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The Role of Farm Ponds in Agricultural Development: A Case Study of Nivadunge Village in Pathardi Tehsil of Ahmednagar District (M.S.)

Dattatray Sheshrao Ghungarde , Surindar Gopalrao Wawale
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(8), 719-723. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-8-2
Received June 17, 2021; Revised July 24, 2021; Accepted August 03, 2021

Abstract

Farm ponds have been built all over the world to encourage agricultural expansion. Natural-based solutions are increasingly being recognized as a viable option for addressing water-related issues. This is the first study to look at how ponds influence the adoption of water-saving irrigation practices. Sustainable rural development and the management of other small, scattered wetlands can benefit from the conservation advice and analytical methodology. The current study examines agricultural improvement in Nivadunge village using farm ponds. The evolution of agriculture was tracked using a variable parametric method. This village is situated in a drought-prone region. The depth of black cotton and red soil is shallower than that of other soils. There are gravel and sandy soil types, and they store water to a lower extent. This type of research can help villages grow their agriculture in a holistic way.

1. Introduction

The issues of Indian agriculture cannot be overlooked as more than 62% population is directly dependent on it 1. Therefore, it is essential to understand the issues associated with farming activities and to provide specific suggestions. Both of these aspects have been studied by several geographers like 2, 3 etc.

Ahmednagar district is known as the drought-prone region in Maharashtra (FFC 1973). Most importantly, rainfall is less than half of the potential evaporation 4 that has resulted in crop failure once in three years according to the data provided by the IMD. There are various schemes to secure agriculture and to reduce 5 the frequency of crop failure in such regions. A farm pond is considered quite useful for conjunctive use of stored water in the event of a long dry 6 spell. The severity of droughts has its long-term impact 7 as it does not allow the capital formation and hence farmers become vulnerable communities, financially as well as socio-politically 8 What is the way out? It is possible to hold the runoff water through the Farm pond by stopping it, storing it, and using it for safe irrigation 9 when needed. Which can be used conjunctively in the event of failure or late arrival of monsoon? 10 “Farm pond is an artificial dug-out structure with definite shape and size for collecting and storing surface runoff water for secure irrigation whenever needed” 11 Agricultural development in any region is a multi-faceted 12 process. Irrigation plays a vital role 13 in Agriculture.

The fundamental goal of this research is to comprehend agricultural development through farm ponds and their impact on the socio-economic development of farm pond owners. This type of research is critical for agricultural planning at the village level in order to achieve holistic growth. The major goal is to collect surplus run-off water through dug-out farm ponds built under the program for protective and life-saving irrigation during crucial crop stages 14 in order to increase agricultural yield and income for resource-poor dryland farmers.

2. Study Area

Nivadunge village is in the Pathardi tehsil of Maharashtra's Ahmednagar district (Figure 1). It is approximately 9 kilometers west of Pathardi, the tehsil town, and approximately 65 kilometers east of the district town. The village is located at the intersection of 19015'33"N latitude and 75005'35" E longitude. The average elevation is approximately 552 meters above mean sea level. The village has a total land area of 2282.25 ha.

3. Database and Methodology

Data for this study was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. A village survey is conducted, and data is gathered through standardized questionnaires. For the purpose of selecting farmers in the chosen hamlet, a suitable sample procedure was used. A minimum of 50% (54 farmers) of the total farm pond holder farmers in the community have been selected for data collection. Related to agriculture and infrastructure twelve agricultural development parameters 15 have been estimated for two scenarios, namely before and after the construction of a farm pond, and the difference between them has been determined. With the use of appropriate statistical tools, the acquired data from the field and offices was assembled, analyzed, and summarized. Changes in parameter values have been calculated, and analysis has been conducted.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Area and Land Use

The acreage and land use of Nivadunge village is depicted in the pie graphic (Figure 2). The village's total geographical area (TGA) is 2282.25ha. The village's NSA is approximately 81.86 %. The field observations that led to this large amount of NSA are as follows: first, the Nivadunge village is located in the Deccan trap, which has a modest slope 16. As a result, the amount of land available for farming has increased. Second, the farmers of this hamlet have used techniques like CCT and levelling to convert the majority of their wasteland into cultivable land 17. The majority of the land is used for horticulture crops such as pomegranate, orange, and other citrus fruits.

4.2. Available Amenities for Agriculture

The (Table 1) depicts the various agricultural amenities accessible in the Nivadunge village.

Four milk collection centers are available in this village which collects milk from farmers and sends it to Tisgaon and Pathardi cooperative dairy plants. For irrigation purposes, the village has 720 wells and bore wells. A total number of 108 farm ponds have been constructed in this village by farmers. This village has 92 tractors for agricultural allied activities. In this hamlet, there are four milk collection facilities that gather milk from farmers and deliver it to the Tisgaon and Pathardi cooperative dairy plants. The community contains 720 wells and bore wells for irrigation needs. Farmers in this village have built a total of 108 agricultural ponds. For agriculture and related tasks, this community possesses 92 tractors.

4.3. Agricultural Progress of Farmers with a Farm Pond

The second portion of the case study focuses on the agricultural growth of farm-pond holding farmers in Nivadunge village. How effective are farm ponds for generating protective irrigation areas? Is there a way to repurpose farm pond water for something else? As a result, data is gathered through surveys and discussions with farmers.

Irrigation has protective 79.23% of the land due to the farmers of Nivdunge village's use of farm ponds, the majority of which are used for agriculture and fish farming, resulting in a rise in agricultural revenue.

4.4. Agricultural Development Variables

The Table 3 shows the twelve agricultural development indicators of farmers with farm ponds in Nivadunge village.

Before the construction of the farm-pond, the percentage of NSA to TGA was 69 %, but it is now 88.26 %. It indicates that the NSA has increased by 19.26 %. This is a crucial aspect to consider while studying the agricultural development of farm-pond owners. Cropping intensity refers to the usage of agricultural land on multiple occasions during the course of a cropping year. The village's gross cropped area was 112.60 ha. Before the pond was built, but it increased to 186.55 ha. After the pond was built. Cropping intensity has changed by 30.34 % in volume. Before and after the farm-pond construction, the irrigation intensity was 98.84% and 153.43 %, respectively. The intensity of irrigation has increased by 54.59 %. Farm-pond density in Nivadunge is 51 farm-ponds per 100 ha. of NSA built during the study period. The sample farm-pond holding farmers' percentage of irrigated land by farm-pond is 79.95 %.

A farmer's economic development is mostly dependent on cash crops and fruit harvests. Before the building of the farm-pond, the Percentage of the area under horticulture crops to NSA was 26.03 %, but after the construction of the farm-pond, it grew to 84.33 %. It indicates that the amount of land planted with horticulture crops has increased by 58.3 %. The micro-irrigation approach has been proved to be successful in using water and increasing productivity. Before the farm-pond, the area under micro-irrigation to NSA was 32.5 %, but after the farm-pond, it climbed to 70.17 %. The percentage of area under micro-irrigation has increased by 37.67 % from NSA.

Fertilizers are important for crop productivity because they replenish soil fertility. The number of tonnes of fertilizer utilized per 100 acres of NSA was 28.5 before the farm-pond building and 65.60 tonnes after. The pumping set is used to extract subsurface water 18, and lift it to a farm pond for irrigation. The farm-pond having farmers have 89 pumps before and 135 pumps after the construction of farm-pond per 100 ha. of NSA. Tractors help to increase cropping intensity by enabling the farmer to save time and utilizing that time to grow an extra new crop. The number of tractors per 100 ha. of NSA was 9 before and 32 after the farm-pond. Before the farm-pond construction, there were 35 sprayers per 100 hectares of NSA of farmers who had a farm-pond, whereas there were 82 after the farm-pond construction. Before the construction of the farm-pond, the average annual income of farm-pond owning farmers in Nivadunge village was 88,000 rupees, and after the construction of the farm-pond, that is 7,84,000 rupees. The increased cultivated area in fruit and cash crops is the main factor for an increase in average annual revenue. The pomegranate crop is another important crop in this village.

5. Conclusion

Farm ponds can help ease water constraints caused by various factors, including climate change 19. This approach has the potential to increase the amount of water available for supplemental irrigation 20 while also increasing planted area and productivity, resulting in increased net crop yields 21. In climate change scenarios, a farm pond responds to increased drought frequency, particularly mid-season, and final dryness. Therefore, the legislation supports one pond per 2.0 ha of farmland, either on a farm-by-farm basis or as a community-shared resource. The challenges of putting farm pond technology into application on a large scale are also explored.

References

[1]  Balasubramanian A. (2019). Swayam online course of Agricultural Geography, week-I, Outline script of Agricultural Geography.
In article      
 
[2]  Bhagat V.S. (2002). “Agro-based model for sustainable development in the Purandhar Tahsil of the Pune district, Maharashtra”. Unpublished Ph. D thesis submitted to University of Pune.
In article      
 
[3]  Saptarshi P.G. (1993). “Resource appraisal and planning strategy for the Drought prone area – A case study of Karjat tehsil Dist. Ahmednagar, Maharashtra” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted to University of Pune, Pp: 304 to 377.
In article      
 
[4]  Berlemann, M., & Steinhardt, M. F. (2017). Climate change, natural disasters, and migration—a survey of the empirical evidence. CESifo Economic Studies, 63(4), 353-385.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Thierfelder, C., & Wall, P. C. (2010). Investigating conservation agriculture (CA) systems in Zambia and Zimbabwe to mitigate future effects of climate change. Journal of Crop Improvement, 24(2), 113-121.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Vico, G., Tamburino, L., & Rigby, J. R. (2020). Designing on-farm irrigation ponds for high and stable yield for different climates and risk-coping attitudes. Journal of Hydrology, 584, 124634.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Maru, Y. T., Smith, M. S., Sparrow, A., Pinho, P. F., & Dube, O. P. (2014). A linked vulnerability and resilience framework for adaptation pathways in remote disadvantaged communities. Global Environmental Change, 28, 337-350.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Gwiriri, L. C., Bennett, J., Mapiye, C., & Burbi, S. (2021). Emerging from Below? Understanding the Livelihood Trajectories of Smallholder Livestock Farmers in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land, 10(2), 226.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Angelakis, A. N., Do Monte, M. M., Bontoux, L., & Asano, T. (1999). The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin: need for guidelines. Water research, 33(10), 2201-2217.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Feng, M., Duan, Y., Wijffels, S., Hsu, J. Y., Li, C., Wang, H.,& Yu, W. (2020). Tracking air–sea exchange and upper-ocean variability in the Indonesian–Australian Basin during the onset of the 2018/19 Australian summer monsoon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(8), E1397-E1412.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Government of Maharashtra (2003). “Panlot Shrtra Vikas Margdarshika, Jalsandharan and Krushi vibhag”. Pubished by Dr. Sudhirkumar Goyal, Printed at Govt. Photozinko press, Pune. Pp: 245 to 254.
In article      
 
[12]  Wohlfart, C., Mack, B., Liu, G., & Kuenzer, C. (2017). Multi-faceted land cover and land use change analyses in the Yellow River Basin based on dense Landsat time series: Exemplary analysis in mining, agriculture, forest, and urban areas. Applied Geography, 85, 73-88.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Rao, R. N., & Sridhar, B. (2018, January). IoT based smart crop-field monitoring and automation irrigation system. In 2018 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC) (pp. 478-483). IEEE.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Kumar, A., Nayak, A. K., Sah, R. P., Sanghamitra, P., & Das, B. S. (2017). Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on water productivity and antioxidant enzyme activities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under water deficit stress. Field Crops Research, 212, 61-72.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Trukhachev, V. I., Kostyukova, E. I., Gromov, E. I., & Gerasimov, A. N. (2014). Comprehensive socio-ecological and economic assessment of the status and development of Southern Russia agricultural regions. Life Science Journal, 11(5), 478-482.
In article      
 
[16]  Sheth, H. C., Ray, J. S., Ray, R., Vanderkluysen, L., Mahoney, J. J., Kumar, A., & Jana, B. (2009). Geology and geochemistry of Pachmarhi dykes and sills, Satpura Gondwana Basin, central India: problems of dyke-sill-flow correlations in the Deccan Traps. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(3), 357.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Wawale Surindar, G., & Aher Aankush, B. (2015). Land Use/Land Cover Mapping using Remote Sensing Data in Pravara River Basin, Akole, Maharashtra, India. International Research Journal of Environment Science, 4(9), 53-58.
In article      
 
[18]  Wawale, S. (2019). Application of geospatial techniques for gravity-based drinking water supply management. Archiwum Fotogrametrii, Kartografii i Teledetekcji, 31.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Ahmed, N., Thompson, S., & Glaser, M. (2019). Global aquaculture productivity, environmental sustainability, and climate change adaptability. Environmental management, 63(2), 159-172.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Oweis, T., & Hachum, A. (2006). Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa. Agricultural water management, 80(1-3), 57-73.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Kromdijk, J., Głowacka, K., Leonelli, L., Gabilly, S. T., Iwai, M., Niyogi, K. K., & Long, S. P. (2016). Improving photosynthesis and crop productivity by accelerating recovery from photoprotection. Science, 354(6314), 857-861.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Dattatray Sheshrao Ghungarde and Surindar Gopalrao Wawale

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Dattatray Sheshrao Ghungarde, Surindar Gopalrao Wawale. The Role of Farm Ponds in Agricultural Development: A Case Study of Nivadunge Village in Pathardi Tehsil of Ahmednagar District (M.S.). Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 8, 2021, pp 719-723. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/8/2
MLA Style
Ghungarde, Dattatray Sheshrao, and Surindar Gopalrao Wawale. "The Role of Farm Ponds in Agricultural Development: A Case Study of Nivadunge Village in Pathardi Tehsil of Ahmednagar District (M.S.)." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.8 (2021): 719-723.
APA Style
Ghungarde, D. S. , & Wawale, S. G. (2021). The Role of Farm Ponds in Agricultural Development: A Case Study of Nivadunge Village in Pathardi Tehsil of Ahmednagar District (M.S.). Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(8), 719-723.
Chicago Style
Ghungarde, Dattatray Sheshrao, and Surindar Gopalrao Wawale. "The Role of Farm Ponds in Agricultural Development: A Case Study of Nivadunge Village in Pathardi Tehsil of Ahmednagar District (M.S.)." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 8 (2021): 719-723.
Share
[1]  Balasubramanian A. (2019). Swayam online course of Agricultural Geography, week-I, Outline script of Agricultural Geography.
In article      
 
[2]  Bhagat V.S. (2002). “Agro-based model for sustainable development in the Purandhar Tahsil of the Pune district, Maharashtra”. Unpublished Ph. D thesis submitted to University of Pune.
In article      
 
[3]  Saptarshi P.G. (1993). “Resource appraisal and planning strategy for the Drought prone area – A case study of Karjat tehsil Dist. Ahmednagar, Maharashtra” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted to University of Pune, Pp: 304 to 377.
In article      
 
[4]  Berlemann, M., & Steinhardt, M. F. (2017). Climate change, natural disasters, and migration—a survey of the empirical evidence. CESifo Economic Studies, 63(4), 353-385.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Thierfelder, C., & Wall, P. C. (2010). Investigating conservation agriculture (CA) systems in Zambia and Zimbabwe to mitigate future effects of climate change. Journal of Crop Improvement, 24(2), 113-121.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Vico, G., Tamburino, L., & Rigby, J. R. (2020). Designing on-farm irrigation ponds for high and stable yield for different climates and risk-coping attitudes. Journal of Hydrology, 584, 124634.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Maru, Y. T., Smith, M. S., Sparrow, A., Pinho, P. F., & Dube, O. P. (2014). A linked vulnerability and resilience framework for adaptation pathways in remote disadvantaged communities. Global Environmental Change, 28, 337-350.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Gwiriri, L. C., Bennett, J., Mapiye, C., & Burbi, S. (2021). Emerging from Below? Understanding the Livelihood Trajectories of Smallholder Livestock Farmers in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land, 10(2), 226.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Angelakis, A. N., Do Monte, M. M., Bontoux, L., & Asano, T. (1999). The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin: need for guidelines. Water research, 33(10), 2201-2217.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Feng, M., Duan, Y., Wijffels, S., Hsu, J. Y., Li, C., Wang, H.,& Yu, W. (2020). Tracking air–sea exchange and upper-ocean variability in the Indonesian–Australian Basin during the onset of the 2018/19 Australian summer monsoon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(8), E1397-E1412.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Government of Maharashtra (2003). “Panlot Shrtra Vikas Margdarshika, Jalsandharan and Krushi vibhag”. Pubished by Dr. Sudhirkumar Goyal, Printed at Govt. Photozinko press, Pune. Pp: 245 to 254.
In article      
 
[12]  Wohlfart, C., Mack, B., Liu, G., & Kuenzer, C. (2017). Multi-faceted land cover and land use change analyses in the Yellow River Basin based on dense Landsat time series: Exemplary analysis in mining, agriculture, forest, and urban areas. Applied Geography, 85, 73-88.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Rao, R. N., & Sridhar, B. (2018, January). IoT based smart crop-field monitoring and automation irrigation system. In 2018 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC) (pp. 478-483). IEEE.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Kumar, A., Nayak, A. K., Sah, R. P., Sanghamitra, P., & Das, B. S. (2017). Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on water productivity and antioxidant enzyme activities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under water deficit stress. Field Crops Research, 212, 61-72.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Trukhachev, V. I., Kostyukova, E. I., Gromov, E. I., & Gerasimov, A. N. (2014). Comprehensive socio-ecological and economic assessment of the status and development of Southern Russia agricultural regions. Life Science Journal, 11(5), 478-482.
In article      
 
[16]  Sheth, H. C., Ray, J. S., Ray, R., Vanderkluysen, L., Mahoney, J. J., Kumar, A., & Jana, B. (2009). Geology and geochemistry of Pachmarhi dykes and sills, Satpura Gondwana Basin, central India: problems of dyke-sill-flow correlations in the Deccan Traps. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(3), 357.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Wawale Surindar, G., & Aher Aankush, B. (2015). Land Use/Land Cover Mapping using Remote Sensing Data in Pravara River Basin, Akole, Maharashtra, India. International Research Journal of Environment Science, 4(9), 53-58.
In article      
 
[18]  Wawale, S. (2019). Application of geospatial techniques for gravity-based drinking water supply management. Archiwum Fotogrametrii, Kartografii i Teledetekcji, 31.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Ahmed, N., Thompson, S., & Glaser, M. (2019). Global aquaculture productivity, environmental sustainability, and climate change adaptability. Environmental management, 63(2), 159-172.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Oweis, T., & Hachum, A. (2006). Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa. Agricultural water management, 80(1-3), 57-73.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Kromdijk, J., Głowacka, K., Leonelli, L., Gabilly, S. T., Iwai, M., Niyogi, K. K., & Long, S. P. (2016). Improving photosynthesis and crop productivity by accelerating recovery from photoprotection. Science, 354(6314), 857-861.
In article      View Article