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A Preliminary Assessment of Angiospermic Flora in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(4), 440-449. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-4-3
Received February 21, 2021; Revised April 01, 2021; Accepted April 09, 2021

Abstract

A preliminary assessment of angiospermic flora in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh conducted during July 2017 to December 2018. A total of 223 species belonging to 176 genera under 74 families were recorded. Asteraceae is the largest family in Magnoliopsida represented by 27 species and, in Liliopsida; Poaceae is the largest family with 9 species. Habit analysis shows that herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees are represented by 93, 37, 28 and 65 species, respectively. Dominant families are recorded like Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae. For each species family name, scientific name, local name, habit, status of occurrence and flowering time were provided.

1. Introduction

Angiosperms are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species 1. Among the most important food plants on a global scale are cereals from the grass family (Poaceae); potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, and red or chili peppers from the potato family (Solanaceae); legumes or beans (Fabaceae); pumpkins, melons, and gourds from the squash family (Cucurbitaceae); broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, and other vegetables from the mustard family (Brassicaceae, or Cruciferae); and almonds, apples, apricots, cherries, loquats, peaches, pears, raspberries, and strawberries from the rose family (Rosaceae). Members of many angiosperm families are used for food on a local level, such as ullucu (Ullucus tuberosus) in the Andes and cassava (Manihot esculenta) throughout the tropics. Tropical angiosperm trees are an important source of timber in the tropics and throughout the world.

The angiosperms provide valuable pharmaceuticals. With the exception of antibiotics, almost all medicinals either is derived directly from compounds produced by angiosperms or, if synthesized, were originally discovered in angiosperms. This includes some vitamins (e.g., vitamin C, originally extracted from fruits); aspirin, originally from the bark of willows (Salix; Salicaceae); narcotics (e.g., opium and its derivatives from the opium poppy. Papaver somniferum; Papaveraceae); and quinine from Cinchona (Rubiaceae) bark. Sonic angiosperm compounds that are highly toxic to humans have proved to be effective in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, such as acute leukemia (vincristine from the Madagascar periwincle, Catharanthus roseus; Apocynaceae), and of heart problems (digitalis from foxglove, Digitalis purpurea; Plantaginaceae). Muscle relaxants derived from curare (Strychnos toxifera; Loganiaceae) are used during open-heart surgery 2, 3.

Important research work on angiospermic plants were carried out in Bangladesh by 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. The present research was undertaken to record the preliminary assessment of angiospermic flora in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

Rajshahi is a metropolitan city, and a major urban, commercial and educational centre of Bangladesh. It is also the administrative seat of eponymous division and district. Located on the north bank of the Padma River, near the Bangladesh-India border, the city has a population of over 763,952 residents. The city is surrounded by the satellite towns of Nowhata and Katakhali, which together build an urban agglomeration of about 1 million populations. Arguably Rajshahi is the most clean and green among the cities in Bangladesh 15.

2.2. Research Methodology

A preliminary assessment of angiospermic flora in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh was carried out from July 2017 to December 2018. Plant parts with either flower of fruits collected using traditional herbarium techniques to make voucher specimens for documentation. Field identification of the collected specimens was confirmed comparing with herbarium specimens Rajshahi University Herbarium. In some cases, standard literature such as 16, 17, 18 and 19 were consulted for identification purpose. For update nomenclature 20 and 21 were also consulted. The specimens are deposited in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh for future reference.

3. Results and Discussion

A preliminary assessment of angiospermic flora in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh conducted during July 2017 to December 2018. A total of 223 species belonging to 176 genera under 74 families were recorded. Asteraceae is the largest family in Magnoliopsida represented by 27 species and, in Liliopsida, Poaceae is the largest family with 9 species. Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae and Solanaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. For each species scientific name, local name, habit, flowering time, status of occurrence and family name were provided (Table 1). Out of 223 recorded species, herbs are represented by 93(41.70%), trees by 65 (29.14%), shrubs by 37 (16.59%) and climber by 28 (12.55%) species (Figure 1). Out of 223 recorded species, 54 (24.21%) was very common followed by 153 (68.60%) was common, 11 (4.93%) was rare and 4 (1.79%) was very rare species the study area (Figure 2).

The families of angiosperm species distribution in the families was shows variation. Asteraceae is represented by 27 (12.10%) species. Cucurbitaceae and Amaranthaceae are represented by 13 (5.82%) species each. Solanaceae is represented by 12 (5.38%) species. Euphorbiaceae is represented by 11 (4.93%) species. Fabaceae is represented by 10 (4.84%) species, Poaceae is represented by 9 (4.03%) species, Moraceae is represented by 8 (3.58%) species and Lamiaceae is represented by 7 (3.13%) species (Figure 3). A single species in each was recorded by 48 families while two to six species in each was recorded by 37 families (Table 1).

  • Table 1. Documentation of Angiospermic flora in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh

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A total of 223 species belonging to 176 genera under 74 families were recorded. Of the total number of species, Abelmoschus esculentus, Acacia auriculiformis, Ageratum conyzoides, Alternanthera sessilis, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus tricolor, Amaranthus viridis, Areca catechu, Argemone mexicana, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa tulda, Basella alba, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Calotropis procera, Carrica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Centella asiatica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantifolia, Clerodendrum viscosum, Coccinia grandis, Cocos nucifera, Colocasia esculenta, Commelina benghalensis, Coriandrum sativum, Croton bonplandianum, Cynodon dactylon, Dendropthoe falcata, Dopatrium junceum, Eucalyptus citrodora, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus hispida, Fumaria indica, Heliotropium indicum, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Isachne globosa, Lagenaria sicararia, Lawsonia inermis, Leucas aspera, Leucas lavandulifolia, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mangifera indica, Mimosa pudica, Monochoria hastata, Musa sapientum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pepromia pellucida, Phoenix sylvestris, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Persicaria hydropiper, Persicaria orientale, Psidium guajava, Rosa centifolia, Scorparia dulcis, Sesbania canabina, Solanum nigrum, Spilanthes calva, Stephania japonica, Syzygium cumini,, Trapa bispinosa, Xanthium indicum, Zizyphus mauritiana were recorded as very common; Abroma augusta, Acacia nilotica, Achras zapota, Aegle marmelos, Aerva sanguinolenta, Albizia procera, Achyranthes aspera, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Alstonia scholaris, Amaranthus dubius, Annanas sativus, Andrographis paniculata, Anthocephalus chinensis, Aphanamixi polystachya, Averrhoa carambola, Baccaurea ramiflora, Benincasa hispida, Bombax ceiba, Borassus flabellifer, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea var.botrytis, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Cajanus cajan, Capsicum frutescens, Canna indica, Senna alata, Cassia fistula, Senna sophera, Cestrum nocturnum, Chrozophora rottleri, Citrus grandis, Clerodendrum inerme, Commelina longifolia, Corchorus capsularis, Cucurbita maxima, Curcuma longa, Cuscuta reflexa, Cyanotis axillaris, Cyperus tegetiformis, Dalbergia sissoo, Delonix regia, Diospyros malabarica, Duranta repens, Eclipta alba, Euphorbia thymifolia, Elaeocarpus robustus, Epipremnum aureum, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Gardenia jasminoides, Glinus oppositifolius, Gossypium harbaceum, Hibiscus mutabilis, Herpestis chamaedroides, Hydrolea zeylanica, Imperata cylindrica, Ipomoea alba, Ipomoea aquatica, Ipomoea batatus, Ipomoea fistulosa, Ipomoea quamocli, Ixora coccinia, Justicia gendarusa, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Lablab purpureus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Lannea coromandelica, Lemna perpusila, Leucas cephalotes, Limonia acidissima, Litchi chinensis, Ludwigia adscendens, Manikara achras, Microcos paniculata, Michelia champaca, Mimusops elengi, Mirabilis jalapa, Moringa oleifera, Nelumbo nucifera, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Nymphaea nouchali, Nymphoides indicum, Ocimum americanum, Oryza sativa, Oxalis corniculata, Physalis minima, Phyllanthus urinaria, Polyalthia longifolia, Portulaca oleracea, Pouzolzia zeylanica, Polycarpon prostratum, Punica granatum, Raphanus sativus, Saccharum officinarum, Saccharum spontaneum, Senna tora, Sesamum indicum, Sida cordifolia, Solanum ferox, Solanum melongena, Solanum surattense, Solanum tuberosum, Spondius pinnata, Swietenia mahagoni, Syzygium jambos, Syzygium samarangense, Tabernaemontana divaricata, Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Trichosanthes arguina, Typhonium trilobatum, Vitis trifolia as common; Amaranthus lividus, Annona squamosa, Arachis hypogea, Ardisia paniculata, Artocarpus lacucha, Asparagus racemosus, Barringtonia acutangula, Bergia ammannioides, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Cannabis sativa, Calotropis gigantea, Carissa carandas, Celosia cristata, Chenopodium album, Chrysanthamum coronarium, Cinnamomum tamala, Cleome viscosa, Clitoria tarnetea, Coix lacryma, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cyathula capitata, Cyanotis cristata, Datura metel, Dendropthoe falcata, Drosera burmannii, Digeria arvensis, Exacum pedunculatum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Ficus racemosa, Gmelina arborea, Helianthus annuus, Impatiens balsamina, Jasminum grandiflorum, Jatropha gossypifolia, Jatropha integerrima, Justicia adhatoda, Kalanchoe lacinata, Kyllinga monocephala, Leucas lavandulifolia, Litsea monopetala, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Mentha arvensis, Messua nagassarium, Momordica charantia, Momordica cochchinensis, Morinda citrifolia, Morus nigra, Mukia maderaspatana, Murraya paniculata, Nerium indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Passiflora edulis, Piper betle, Pisonia aculeata, Persicaria barbatum, Polygonum plebejum, Pyrus communis, Rananculus scleratus, Ricinus communis, Spathodea campanulata, Spondius purpurea, Streblus asper, Tabebuia aurea, Tabernaemontana coronaria, Tectona grandis, Terminalia catappa, Vandellia multiflora, Vigna sinensis , Vitex negundo, Vitis vinifera, Zea mays, Zingiber officinale were recorded as rare and Alternanthera paronychioides, Cinnamomum verum, Dillenia indica, Diospyros montana, Diospyros philippensis, Erythrina variegata, Leonuros sibiricus, Solanum torvum, Trichosanthes dioica, Vigna mungo were recorded as very rare species in the study area (Table 1).

The recorded angiospermic flora is comparable with the results of other studies in Bangladesh. A total of 223 species belonging to 176 genera under 74 families were recorded (Table 1). The collected information is comparable with the result of other studies in Bangladesh. A total of 243 species belonging to 195 genera under 95 families were recorded in Khagrachhari district 22. A total of 374 species belonging to 264 genera under 84 families were recorded in Lawachara National Park 23. A total of 153 species belonging to 120 genera under 52 families were recorded in Runctia Sal Forest 24. A total of 245 species belonged to 183 genera and 72 families are documented in Habiganj district 25. A total of 302 species belonging to 243 genera 84 families are recorded in Bangladesh Police Academy, Rajshahi 10. The present paper recorded on the preliminary assessment of angiospermic plant species in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan city, Bangladesh.

4. Conclusion

A preliminary assessment of angiosperms in and around Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh was recorded. A total of 223 species belonging to 176 genera under 74 families were recorded. Distribution of angiosperm plant species in the families shows variation. Asteraceae is represented by 27 species. Cucurbitaceae is represented by 13 species. Fabaceae is represented by 10 species. Each of Euhorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Poaceae is represented by 9 species. Amaranthaceae is represented by 8 species. Lamiaceae is represented by 7 species. A single species is represented by 38 families while 2 to 6 species is represented by 29 families. The following species are found rarely distributed in the study area Abroma augusta L., Aphanamixis polystachya Wall., Asparagus racemosus L., Bixa orellana L., Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel., Celosia cristata L., Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume., Diospyros montana Roxb., Dillenia indica L., Enhydra fluctuans Lour., Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC., Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers., Paederia foetida L., Rumex vesicarius L. and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. All collected specimens were studied, identified and have been lodged in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the local people in Rajshahi metropolitan city, Bangladesh for their co-operation and help during the research work.

Funding

This study has not received any external funding.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests.

Data and Materials Availability

All data associated with this study are presented in this paper.

Peer Review

External peer-review was done through double-blind method.

References

[1]  Christenhusz MJ, Byng JW (2016). The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201-217.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Purseglove, J. W. 1968a. Tropical Crops Dicotyledons. Longman Group Limited, London, U.K.
In article      
 
[3]  Purseglove, J. W. 1968b. Tropical Crops Monocotyledones. Longman Group Limited, London, U.K.
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[4]  Kona, S. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2015. An Assessment of Angiosperm Diversity at Mahadebpur Upazila of Naogaon District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 3(10): 1067-1086.
In article      
 
[5]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2013. Angiospermic flora of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Journal of Life Sciences, 1(3): 105-112.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2017. Annotated List in the Graveyards Trees of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Discovery. 53(254): 107-116.
In article      
 
[7]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. and Keya, M.A. 2014. Assessment of Angiosperm Flora at the Village Sabgram under Sadar Upazila of Bogra District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 2(11): 443-458.
In article      
 
[8]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Alam, M.S., Hossain, M.B., Nesa, M.N., Islam, A.K.M.R. and Rahman, M.M. 2008. Study of Species Diversity on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi Division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. Pakistan. 4(6): 794-797.
In article      
 
[9]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Anisuzzaman, M., Ahmed, F., Zaman, A.T.M.N. and Islam, A.K.M. R. 2007. A Floristic Study in the Graveyards of Rajshahi City. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. Pakistan. 3(6): 670-675. ISSN 1816- 1561
In article      
 
[10]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Ferdous, Z. and Islam, A. K. M. R. 2014. A Preliminary Assessment of Angiosperm Flora of Bangladesh Police Academy. Research in Plant Sciences. 2(1): 9-15.
In article      
 
[11]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Ferdows, Z, Nitu, S.K. and Islam, A.K.M.R. 2015. Herbaceous Plant Species in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 3(5): 1002-1018.
In article      
 
[12]  Sarker, A.K. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2016. A Preliminary Checklist of Angiosperm Flora at Katakhali Pouroshova of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Discovery. 52(251): 2127-2140.
In article      
 
[13]  Sarker, P and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2019. "Angiosperms in Gobindaganj Upazila of Gaibandha District, Bangladesh". Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 26(2): 285- 298
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Sultana, R. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2016. Convolvulaceae: A Taxonomically and Medicinally Important Morning Glory Family. International Journal of Botany Studies. 1(3): 47-52.
In article      
 
[15]  Bangladesh Population Census (BPC) 2001, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Rajshahi City Corporation 2007.
In article      
 
[16]  Hooker, J. D. 1877 (rep. ed. 1961). Flora of British India. Vols.1-7. L. Reeve and Co. Ltd. London, U.K.
In article      
 
[17]  Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D.. 1987. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vols. 1-4. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, Jayyed Press, New Delhi, India.
In article      
 
[18]  Prain, D. 1903 (rep. ed. 1963). Bengal Plants. Vols.1-2. Botanical Survey of India. Calcutta, India.
In article      
 
[19]  Ahmed, Z.U., Begum, Z.N.T., Hassan, M.A., Khondker, M., Kabir, S.M.H., Ahmad, M., Ahmed, A.T.A., Rahman, A.K.A. and Haque, E.U.(Eds). 2008-2009. Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. 6-10. Angiosperms; Dicotyledons. Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh, Dhaka.
In article      
 
[20]  Pasha, M.K. and S.B.Uddin, 2013. Dictionary of Plant Names of Bangladesh (Vascular Plants). Janokalyan Prokashani. Chittagong, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In article      
 
[21]  Huq, A.M. 1986. Plant Names of Bangladesh. Bangladesh National Herbarium, BARC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In article      
 
[22]  Islam, M.R., Uddin, M.Z. and Hassan, M.A. 2009. An Assessment of the Angiosperm Flora of Ramgarh Upazilla of Khagrachhari District, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 16(2): 115-140.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Uddin, M.Z. and Hassan, M.A. 2010. Angiosperm Diversity of Lawachara National Park (Bangladesh): A Preliminary Assessment. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 17(1): 9-22.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Tutul, E., Uddin, M.Z., Rahman, M.O. and Hassan, M.A. 2010. Angiospermic Flora of Runctia Sal Forest, Bangladesh. II. Magnoliopsida (Dicots). Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 17(1): 33-54.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Arefin, M.K., M.M. Rahman, M.Z. Uddin and M.A. Hassan, 2011. Angiosperm Flora of Satchari National Park, Habiganj, Bangladesh.Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon., 18(2): 117-140.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman

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Normal Style
A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman. A Preliminary Assessment of Angiospermic Flora in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2021, pp 440-449. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/4/3
MLA Style
Rahman, A.H.M. Mahbubur. "A Preliminary Assessment of Angiospermic Flora in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.4 (2021): 440-449.
APA Style
Rahman, A. M. (2021). A Preliminary Assessment of Angiospermic Flora in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(4), 440-449.
Chicago Style
Rahman, A.H.M. Mahbubur. "A Preliminary Assessment of Angiospermic Flora in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 4 (2021): 440-449.
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[1]  Christenhusz MJ, Byng JW (2016). The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201-217.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Purseglove, J. W. 1968a. Tropical Crops Dicotyledons. Longman Group Limited, London, U.K.
In article      
 
[3]  Purseglove, J. W. 1968b. Tropical Crops Monocotyledones. Longman Group Limited, London, U.K.
In article      
 
[4]  Kona, S. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2015. An Assessment of Angiosperm Diversity at Mahadebpur Upazila of Naogaon District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 3(10): 1067-1086.
In article      
 
[5]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2013. Angiospermic flora of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Journal of Life Sciences, 1(3): 105-112.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2017. Annotated List in the Graveyards Trees of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Discovery. 53(254): 107-116.
In article      
 
[7]  Rahman, A.H.M.M. and Keya, M.A. 2014. Assessment of Angiosperm Flora at the Village Sabgram under Sadar Upazila of Bogra District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 2(11): 443-458.
In article      
 
[8]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Alam, M.S., Hossain, M.B., Nesa, M.N., Islam, A.K.M.R. and Rahman, M.M. 2008. Study of Species Diversity on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi Division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. Pakistan. 4(6): 794-797.
In article      
 
[9]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Anisuzzaman, M., Ahmed, F., Zaman, A.T.M.N. and Islam, A.K.M. R. 2007. A Floristic Study in the Graveyards of Rajshahi City. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. Pakistan. 3(6): 670-675. ISSN 1816- 1561
In article      
 
[10]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Ferdous, Z. and Islam, A. K. M. R. 2014. A Preliminary Assessment of Angiosperm Flora of Bangladesh Police Academy. Research in Plant Sciences. 2(1): 9-15.
In article      
 
[11]  Rahman, A.H.M.M., Ferdows, Z, Nitu, S.K. and Islam, A.K.M.R. 2015. Herbaceous Plant Species in and around Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. India. 3(5): 1002-1018.
In article      
 
[12]  Sarker, A.K. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2016. A Preliminary Checklist of Angiosperm Flora at Katakhali Pouroshova of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Discovery. 52(251): 2127-2140.
In article      
 
[13]  Sarker, P and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2019. "Angiosperms in Gobindaganj Upazila of Gaibandha District, Bangladesh". Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 26(2): 285- 298
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Sultana, R. and Rahman, A.H.M.M. 2016. Convolvulaceae: A Taxonomically and Medicinally Important Morning Glory Family. International Journal of Botany Studies. 1(3): 47-52.
In article      
 
[15]  Bangladesh Population Census (BPC) 2001, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Rajshahi City Corporation 2007.
In article      
 
[16]  Hooker, J. D. 1877 (rep. ed. 1961). Flora of British India. Vols.1-7. L. Reeve and Co. Ltd. London, U.K.
In article      
 
[17]  Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D.. 1987. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vols. 1-4. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, Jayyed Press, New Delhi, India.
In article      
 
[18]  Prain, D. 1903 (rep. ed. 1963). Bengal Plants. Vols.1-2. Botanical Survey of India. Calcutta, India.
In article      
 
[19]  Ahmed, Z.U., Begum, Z.N.T., Hassan, M.A., Khondker, M., Kabir, S.M.H., Ahmad, M., Ahmed, A.T.A., Rahman, A.K.A. and Haque, E.U.(Eds). 2008-2009. Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. 6-10. Angiosperms; Dicotyledons. Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh, Dhaka.
In article      
 
[20]  Pasha, M.K. and S.B.Uddin, 2013. Dictionary of Plant Names of Bangladesh (Vascular Plants). Janokalyan Prokashani. Chittagong, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In article      
 
[21]  Huq, A.M. 1986. Plant Names of Bangladesh. Bangladesh National Herbarium, BARC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In article      
 
[22]  Islam, M.R., Uddin, M.Z. and Hassan, M.A. 2009. An Assessment of the Angiosperm Flora of Ramgarh Upazilla of Khagrachhari District, Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 16(2): 115-140.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Uddin, M.Z. and Hassan, M.A. 2010. Angiosperm Diversity of Lawachara National Park (Bangladesh): A Preliminary Assessment. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 17(1): 9-22.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Tutul, E., Uddin, M.Z., Rahman, M.O. and Hassan, M.A. 2010. Angiospermic Flora of Runctia Sal Forest, Bangladesh. II. Magnoliopsida (Dicots). Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 17(1): 33-54.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Arefin, M.K., M.M. Rahman, M.Z. Uddin and M.A. Hassan, 2011. Angiosperm Flora of Satchari National Park, Habiganj, Bangladesh.Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon., 18(2): 117-140.
In article      View Article