of weighing 150-200 gm obtained from the animal house of the Faculty of Medicine, University of DIPSAR. Standard drug (atorvastatin) was purchased from local market.

3. Experimental Methodology

3.1. Experimental Methodology

The animals were kept in individual ventilated cages under the conditions of 22±25°C and a 12-hour light-dark cycle, with free access to food and water. The experimental protocol was approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee as per the guidance of committee for the purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India and approval no. is SIP/IAEC/09/2011.

The experimental design is depicted in the Figure 1 to Figure 3 below. In this experiment design following an acclimatization period of 4 weeks and 7 week study with purified diet, animals are divided in 6 groups, each group had 6 animals.

Group: 36 Animals will be divided in to 6 groups, 6 animals in each group.

3.1. Evaluation Parameters

• Body weight variation

• Lipid profile parameters: Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL.

• Liver function tests: Bilirubin (direct, indirect), SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase, Total protein, albumin, globulin, GGT.

• Hematology: HB, TLC, TRBC, PCV, Platelets count, ESR, lipase.

3.2. Blood Sampling and Serum Extraction

Blood was collected from all groups directly from retro orbital plexus after anaesthetization by a mixture of cholroform-ether (2:3) at the end of protocol period. Serum was separated after coagulating blood for 30 min. and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 20 min., serum was then separated and was used for estimation of biochemical parameters.

3.3. Statistical Analysis

All the data is expressed as mean± S.E.M .Significant difference between the mean values were statistically analyzed using one ay analysis of variance. the values less than 0.001 were considered significant.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Variation of Body Weight

The observation of biological parameters in the body weight of rats, there is slight increased in the body weight of all rats in drug controlled, in comparison of HFD+STD, HFD+TD, ND+STD, ND+TD increased and NC is decreased.

  • Table 1. Weight variation chart after treatment: As comparison to drug controlled group (All the data expressed are mean ± s.e.m. With each group having six animals each: a=compared to drug controlled group.,***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant)

4.2. Blood Examination Report

Haemoglobin reports: Haemoglobin level is very slightly increases in drug controlled group comparison to others groups.

TLC Blood Test Report: The levels of TLC in DC and ND+STD is slightly increased as comparison to NC, HFD+STD, HFD+TD, ND+TD.

Trbc Reports: The TRBC level in ND+TD, is slightly increases as comparison to DC, and others groups having almostly same values.

Packed Cell Volume Report: Packed Cell Volume is slightly increases comparison to DC.

Platelet count report: Platelets Count in HFD+STD and ND+TD is increases when compared to NC and DC.

ESR REPORT: Levels of ESR decreases HFD+TD , ND+STD, ND+TD when comparison to NC but in DC it is slightly increased.

Lipase Report: The level of lipase in DC is increased as comparison to others groups.

Lipid profile test: The level of triglyceride in HFD+STD is slightly increased as compared to DC. The level of HDL slightly increased in HFD+STD as comparison to others groups. LDL level is increased in HFD+ STD,HFD+TD as comparison to DC. VLDL is slightly increased in DC and HFD +TD but the level of ND+STD, ND+TD is slightly decreased.

Liver functions tests:

SGOT level is slightly increases in DC as comparison to others groups. SGPT slightly increased in the DC as compared to the HFD+STD, HFD+TD, ND+STD, ND+TD. Alkaline Phosphatase level of DC increased and the level of HFD+STD,HFD+TD,ND+STD is slightly increased. The level of GGT in DC group is increased and the level of HFD+TD, ND+STD and ND+TD is slightly decreased.

  • Table 11. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant

Mortality: None of the animals have died from any of the groups before termination of the experimental termination.

5. Conclusion

The present study provides evidence for the ability of UASG, to decreased the lipid levels of high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in wistar rats. The UASG also subjected to a toxicity testing and it was tested up to a high concentration of 10 mg /kg, orally(3 times per day) evaluated in the present study . Even at this dose the extract did not produce signs of toxicity or treatment related adverse effects in the tests for anti hyperlipidemia activity. This study clearly suggests that UASG is a potent hypolipidemic in rats.

Abbreviation

CHD Coronary Heart Disease

LDL low density lipoprotein

HDL high density lipoprotein

VLDL very low density lipoprotein

USAG Ursolic acid steroyl glucoside

DIPSAR delhi institute ofpharaceutical science and research

CPCSEA committee for the purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals

IAEC instutional animal ethical committe

NC normal controlled

DC drug controlled

STD standard drug

TD test drug

ND normal diet

SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

SGPT serum gutamic pyruvic transamnase

GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptide

Hb haemoglobin

TLC total leukocyte count

TRBC total red blood cell

PCV packed cell volume

ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate

SEM standard error mean

References

[1]  Jacobson MS. Heart healthy diets for all children: no longer controversial. J Pediatr 1998; 133(1): 1-2.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Dipiro T.Joseph, Pharmacotherapy, A pathophysiological approach, 6th edition, The McGraw Hill companies, Inc. Pg.435
In article      
 
[3]  Virchow R, 1856, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Wissenschaftlichen Medicin (Meidinger Sohn, Frankfurt-am-Main) p. 458.
In article      
 
[4]  Ross R., Glomset J.A, 1973, Engl N. 1976. J. Med., 295, 369, 420.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Yamamura, T.; Sudo, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, A. (1979). "Familial type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". Atherosclerosis.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Ghisalberti EL (2000). Lantana camara Linn. (Review). Fitoterapia. 71: 467-485.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Adams M, Gmunder F, Hamburger M. Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders: a survey of ethnobotanical literature. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 113: 363-81.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Bisi-Johnson MA, Obi CL, Hattori T, Oshima Y, Li S, Kambizi L, et al. Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11: 14-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Gomes de Melo J, de Sousa Araújo TA, Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro V, Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral D, do Desterro Rodrigues M, Carneiro do Nascimento S, et al. Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil. Molecules 2010; 15: 8534-42.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Sathish R, Vyawahare B, Natarajan K. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers in experimental rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 134:195-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Venkatachalam T, Kumar VK, Selvi PK, Maske AO, Anbarasan V, Kumar PS. Anti-diabetic activity of Lantana camara Linn fruits in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Res 2011; 4: 1550-2.
In article      
 
[12]  Garg SK, Shah MA, Garg KM, Farooqui MM, Sabir M. Anti-lymphocytic immunosuppressive effects of Lantana camara leave in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1997; 35:1315-8.
In article      
 
[13]  Sinha P, Saxena SK. Effect of treating tomatoes with leaf extract of Lantana camara on development of fruit rot caused by Aspergillus niger in presence of Drosophila busckii. Indian J Exp Biol 1987; 25: 143-4.
In article      
 
[14]  Rwangabo PC, ClaeysM, Pieters L, Corthout J, Vanden Berghe DA, Vlietinck AK. Umuhengerin, a new antimicrobially active flavonoid from Lantana trifolia. J Nat Prod 1988; 51:966-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Pandey ND, Singh M, Tewari GC. Antifeeding repellent and insecticidal properties of some indigenous plant material against mustard saw Ify, Athalia pronuima klug. Indian J Ent 1977; 39: 60-3.
In article      
 
[16]  Chavan SR, Nikam ST. Investigation of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae) leaves for larvicidal activity. Bull Haffkin Inst 1982; 10: 21-2.
In article      
 
[17]  Pandey UK, Srivastava A, Lekha C, Singh A. Efficacy of certain plant extracts against brinjal aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. Indian J Ent 1983; 45: 313-4.
In article      
 
[18]  Sagar L, Sehgal R, Ojha S. Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constitu Ursolic acid steroyl glucoside: ents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2005; 5: 18-23.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  Ghosh S, Das Sarma M, Patra A, Hazra B. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.j pharm pharmacol 2010; 62: 1158-66.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Kazmi I, Rahman M, Afzal M, Gupta G, Saleem S, Afzal O, Shaharyar MA, Nautiyal U, Ahmed S, Anwar F. Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: A new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara. Fitoterapia (2011).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Anjali Singh and Chhater Singh

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Anjali Singh, Chhater Singh. Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Ursolic Acid Derivative Obtained from Lantana Camara. American Journal of Biomedical Research. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp 47-53. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajbr/8/2/4
MLA Style
Singh, Anjali, and Chhater Singh. "Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Ursolic Acid Derivative Obtained from Lantana Camara." American Journal of Biomedical Research 8.2 (2020): 47-53.
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Singh, A. , & Singh, C. (2020). Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Ursolic Acid Derivative Obtained from Lantana Camara. American Journal of Biomedical Research, 8(2), 47-53.
Chicago Style
Singh, Anjali, and Chhater Singh. "Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of Ursolic Acid Derivative Obtained from Lantana Camara." American Journal of Biomedical Research 8, no. 2 (2020): 47-53.
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  • Table 1. Weight variation chart after treatment: As comparison to drug controlled group (All the data expressed are mean ± s.e.m. With each group having six animals each: a=compared to drug controlled group.,***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant)
  • Table 2. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. Witheach froup having six animals each. a=compared to drug controlled group. ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant.
  • Table 3. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. Witheach froup having six animals each.,a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 4. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each.,a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 5. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each groups having six animals each. a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant.
  • Table 6. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 7. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 8. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each.,a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 9. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. Witheach froup having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 10. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
  • Table 11. All the data expressed are mean±s.e.m. With each group having six animals each., a=compared to drug controlled group., ***=p<0.0001%, ns=not significant
[1]  Jacobson MS. Heart healthy diets for all children: no longer controversial. J Pediatr 1998; 133(1): 1-2.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Dipiro T.Joseph, Pharmacotherapy, A pathophysiological approach, 6th edition, The McGraw Hill companies, Inc. Pg.435
In article      
 
[3]  Virchow R, 1856, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Wissenschaftlichen Medicin (Meidinger Sohn, Frankfurt-am-Main) p. 458.
In article      
 
[4]  Ross R., Glomset J.A, 1973, Engl N. 1976. J. Med., 295, 369, 420.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Yamamura, T.; Sudo, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, A. (1979). "Familial type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by apolipoprotein C-II deficiency". Atherosclerosis.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Ghisalberti EL (2000). Lantana camara Linn. (Review). Fitoterapia. 71: 467-485.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Adams M, Gmunder F, Hamburger M. Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders: a survey of ethnobotanical literature. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 113: 363-81.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Bisi-Johnson MA, Obi CL, Hattori T, Oshima Y, Li S, Kambizi L, et al. Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11: 14-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Gomes de Melo J, de Sousa Araújo TA, Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro V, Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral D, do Desterro Rodrigues M, Carneiro do Nascimento S, et al. Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil. Molecules 2010; 15: 8534-42.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Sathish R, Vyawahare B, Natarajan K. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers in experimental rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 134:195-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  Venkatachalam T, Kumar VK, Selvi PK, Maske AO, Anbarasan V, Kumar PS. Anti-diabetic activity of Lantana camara Linn fruits in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Res 2011; 4: 1550-2.
In article      
 
[12]  Garg SK, Shah MA, Garg KM, Farooqui MM, Sabir M. Anti-lymphocytic immunosuppressive effects of Lantana camara leave in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1997; 35:1315-8.
In article      
 
[13]  Sinha P, Saxena SK. Effect of treating tomatoes with leaf extract of Lantana camara on development of fruit rot caused by Aspergillus niger in presence of Drosophila busckii. Indian J Exp Biol 1987; 25: 143-4.
In article      
 
[14]  Rwangabo PC, ClaeysM, Pieters L, Corthout J, Vanden Berghe DA, Vlietinck AK. Umuhengerin, a new antimicrobially active flavonoid from Lantana trifolia. J Nat Prod 1988; 51:966-8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Pandey ND, Singh M, Tewari GC. Antifeeding repellent and insecticidal properties of some indigenous plant material against mustard saw Ify, Athalia pronuima klug. Indian J Ent 1977; 39: 60-3.
In article      
 
[16]  Chavan SR, Nikam ST. Investigation of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae) leaves for larvicidal activity. Bull Haffkin Inst 1982; 10: 21-2.
In article      
 
[17]  Pandey UK, Srivastava A, Lekha C, Singh A. Efficacy of certain plant extracts against brinjal aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. Indian J Ent 1983; 45: 313-4.
In article      
 
[18]  Sagar L, Sehgal R, Ojha S. Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constitu Ursolic acid steroyl glucoside: ents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2005; 5: 18-23.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  Ghosh S, Das Sarma M, Patra A, Hazra B. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Lantana camara Linn.j pharm pharmacol 2010; 62: 1158-66.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Kazmi I, Rahman M, Afzal M, Gupta G, Saleem S, Afzal O, Shaharyar MA, Nautiyal U, Ahmed S, Anwar F. Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: A new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara. Fitoterapia (2011).
In article      View Article  PubMed