Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Inner Shelf Environments and Their Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam, Southeast Coast of India

Christinal J. , V. Kumar, S. Selvaraj, T. Gangaimani
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(3), 396-409. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-3-10
Received February 19, 2021; Revised March 26, 2021; Accepted April 06, 2021

Abstract

Identification of change in foraminiferal assemblage with respect to environmental modifications will be a positive contribution to know varied marine micro ecosystem. The occurrence of benthic foraminiferal species is controlled to a great extent by physical factors such as depth, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen content of bottom water, character of the bottom sediments, and availability of biological factors such as food supply, presence of symbiotic organisms and predators. In order to observe the impact of inner shelf environments on the distribution of benthic foraminifera, sediment and bottom water samples were collected from the inner shelf off Kayalpattinam, once in four months for a year, at 18 locations with a depth range between 1.76 m and 14.89 m., during the months of May 2016, September 2016 and January 2017 representing summer, pre-monsoon and winter/post monsoon respectively. In the present study, 81 foraminiferal species belonging to 42 genera, 30 families, 16 super families of the 4 sub orders (Textulariina, Miliolina, Lagenina and Rotaliina) have been identified. The spatial and temporal distribution of the foraminiferal fauna has been evaluated and correlated with observed environmental parameters like CaCO3 content, organic matter content, sand-silt-clay ratio of the substrate and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen content and pH of bottom water. Higher calcium carbonate content (>26%), organic matter content (0.9 - 1.03%) higher temperature (32.7 -33.3°C), higher salinity (32.6 to 33.3ppt) and dissolved oxygen (5.7 to 6 ml/l) prevailed during summer months are considered to be favourable for higher foraminiferal population in the present study. Depth is also considered as one of the effective factors controlling the population of foraminifera along with the other congenial parameters. The favourable niche for population abundance is found to be silty sand.

1. Introduction

Foraminifers are unicellular microorganisms widely distributed in marine and brackish water environments 1. Many studies relating foraminiferal population distribution with factors like nutrition, dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature and substrate have been carried out. Benthic foraminiferal species grouped by changing depth and latitudinal variation 2; change in environmental factors have an impact on the morphology of foraminiferal test 3, salinity controlled the distribution of foraminifera 4, sediment type and organic matter content have an impact on living benthic foraminifera 5, oxygen depleted environments lead to diverse aspects of foraminiferal adaptation 6, distribution of brackish water benthic foraminifera can be used to understand bio geography and paleoenvironmental assessment 7, typical paralic sub-environments were characterized by typical foraminiferal species assemblages 8, strong and highly significant relationship of foraminifera assemblages have corelated with elevation and environment 9.

Industrial waste mainly with trace elements, agricultural and domestic waste affected the density and diversity of foraminiferal assemblages 10, 11, 12, environmental stress by anthropogenic and natural elements can result in test deformation 13. Distribution of inner shelf benthic foraminifera with respect to the changes in substrate and bottom water characters have been studied from the Bay of Bengal, off Porto Novo 14, from the Palk Bay, off Rameswaram 15, 16 and from the Palk strait from off Manamelkudi 17.

Foraminifera adapted to various niches on the sea floor viz., estuaries, salt marshes, marine marginal water bodies etc., are very sensitive to the environmental modifications and pollutional interferences and hence can effectively be used as an indicator for understanding the inner shelf environments of Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam.

2. Study Area

The study area comprising the southern part of Gulf of Mannar, East coast of India (Figure 1), lies in the geographic coordinates N 838’ to N 840’15” to E 7807’30” to E 7812’30” and forms a part of toposheet numbers 58 L/1 and 58 L/5 of the Survey of India.

The region forms the southern part of the South Indian Granulite terrain (SGT), which is a high-grade metamorphicterrain under granulite facies. The Gulf of Mannar receives riverine input through a number of rivers, of which the Thamirabaraniis the major source, debouches in the study area. As there are few check dams constructed recently in the estuarine portion the sedimentation influx into the shore is reduced considerably. Generally, the area is an undulating topography with general slope towards the east.

The area experiences generally a tropical climate and witnessing two types of monsoons namely, Southwest and Northeast. Southwest monsoon is from June to September, accounts for scanty to moderate rainfall while during Northeast monsoon, from October to December, often accompanied by cyclones andgives ample amount of annual rainfall. The annual average temperature varies from 26.0°C to 37.0°C with an average humidity of ∼65%. Generally, summer is experienced during months March, April and May while winter from December to February.

3. Objective

In order to assess the environmental impact on foraminifera from the inner shelf sediments of Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam the following objectives are taken up:

• to inventory the foraminifera fauna and their quantitative composition

• to ascertain the inner shelf environmental parameters

• to discover the effect of environmental parameters on the seasonal and spatial variation of benthic foraminiferal fauna.

4. Materials and Methods

4.1. Field Work

The sediment and bottom water samples were collected at 18 stations from the inner shelf sediments of Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam ranging in depths from 1.76 to 14.89 meters, during the months of May 2016, September 2016 and January 2017 representing summer, pre-monsoon and winter/post monsoon respectively and the total samples amounted to 54. All the sediment samples were collected by taking necessary precautions, making use of Petersen mud grab and an unit volume of 100 ml wet sediment taken from the top layer of each sample was preserved immediately in a 10% neutralized formaldehyde solution for foraminiferal study. At each station, samples of water from the sediment - water interface were collected with the help of a Nansen reversible water sampler and the temperature of the bottom water was noted using built in thermometer. Dissolved oxygen content of each bottom water sample was observed by using portable A113 dissolved oxygen analyser, salinity values by using Kerro salinometer and pH with the aid of H19828 pH meter after making necessary precautions in sampling and standardisation.

4.2. Laboratory Work

For identifying living foraminifera, Walton's 18 rose Bengal staining technique have been used.Foraminiferal tests were then separated from the residue by floatation method using carbon tetrachloride.In the laboratory, sand-silt-clay ratio in the sediment samples was estimated using standard sieving and pipette method of Krumbein and Pettijohn 19. Textural nomenclature of Trefethen 20 has been used todescribe the sediment types.

Calcium carbonate was determined by following titration method of Piper 21 while Organic matter was estimated by the chromic acid method of Walkley and Black as detailed out by Jackson 22. Benthic foraminifera tests were picked and mounted using a stereo binocular microscope and their taxa were identified by following the classification of Loeblich and Tappan 23.

5. Results and Discussion

5.1. Foraminifera

In the present study, 81 foraminiferal species belonging to 42 genera, 30 families, 16 super families of the 4 sub orders (Textulariina, Miliolina, Lagenina and Rotaliina) have been identified (Table 1). Among these, nine species belong to Textulariina, 28 belong to Miliolina, eight species belong to Lagenina and the rest 36 species belong to Rotaliina.


5.1.1. Living Foraminifera Population

In the current study, living foraminiferal species were observed in all the 54 samples collected and studied. Spatially, the living population varies from 83 (station 18, September) to 395 (station 8, May) specimens per 100ml. of wet sediment. The maximum living population was noticed in the farthest stations from the shore (stations 8, 9, 10) and the minimum foraminiferal population was found in near shore stations (stations 1 and 18).

Spatially, living foraminiferal population gradually increases from the shore to farthest stations. Seasonally, the living population size is found to be maximum (5392 specimens) in summer (May), minimum (4676 specimens) in pre-monsoon (September) (Figure 2).


5.1.2. Total Foraminiferal Population

In the study area, the total (living + dead) population size ranges from 295 (station 18, September) to 1177 (station 8, May) specimens per 100 ml of wet sediments. Temporally, the total population is found to be maximum (16097 specimens) during summer (May) and minimum (13910 specimens) in pre-monsoon (September) (Figure 3).

5.2. Substrate Characters
5.2.1. Sand-Sily-Clay Ratio

The correlation between texture of sediment and foraminiferal population was understood from several studies. The most favorable accommodative substrate for the foraminiferal abundance is silty sand 16, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. Elakkiya and Manivannan 29 after their study on recent benthic foraminifera from off the coast of Arkattuthurai (near Nagapattinam), south east coast of India concluded that the important ecological factors that controls the distribution of foraminifera are organic matter content, calcium carbonate content and nature of the substrate. Kurbjeweit et. al 30 described the positive relation of benthic foraminiferal abundance with oxygen content, pore volume, carbon content and chloroplastic pigment equivalents of the sediment while distributional patterns related to sand fraction, dissolved oxygen, calcium carbonate and organic carbon content of the sediment of the Arabian sea.

In the present study, among the twelve possible sediment types of Trefethen’s 20 textural nomenclature, the sediments taken from the study area fell only in two sediment types viz. sand and silty sand (Table 2). The foraminiferal population is relatively very poor in stations 1, 2, 16, 17 and 18 where the substrate is sandy and the population is more in stations 3-15 where the substrate is siltysand in all the three seasons (Figure 2). In general, larger foraminiferal populations are associated with low energy area and comparatively deeper part of the collection while the population is less in samples near the high-energy environment (near shore stations). The data related to sand silt clay percentages of all the samples collected are in relative abundance chart (Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6). Thus, it is evident that the silty sand substrate offers a favourable condition for the foraminiferal abundance of the area.


5.2.2. Calcium Carbonate

The variation in calcium carbonate content of the sediments had a bearing on the abundance of foraminifera and showed a positive relation 25, 29, 30, 31, 32. The calcium carbonate content, in the deeper segment of the traverse, coinciding with the alignment of coral reefs, is found to be higher that favours higher population 33. Post et.al 34 exhibited the relationship between benthic foraminifera and whole micro biotic community with changes in environment and found that benthic foraminifera showed much stronger correlation to calcium carbonate content rather than other micro biotic community. The higher calcium carbonate content in beach sands of Kovalam favors maximum distribution of foraminifera 35. Temporally, the mean values CaCO3 content was higher during May (summer) and spatially along the deeper part of all the collections which was positively correlated with foraminiferal population 27. Temporally, higher percentage of CaCO3 prevailed during April was one of the congenial factors for higher population during that period 36.

In the present study the percentage of calcium carbonate content is generally moderate ranging from 17.9% (station 18, September) to 26.6% (station 8, May). Pearl and chunk beds are the main source for the higher CaCO3 content of sediments in stations 7-12. Relatively, the calcium carbonate content was found to be higher in stations 8, 9 and 10 in all the seasons and positively correlated with higher population. Lower values are recorded in station 1 followed by 18. Seasonally, higher percentage of calcium carbonate observed during May (Table 3) and was one of the controlling factors for the seasonal abundance of population in that period. In general, calcium carbonate content is considered to be the main influencing factor for abundance of living population in the study area (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12).


5.2.3. Organic Matter

High sedimentation, greater input, slow decay and humid condition may be considered to be the reason for the high values of organic matter 32. Organic matter content is not an effective factor that controls the population abundance, but along with other parameters like CaCO3 content, depth and water parameters like salinity, dissolved oxygen content and temperature plays an important role 27. The organic matter content was found higher and favoured higher foraminiferal population, when the other parameters were congenial 29, 30, 36, 37. Eric Armynot et. al 5 confirmed that foraminifera density is low and species richness is high in sediments with a low organic matter content (<2%) and foraminifera density is high and species richness at an intermediate value in sediments with very high organic matter content. Martins et.al 38 revealed that opportunistic species populate in areas where the substrate is composed of fine-grained sediments enriched in organic matter. The lower organic matter content in sandy sediments and higher organic matter content in the fine sediments are observed in inner shelf sediments 27, 36.

Seasonally, the mean values organic matter content was higher during May (summer) and spatially, in stations collected in the deeper part of every collection was positively correlated with foraminiferal population 27. Though, organic matter content has no specific relationship with foraminiferal population, with its optimum amount (0.70 - 0.93%) along with other parameters plays an important role 36.

Hess and Jorissen 39 concluded that the distribution pattern of living benthic foraminifera in the Cap Breton canyon, Bay of Biscay, depend on organic matter content and oxygen concentration in the sedimentary column.

In the present study, the percentage of organic matter content is generally low ranging from 0.535% (station 1, September) to 1.234% (station 4, May) and directly proportional to the sediment fines. Active freshwater influx, turbidity of the coast because of monsoonal weather attributed to lesser sediment fines and the resultant lower organic matter content during September. Higher calcareous dust subsequently sediment fines accounts for higher organic matter along greater depths. Spatially, the organic matter content was found to be more between stations 5 to 14 in all the seasons. Lowest values are recorded in station 1 followed by 18, where the substrate is always sandy (Table 4). Organic matter content was relatively higher in stations 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12 as the clay percentage was comparatively higher than other stations (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12). Seasonally, organic matter 0.9 to 1.03 % in the sediments observed during May (summer) are suggested for an abundance of living foraminiferal population in the present study.

5.3. Bottom Water Characteristics
5.3.1. Salinity

Many studies revealed that salinity play a vital role in the diversity and abundance of foraminiferal population. An increase or decrease in salinity values was found to influence abundance of certain species and complete absence of others. The salinity shows positive correlation with foraminiferal population 27, 40, 41. Lei et.al 42 found out that foraminiferal abundance and species richness have a positive relation to salinity. Benthic species undergone partial deformation after short term exposure to low salinity, can regain the form, still holding impressions of the hyposaline conditions 43. Kasilingam et.al 28 concluded that the general trend in modern shallow water foraminiferal assemblage is increasing spatial diversity with increasing salinity gradients and environmental stability. Scott et.al 44 revealed that the low diversity and high abundance of foraminifera species in the Nemuro Bay wetland areas of Japan where salinity values were low. Hayward et.al 45 concluded that with increasing salinity there is an increase in calcareous forams and decrease in agglutinated forams for the brackish foraminifera of New Zealand. Yanko et. al 46 confirmed that low salinity or high heavy metal contamination results in the predominance of deformed living foraminiferal species. Moghaddasi et.al 47 after their study of benthic foraminiferal abundance and distribution in the Northern Oman Sea (Iranian side) continental shelf sediments explained the dominance of suborder ROTALIINA in the northern region and LAGENINA in the stations with higher depth. Important environmental factors controlling distribution of species were found to be water depth, salinity and substrate. Jean-Perre Debanay 48 observed that, in the hypersaline Araruama Lagoon of Brazil, morphological abnormalities were attributed to variations in salinity conditions rather than anthropogenic impact and was responsible for the predominance of Ammonia tepida in the more affected northern part of the area.

In the study area, salinity variation is very meagre between stations of a season and hence have a limited influence on foraminiferal population. Temporally, salinity values show considerable variation which is ascertained by the average salinity values of different seasons; higher values during May (32.95ppt) followed by January (31.68ppt) while the minimum is observed during September (30.3 ppt) (Figure 13). Higher salinity values (32.6 to 33.3ppt) observed during May is mainly due to the scanty flow of fresh water from the river and higher evaporation rate and are positively correlated with the foraminiferal population, while the minimum during September is mainly caused by the bay depression and higher input of fresh water through rivers (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12).


5.3.2. Temperature

Temperature is an important parameter that governs the growth and reproduction of foraminifera in coastal areas 43, 49. Kurtarkar et.al 50 discovered that out of all specimens fed with the same amount of food, both the growth was more rapid and the reproduction was more frequent in specimens kept in comparatively warmer water. Temporally, the temperature variation exhibited an effect on both living and total population and was seen to be positively correlated with population size 40. Kurtarkar et. al 51 suggested that the foraminiferal response to temperature variation is species-specific; the shell size of several benthic foraminifera increased with decreasing temperature but a few other benthic foraminifera shows a decrease in shell size with decreasing temperature.

Subba Rao et.al 52 after observing the distribution pattern and population density of foraminiferal species from shelf sediments of Visakhapatnam concluded that these were influenced by bottom water temperature and currents, rather than sediment attributes and water salinity.

In the study area, spatially, no appreciable variation in temperature is noticed but there is a considerable variation between seasons. Temporally, mean temperature is relatively higher (32.95°C) during summer followed by January (31.17°C). The minimum temperature is observed during September (30.84°C) (Figure 13). In general, increasing temperature is positively correlated with population of foraminifera (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12).


5.3.3. Dissolved Oxygen

The dissolved oxygen concentration is higher compared to other stations due to the dense and extensive patches of benthic algae in the shallow environment 34. The abundance of population of foraminifera is positively correlated with an increase of dissolved oxygen content 30, 40. Dissolved oxygen has repeatedly been shown to be a limiting factor for benthic foraminifera 53 and to have an influence on morphology in terms of shell and pore size 54. Some low oxygen benthic foraminifera have been observed to migrate to habitats with low oxygen conditions 55, 56, 57, 58, 59. Rasheed and Ragothaman 14 stated that dissolved oxygen is one of the factors contributing to the abundance of living population in the Bay of Bengal, off Porto Novo. In benthic foraminifera, species with smaller shells, larger pores and higher pore densities have been linked with low oxygen 31, 60, 61. Ramanathan 62 stated that dissolved oxygen was one of the factors favouring the growth of foraminifera.

In the current study, distribution of dissolved oxygen shows a clear seasonal variation and no appreciable spatial variation. Temporally, maximum mean volume (6.6 ml/l) is observed in September and followed by January. The seasonal average of dissolved oxygen content is May 5.81 ml/l, Sep 6.61 ml/l, and January 6.02 ml/l (Figure 14). Higher dissolved oxygen content observed during September may be due to lower temperature and salinity values. Warm water holds less dissolved oxygen than cold water because the molecules are moving faster than in cold water thereby allow oxygen to escape from the water (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12). Dissolved oxygen content (5.7 to 6 ml/l) existed during summer months are considered to be favourable along with other congenial factors for higher foraminiferal population in the present study.


5.3.4. pH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration)

The reduced pH is commonly connected with low abundance and diversity of foraminifera 63. Low fluctuation in pH values maintained the alkaline medium within the limit of faunal indulgence 13. The values of pH did not vary much during different seasons and between stations, in the inner shelf environments 40, 64. Kurtarker et.al 43 noted that the dissolution of calcareous tests also take place in alkaline seawater than that was noted before. Influx of fresh water during rainy season can decrease salinity that can directly result in a low pH, altogether causing dissolution of foraminiferal tests 65. If dissolution of calcareous tests is high, it can cause predominance of non-calcareous agglutinated forms than calcareous forms 66.

Saraswat R. et. al. 67 after the experimental study of salinity induced pH confirmed that a pH below 7.5 can severely disrupt the calcite secretion and reproduction ability of benthic foraminifera. An experimental study to understand influence of increased atmospheric CO2 that may happen in the near future revealed that high CO2 can end up in ocean acidification declining foraminiferal survival rate and calcification 68. The reduced pH is generally associated with low abundance and diversity of foraminifera 69.

In the present study, the pH values of the bottom waters show only a negligible variation both spatially and temporally (Figure 14). Hence its impact on the distribution of foraminifera is not for any accurate determination (Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12).


5.3.5. Depth

Water depth is an important factor in determining the foraminiferal distribution. The abundance and diversity of foraminifera are directly associated with changes in depth 36. It may be ascribed that increasing in depth changes the nature of substratum to more finer sand and turbidity maintain favourable conditions 70. The relative abundance of benthic foraminifera is positively correlated with depth 71. Moghaddasi et.al 47 contemplate water depth as a preferable factor in controlling the foraminiferal distribution, in their detailed study on continental shelf sediments along with factors like salinity and substrate type. They proposed that suborder Lagenina shows an increase in abundance towards stations with greater depth in the continental shelf sediments of Northern Oman Sea.

Living specimens have linked with depth distribution in certain foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina) to macro fauna -influenced microhabitat such as zones containing biotic structures 72, 73. Martins et.al 38 emphasized that in the continental shelf of Campos basin, living foraminiferal composition varies with respect to bathymetry along with sediment characteristics andorganic matter supply. Denne et.al 74, from an investigation in the North-western Gulf ofMexico, demonstrated that the depth distribution of benthic foraminifera is strongly correlated with the limits of water masses. Kumar et.al 27, 64 observed that the foraminiferal population shows an increase with respect to depth.

In the study between living and dead foraminiferal assemblages done on Aveiro Continental Shelf of Portugal, it was confirmed that with an increase in depth, dead species shows an increase in diversity with limited changes in heterogeneity while living ones exhibits a decrease in diversity with an increase in heterogeneity 75. The deep-sea foraminifera are adapted to limited or no supply of food materials for long periods 76. Stations near to the shore, (< 1m depth) in the Pak bay, contain negligible living populationKumar et.al 77.

In study area, the depth ranges between 1.76 m and 14.89 m (Figure 15). Sediment fines like silt and clay content and organic matter percentage of the substrate is directly proportional to the depth. Pearl and chunk beds are associated with depths above 10 m and account for higher CaCO3. It may be concluded that the depth is generally considered to be important if the other variables are directly associated with changes in depth.

5.4. Summary and Conclusion

Impact of inner shelf environments on the distribution of Benthic foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinamreveals the following:

Sediment and bottom water samples were collected from 18 stations ranging in depth between 1.76 and 14.89 meters for the months of May 2016, September 2016 and January 2017 representing Summer, Pre-monsoon and winter/post monsoon respectively. In the present study, 81 foraminifera species belonging to 42 genera have been identified and among them are 10 are arenaceous agglutinated, 24 calcareous imperforate and the rest 47 are calcareous perforate.

The fauna is found in living condition in all the 54 samples collected and studied. The living and the total (living+dead) population size are found to be higher in summer (May).Spatially, the population size is more in stations collected along deeper part of the traverse (stations 8-10) during the all seasons.

Sediment parameters like organic matter content, calcium carbonate content and sediment fines show a considerable variation both temporally and spatially. Depth is considered to be important with respect to the distribution of sediment parameters.Bottom water parameters like temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen content and pH showed negligible variations among stations of a season but showed a distinct variation between seasons. Calcium carbonate content is considered to be the main influencing factor for abundance of living population both spatially and seasonally. Higher calcium carbonate content (>26%) and organic matter content (0.9 - 1.03%) along with other congenial parameters favours higher foraminiferal population in the present study area. Higher temperature (32.7 -33.3°C), higher salinity (32.6 to 33.3 ppt) and dissolved oxygen (5.7 to 6 ml/l) prevailed during summer months are considered to be favourable for higher foraminiferal population in the present study. Depth is also considered as one of the effective factors controlling the population of foraminifera along with the other congenial parameters.

Acknowledgements

The authors are very much thankful to Mr. R. Raghunathan, Secretary, National College (Autonomous), Dr. R. Sundararaman, Principal, National College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli for providing the lab and other infra structural facilities. The first author is grateful to Mr. R. Balaji, Secretary & Correspondent, SBIOA Educational Trust, Mr. R. Ganapathy Subramaniyan, Correspondent, SBIOA Schools, Tiruchirapalli and Mrs. Shakudala Sundaram, Principal, SBIOA Senior Secondary School, Trichirapalli-07 for giving permission to pursue the research.

References

[1]  J. W. Murray, “Ecology and Palaeoecology of Benthic Foraminifera”, Logman Scientific & Technical, London, (1991), 1-397.
In article      
 
[2]  S. J. Culver, & M. A. Buzas, “Distribution of Recent foraminifera off the North American Pacific coast from California to Baja”, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, (1986), (28), 1-634.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  E. Boltovskoy, D. B. Scott, & F. S. Medioli, “Morphological variations of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to changes in ecological parameters: a review”. Journal of Paleontology, 65(02) (1991). 175-185.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  S. De Rijk, “Salinity control on the distribution of salt marsh foraminifera (Great Marshes, Massachusetts)”, The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(2), (1995), 156-166.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Eric Armynot du Chatelet, Viviane Bour-Roumazeilles, Armelle Riboulleau and Alain Trentesaux, “Sediment (grain size and clay mineralogy) and organic matter quality control on living benthic foraminifera”, Revue de micropaleontologie, V. 52, (2009), pp.75-84.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  B. K. Sen Gupta, “Foraminifera in marginal marine environments”, Modern Foraminifera, (1999), pp.141-159.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  B. W. Hayward, H. R. Grenfell, C. M. Reid and K.A. Hayward, “Recent New Zealand shallow-water benthic foraminifera: Taxonomy, ecologic distribution, biogeography, and use in paleoenvironmental assessment. New Zealand Geological Survey”, GNS Science Monograph (1999), 21: Lower Hutt, NZ.
In article      
 
[8]  J. P. Debenay, & J. J. Guillou, “Ecological transitions indicated by foraminiferal assemblages in paralic environments”, Estuaries, 25(6), (2002), pp. 1107-1120.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  B. P. Horton,P. Larcombe,S. A. Woodroffe, J. E. Whittaker,M. R. Wright & C. Wynn,”Contemporary foraminiferal distributions of a mangrove environment, Great Barrier Reef coastline, Australia: implications for sea-level reconstructions” Marine Geology, 198(3-4),(2003), pp. 225-243.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  F. Frontalini, C. Buosi,S. D. Pelo, R. Coccioni,A. Cherchi and C. Bucci, “Benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of trace element pollution in the heavily contaminated Santa Gilla lagoon (Cagliari, Italy)”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.58,(2009), pp.858-877.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  V. Yanko, Joel Kronfeld, and Akiva Flexer “Response of benthic foraminifera to various pollution sources: Implications for pollution monitoring”, Journ. Foram. Res., vol.24, no.1, (1994), pp.1-17.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  A. M. Samir and A. B. El-Din, “Benthic foraminifera assemblages and morphological abnormalities as pollution proxies in two Egyptian bays”, Marine Micropaleontology, vol. 41, (2001), pp. 193-227.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  E. Alve,” Benthic foraminiferal distribution and recolonization of formerly anoxic environments in Drammensfjord, southern Norway”, Marine Micropaleontology, 25(2-3), (1995), pp. 169-186.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  D. A. Rasheed and V. Ragothaman, “Ecology and distribution of Recent foraminifera from the Bay of Bengal off Porto Novo, Tamil Nadu state, India”, Proc VII Indian Coll Micropal Strat, (1978), pp. 263-298.
In article      
 
[15]  V. Ragothaman, V. Kumar, “Recent foraminifera off the coast of Rameshwaram, Palk Bay, Tamil Nadu”, Bull Geol Min Met Soc India 52: (1985), pp. 97-121.
In article      
 
[16]  V. Kumar V. Manivannan V and V. Ragothaman, “Spatial and temporal variations in foraminiferal abundance and their relation to substrate characteristics in the Palk Bay, off Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu”, Proc XV Indian Coll Micropal Strati, (1996), pp. 393-402.
In article      
 
[17]  M. Suresh Gandhi, K. Kasilingam, T. Arumugam, Lalthansangi, N. Rajeswara Rao, “Distribution of Benthic foraminifera, sediment characteristics, and environmental conditions in and around Manalmelkudi Spit, Palk Strait, Tamil Nadu, East coast of India”, (2017).
In article      
 
[18]  W. R. Walton, “Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera. Contr. Cushman Found”, Journ. Foram. Res., vol.3, (1952), pp.5660.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  W. C. Krumbein and F. J. Pettijohn, “Manual of sedimentary petrography“, D.Appleton Century Co., Inc. New York, (1938), pp. 549.
In article      
 
[20]  J. M. Trefethen, (1950). Classification of sediments. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol.248, pp.55-62.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Piper, C.S. (1947). Soil and plant analysis. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide, 368p.
In article      
 
[22]  Jackson, M.L, “Soil chemical analysis”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, (1967), pp. 498.
In article      
 
[23]  A. R. Loeblich and H. Tappan, “Foraminiferal genera and their classification”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, vols.1&2, (1988), pp. 212.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  V. Kumar, V. Manivannan and R. Priya, “Epiphtyic foraminifera and its relation to algae in the Palk Bay off Rameshwaram”, Proc XVI Indian Coll Micropal Strati. NIO, Goa, (1998), Abstract 74.
In article      
 
[25]  V. Kumar, T. Gangaimani, K. Sivakumar, S. Jeevanandam and S. Mohan, “Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, Off Tuticorin, Southeast of India: Implications to delineate substrate Characteristics”, Gondwana Geological Magazine, Vol.25(1), pp. 23-32.
In article      
 
[26]  P. Jeshma, M. Suresh Gandhi, N. Rajeshwara Rao, “Benthic foraminifera and geochemical assessment of Puravadaiyanar and Vettar Estuaries, Karaikal, South east cost of India-Implication for pollution monitoring studies”, Regional studies in Marine Science 9, (2016), pp.76-88.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  V. Kumar and Twinkle Jacob, “Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera with Reference to Sediment Characters from off the Coast of Manapad, South East Coast of India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Science, 2019, Vol. 7, No.3, 110-116.
In article      
 
[28]  K. Kasilingam, M. S. Gandhi and N. R. Rao, “Textural characteristics and ecology of near shore benthic foraminifera from Kottaipattinam to Kodiyakarai, Palk Strait, Southeast Coast of India”, Regional Studies in Marine Science, (2019), pp.29.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  P. Elakkiya, V. Manivannan “Recent benthic foraminifera from off the coast of Arkattuthurai (near Nagapattinam), south east coast of India”, Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences, Vol. 42(7): (2013), pp.877-887
In article      
 
[30]  F. Kurbjeweit, P. Schafer, “Distribution, biomass and diversity of benthic foraminifera in relation to sediment geochemistry in the Arabian Sea”, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Vol.47, (2000), pp. 2913-2955.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  V. Manivannan, V. Kumar, V. Ragothaman and S. K.Md. Hussain, “Calcium carbonate a major factor in controlling foraminiferal populations in Gulf of Mannar, off Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu”, Proceeding of Contribution XV India. Colloquium Micropalaeontology and Stratigraphy., Dehra Dun. (1996), pp. 381-385.
In article      
 
[32]  V. Kumar and K. R. Rethikala, “Calcium carbonate and its control over the distribution of Benthic foraminifera, from the Inner shelf sediments of Southern Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India”. The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis, (2019).
In article      
 
[33]  V. Kumar and K. Siva Kumar, “Influence of estuarine environment on the benthic foraminifera. A case study from the Uppanar river estuary of Tamil Nadu”, Journal of Environment and Pollution 3, (2001), pp. 277-283.
In article      
 
[34]  A. L. Post, L. Sbaffi, V. Passlow and D. C. Collins, “Benthic foraminifera as Environmental indicators in Torres Strait-Gulf of Papua, in Todd, B.J., and Greene, H.G., eds., mapping the Seafloor for Habitat Characterization: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 47, (2007), pp. 329-347.
In article      
 
[35]  S. M. Hussain, Merin Maria Joy, A. Rajkumar, N. Mohammed Nishath and T. F. Shabhangi, “Distribution of calcareous microfauna (foraminifera and Ostracoda) from the beach sands of Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, Southwest coast of India”, Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 61:(2016), pp.267-272.
In article      
 
[36]  K. R. Rethikala, V. Kumar and B. Sathish, “Inner Shelf Characteristics and Their Impact on the Distribution of Recent Foraminifera from the Southern Part of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India”. Applied Ecology and Environmental Science, (2021), Vol. No.1, pp. 30-41.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  M. Mojtahid, F. Jorissen, B. Lansard, C. Fontanier, B. Bombled and C. Rabouille, “Spatial distribution of live benthic foraminifera in the Rhône prodelta: Faunal response to a continental-marine organic matter gradient”, Marine Micropaleontology, Vol.70, (2009), pp. 177-200.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  M. V. A. Martins, C. Yamashita, S. H. M. Sousa, E. A. M. Koutsoukos, S. T. Disaró, J. P. Debenay and W. Duleba, “Response of Benthic Foraminifera to Environmental Variability: Importance of Benthic Foraminifera in Monitoring Studies, Monitoring of Marine Pollution, Houma Bachari Fouzia”, IntechOpen, (2019).
In article      
 
[39]  S. Hess and F. J. Jorissen, “Distribution pattern of living benthic foraminifera from Cape Breton canyon, Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to sediment instability”, Deep Sea Research, Vol.56, (2009), pp.1555-1578.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Twinkle Jacob and V. Kumar,“Bottom Water Characteristics and Their Influence on Temporal Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from off Manapad, Gulf of Mannar, South East Coast of India.” Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6 (2019), pp. 245-254.
In article      
 
[41]  V. N. Linshy, S. S. Rana, S. Kurtarkar,R. Sarawat and R. Nigam, “Appraisal of laboratory culture experiments on benthic foraminifera to assess/develop paleoceanographic proxies”, (2007).
In article      
 
[42]  Lei Y, Li T, Jian Z, R. Nigam, “Taxonomy and distribution of benthic foraminifera in an intertidal zone of the Yellow Sea, PR China: Correlations with sediment temperature and salinity”, Marine Micropaleontology, 133, (2017), pp. 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  S. R. Kurtarkar, R. Nigam, R. Saraswat and V. N. Linshy, “Regeneration and abnormality in benthic foraminifera Rosalina leei: implications in reconstructing past salinity changes”, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v. 117, (2011), pp. 189-196.
In article      
 
[44]  D. B. Scott, J. R. Suter and E. C. Kosters, “Marsh foraminifera andarcellaceans of the lower Mississippi Delta: Controls on spatial distributions”, Micropal., Vol. 37, (1991), pp. 373-392.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  B. W. Hayward and C. J. Hollis, “brackish Foraminifera in New Zealand: A taxonomic and Ecologic review”, Micropalaeontology, Vol.40(3), (1994), pp.185-222.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  V. Yanko, M. Ahmed and M. Kaminski, “Morphological deformities of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to pollution by heavy metals: Implications for pollution monitoring”, Jour. For. Res., Vol. 28, (1998), pp.177-200.
In article      
 
[47]  B. Moghaddasi, S. M. B. Nabavi, G. Vosoughi, S. M. R. Fatemi and S. Jamili, “Abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifera in the Northern Oman sea (Iranian side) continental shelf sediments”, Research journal of Environmental sciences. Vol 3(2), (2009), pp.210-217.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  Jean-Perre Debanay, Emmanuella Geslin, Beatriz Beck Eichlier, Wania Duleba, Florence Sylvestre and Patricia Eichler, “Foraminiferal assemblages in a Hyper saline Lagoon, Araruma (R.J), Brazil, Jour. Foram. Res., Vol.31, No.2, (2001), pp.133-151.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  R. Saraswath, R. Nigam and S. Pachkhande, ‘’Difference in optimum temperature for growth and reproduction in benthic foraminifera Rosalina globularis:Implications for paleonclimatic studies”, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 405. (2011), pp.105-110.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  S. R. Kurtarkar, V. N. A. Linshy,R. Saraswat and R. Nigam, “Experimental studies on benthic foraminifera: and update on the changing trends and challenges over the past decade”, Micropaleontology and its applications. Scientific Publishers (India).(2017), pp. 311-330.
In article      
 
[51]  Kurtarkar, S.R., Saraswat, R., Kaithwar, A, and Nigam, R, ‘’How will Benthic Foraminifera Respond to Warming and Changes in productive? A Laboratory Culture Study on Cymbaloporetta plana,” Journal: Acta Geologica Sinca, volume 93, (1). 175-182.
In article      View Article
 
[52]  M. Subba Rao, D. Vedanatam and S. Nageswara Rao, “Distribution and ecology of benthonic foraminifera in the sediments of the Visakhapatnam Shelf, East Coast of India”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 27.(1979), pp. 349-369.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  B. K. S. Gupta and M. L. Machain,“Benthic foraminifera in oxygen-poor habitats”, Marine Micropaleontology, 20(3-4), (1993), pp. 183-201.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  J. J. Helley and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of Naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins”, Deep- Sea Research, 515(9), (2004), pp. 1159-1168.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  L. Moodley, G. J. Van der Zwaan, G. M. W. Rutten, R. C. E. Boom and A. J. Kempers, “Subsurface activity of benthic foraminifera in relation to porewater oxygen content: laboratory experiments”, Marine Micropaleontology, 34(1-2).(1998), pp. 91-106.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Gross, Onno, “Influence of temperature, oxygen and food availability on the migrational activity of bathyal benthic foraminifera: evidence by microcosm experiments”. Life at interfaces and under extreme conditions. Springer, Dordrecht. (2000), pp. 123-137.
In article      View Article
 
[57]  E. Gesline, J. P. Debenay, W. Duleba, C. Bonetti, “Morphological abnormalities of foraminiferal tests in Brazilian environments: Comparison between polluted and non-polluted areas”, Mar. Micropaleontol, 45, (2002), pp. 151-168.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  C. Fontanier, A. Mackensen, F. J. Jorissen, I. Anschutz,p, C. Griveadud, “Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of live benthic foraminifera from the Bay of Biscay ; micrhabitat impact and seasonal variability”, Mar. Micropalentol.58(3), (2006), pp. 159-183.
In article      View Article
 
[59]  L. L. Perez-Cruz, Machain, M. L. Castillo, “Benthic foraminifera of the oxygen minimum zone, continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico”, Foraminifera. Res. 20(4), (1990), pp. 312-325.
In article      View Article
 
[60]  T. Kuhnt, O. Friedrich, G. Schmiedl, Y. Milker, A. Mackensen, A. Luckge, “Relationship between pore density in benthic foraminifera and bottom water oxygen content”, Deep-sea Research, 176, (2013), pp. 85-95.
In article      View Article
 
[61]  T. Kuhut, R. Schiebel, G. Schmiedl, Y. Milker, A. Mackensen, O. Friedrich, “Automated and manual analyses of the port density to oxygen relationship in Globobulimina turgida”, Foraminifer. Res. 44(1), (2014), PP. 5-16.
In article      View Article
 
[62]  R. M. Ramanathan, “Quantitative differences in the living benthonic foraminifera of Vellar estuary, Tamil Nadu”, Jour. Geol. Soc. India, vol.11, no.2, (1970), pp.127 141.
In article      
 
[63]  E. Boltovskoy, R. Wright, “Recent Foraminifera”, The Hague, Dr. W. Junk B.V. Publishers, (1976), pp. 515.
In article      View Article
 
[64]  V. Kumar and V. Manivannan, “Benthic foraminifera responses to bottom water characteristics in the Palk Bay, off Rameswaram, Southeast Coast of India”, Ind. Journ. Mar. Sci., vol.30, (2001 b), pp.173-179.
In article      
 
[65]  Y. G. Lee, S. Kim, Y. W. Kim, D. U. Jeong, J. S. Sick Lee, H. J. Woo and H. C. Shin, “Benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of salinity variation in Lake Shihwa, South Korea”, Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 45, no. 3, p. 235-249, July 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[66]  J. W. Murray, E. Alve, “Natural dissolution of modern shallow water benthic foraminifera: taphonomic effects on the palaeoecological record”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 146, (1999), pp. 195-209.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  R. Saraswat, M. Kouthanker, S. Kirtankar, R. Nigam and V. N. Linshy, “Effect of salinity induced pH/ alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: a laboratory culture experiment”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 153, (2015), pp. 96-107.
In article      View Article
 
[68]  F. Guama´n-Guevara, H. Austin, N. Hicks,R. Streeter, W. E. Austin, “Impacts of ocean acidification on intertidal benthic foraminiferal growth and calcification”, PLoS ONE, 14(8), (2019).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[69]  K. Kasilingam, M. Suresh Gandhi, Rajeshwara Rao, “Near- shore foraminifera along the Palk strait, Southeast Coast of India, Tamilnadu”, Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India volume 65 (1), (2020), pp. 90-106.
In article      
 
[70]  M. Suresh Gandhi, A. Sonia Nathan, “Benthic foraminifera and geochemical studies with influence on pollution studies along the coast of Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu-ITS”, India Arab J. Geosci. 7, (2014), pp. 917-925.
In article      View Article
 
[71]  S. M. Saalim, R. Saraswat, R. Thejasino Suokhrie and R. Nigam, “Assessing the ecological preferences of agglutinated benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the western Bay of Bengal”, Deep-Sea Research Part II, (2018).
In article      View Article
 
[72]  P. Loubere, P. Meyers and A. Gary, “Benthic foraminiferal microhabitat selection, carbon isotope values, and association with larger animals; a test with Uvigerina peregrina”, The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(1), (1995), pp. 83-95.
In article      View Article
 
[73]  C. V. Davis, S. E. Myhre and T. M. Hill,“Benthic foraminiferal shell weight: Deglacial species-specific responses from the Santa Barbara Basin”, Marine Micropaleontology, 124, (2016), pp.45-53.
In article      View Article
 
[74]  R. A. Denne and B. K. Sen Gupta, “Matching of benthic foraminiferal depth limits and water-mass boundaries in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico; an investigation of species occurrences”. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 23(2), (1993), pp.108-117.
In article      View Article
 
[75]  M. V. A. Martins, J. Honegger, F. Frontalini, J. M. A. Dias, M. C. Geraldes, F. Rocha, “Dissimilarity between living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Portugal)”, PLoS ONE, 14(1), (2019).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[76]  P. Linke, “Metabolic adaptations of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to seasonally varying food input”, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 81. (1992), pp. 51-63.
In article      View Article
 
[77]  V. Kumar, K. Sivakumar, T. Gangaimani and K. J. Anand, “Morphological abnormalities of Benthic foraminifera from the Palk Bay, Off Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu: A tool for environmental monitoring”, Pollution Research, 25(1), (2006), pp.35-42.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Christinal J., V. Kumar, S. Selvaraj and T. Gangaimani

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Christinal J., V. Kumar, S. Selvaraj, T. Gangaimani. Inner Shelf Environments and Their Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam, Southeast Coast of India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 3, 2021, pp 396-409. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/3/10
MLA Style
J., Christinal, et al. "Inner Shelf Environments and Their Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam, Southeast Coast of India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.3 (2021): 396-409.
APA Style
J., C. , Kumar, V. , Selvaraj, S. , & Gangaimani, T. (2021). Inner Shelf Environments and Their Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam, Southeast Coast of India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(3), 396-409.
Chicago Style
J., Christinal, V. Kumar, S. Selvaraj, and T. Gangaimani. "Inner Shelf Environments and Their Impact on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, off Kayalpattinam, Southeast Coast of India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 3 (2021): 396-409.
Share
[1]  J. W. Murray, “Ecology and Palaeoecology of Benthic Foraminifera”, Logman Scientific & Technical, London, (1991), 1-397.
In article      
 
[2]  S. J. Culver, & M. A. Buzas, “Distribution of Recent foraminifera off the North American Pacific coast from California to Baja”, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, (1986), (28), 1-634.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  E. Boltovskoy, D. B. Scott, & F. S. Medioli, “Morphological variations of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to changes in ecological parameters: a review”. Journal of Paleontology, 65(02) (1991). 175-185.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  S. De Rijk, “Salinity control on the distribution of salt marsh foraminifera (Great Marshes, Massachusetts)”, The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(2), (1995), 156-166.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Eric Armynot du Chatelet, Viviane Bour-Roumazeilles, Armelle Riboulleau and Alain Trentesaux, “Sediment (grain size and clay mineralogy) and organic matter quality control on living benthic foraminifera”, Revue de micropaleontologie, V. 52, (2009), pp.75-84.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  B. K. Sen Gupta, “Foraminifera in marginal marine environments”, Modern Foraminifera, (1999), pp.141-159.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  B. W. Hayward, H. R. Grenfell, C. M. Reid and K.A. Hayward, “Recent New Zealand shallow-water benthic foraminifera: Taxonomy, ecologic distribution, biogeography, and use in paleoenvironmental assessment. New Zealand Geological Survey”, GNS Science Monograph (1999), 21: Lower Hutt, NZ.
In article      
 
[8]  J. P. Debenay, & J. J. Guillou, “Ecological transitions indicated by foraminiferal assemblages in paralic environments”, Estuaries, 25(6), (2002), pp. 1107-1120.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  B. P. Horton,P. Larcombe,S. A. Woodroffe, J. E. Whittaker,M. R. Wright & C. Wynn,”Contemporary foraminiferal distributions of a mangrove environment, Great Barrier Reef coastline, Australia: implications for sea-level reconstructions” Marine Geology, 198(3-4),(2003), pp. 225-243.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  F. Frontalini, C. Buosi,S. D. Pelo, R. Coccioni,A. Cherchi and C. Bucci, “Benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of trace element pollution in the heavily contaminated Santa Gilla lagoon (Cagliari, Italy)”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.58,(2009), pp.858-877.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[11]  V. Yanko, Joel Kronfeld, and Akiva Flexer “Response of benthic foraminifera to various pollution sources: Implications for pollution monitoring”, Journ. Foram. Res., vol.24, no.1, (1994), pp.1-17.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  A. M. Samir and A. B. El-Din, “Benthic foraminifera assemblages and morphological abnormalities as pollution proxies in two Egyptian bays”, Marine Micropaleontology, vol. 41, (2001), pp. 193-227.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  E. Alve,” Benthic foraminiferal distribution and recolonization of formerly anoxic environments in Drammensfjord, southern Norway”, Marine Micropaleontology, 25(2-3), (1995), pp. 169-186.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  D. A. Rasheed and V. Ragothaman, “Ecology and distribution of Recent foraminifera from the Bay of Bengal off Porto Novo, Tamil Nadu state, India”, Proc VII Indian Coll Micropal Strat, (1978), pp. 263-298.
In article      
 
[15]  V. Ragothaman, V. Kumar, “Recent foraminifera off the coast of Rameshwaram, Palk Bay, Tamil Nadu”, Bull Geol Min Met Soc India 52: (1985), pp. 97-121.
In article      
 
[16]  V. Kumar V. Manivannan V and V. Ragothaman, “Spatial and temporal variations in foraminiferal abundance and their relation to substrate characteristics in the Palk Bay, off Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu”, Proc XV Indian Coll Micropal Strati, (1996), pp. 393-402.
In article      
 
[17]  M. Suresh Gandhi, K. Kasilingam, T. Arumugam, Lalthansangi, N. Rajeswara Rao, “Distribution of Benthic foraminifera, sediment characteristics, and environmental conditions in and around Manalmelkudi Spit, Palk Strait, Tamil Nadu, East coast of India”, (2017).
In article      
 
[18]  W. R. Walton, “Techniques for recognition of living foraminifera. Contr. Cushman Found”, Journ. Foram. Res., vol.3, (1952), pp.5660.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  W. C. Krumbein and F. J. Pettijohn, “Manual of sedimentary petrography“, D.Appleton Century Co., Inc. New York, (1938), pp. 549.
In article      
 
[20]  J. M. Trefethen, (1950). Classification of sediments. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol.248, pp.55-62.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Piper, C.S. (1947). Soil and plant analysis. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide, 368p.
In article      
 
[22]  Jackson, M.L, “Soil chemical analysis”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, (1967), pp. 498.
In article      
 
[23]  A. R. Loeblich and H. Tappan, “Foraminiferal genera and their classification”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, vols.1&2, (1988), pp. 212.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  V. Kumar, V. Manivannan and R. Priya, “Epiphtyic foraminifera and its relation to algae in the Palk Bay off Rameshwaram”, Proc XVI Indian Coll Micropal Strati. NIO, Goa, (1998), Abstract 74.
In article      
 
[25]  V. Kumar, T. Gangaimani, K. Sivakumar, S. Jeevanandam and S. Mohan, “Foraminifera from the Gulf of Mannar, Off Tuticorin, Southeast of India: Implications to delineate substrate Characteristics”, Gondwana Geological Magazine, Vol.25(1), pp. 23-32.
In article      
 
[26]  P. Jeshma, M. Suresh Gandhi, N. Rajeshwara Rao, “Benthic foraminifera and geochemical assessment of Puravadaiyanar and Vettar Estuaries, Karaikal, South east cost of India-Implication for pollution monitoring studies”, Regional studies in Marine Science 9, (2016), pp.76-88.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  V. Kumar and Twinkle Jacob, “Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera with Reference to Sediment Characters from off the Coast of Manapad, South East Coast of India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Science, 2019, Vol. 7, No.3, 110-116.
In article      
 
[28]  K. Kasilingam, M. S. Gandhi and N. R. Rao, “Textural characteristics and ecology of near shore benthic foraminifera from Kottaipattinam to Kodiyakarai, Palk Strait, Southeast Coast of India”, Regional Studies in Marine Science, (2019), pp.29.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  P. Elakkiya, V. Manivannan “Recent benthic foraminifera from off the coast of Arkattuthurai (near Nagapattinam), south east coast of India”, Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences, Vol. 42(7): (2013), pp.877-887
In article      
 
[30]  F. Kurbjeweit, P. Schafer, “Distribution, biomass and diversity of benthic foraminifera in relation to sediment geochemistry in the Arabian Sea”, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. Vol.47, (2000), pp. 2913-2955.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  V. Manivannan, V. Kumar, V. Ragothaman and S. K.Md. Hussain, “Calcium carbonate a major factor in controlling foraminiferal populations in Gulf of Mannar, off Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu”, Proceeding of Contribution XV India. Colloquium Micropalaeontology and Stratigraphy., Dehra Dun. (1996), pp. 381-385.
In article      
 
[32]  V. Kumar and K. R. Rethikala, “Calcium carbonate and its control over the distribution of Benthic foraminifera, from the Inner shelf sediments of Southern Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India”. The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis, (2019).
In article      
 
[33]  V. Kumar and K. Siva Kumar, “Influence of estuarine environment on the benthic foraminifera. A case study from the Uppanar river estuary of Tamil Nadu”, Journal of Environment and Pollution 3, (2001), pp. 277-283.
In article      
 
[34]  A. L. Post, L. Sbaffi, V. Passlow and D. C. Collins, “Benthic foraminifera as Environmental indicators in Torres Strait-Gulf of Papua, in Todd, B.J., and Greene, H.G., eds., mapping the Seafloor for Habitat Characterization: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 47, (2007), pp. 329-347.
In article      
 
[35]  S. M. Hussain, Merin Maria Joy, A. Rajkumar, N. Mohammed Nishath and T. F. Shabhangi, “Distribution of calcareous microfauna (foraminifera and Ostracoda) from the beach sands of Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, Southwest coast of India”, Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 61:(2016), pp.267-272.
In article      
 
[36]  K. R. Rethikala, V. Kumar and B. Sathish, “Inner Shelf Characteristics and Their Impact on the Distribution of Recent Foraminifera from the Southern Part of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India”. Applied Ecology and Environmental Science, (2021), Vol. No.1, pp. 30-41.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  M. Mojtahid, F. Jorissen, B. Lansard, C. Fontanier, B. Bombled and C. Rabouille, “Spatial distribution of live benthic foraminifera in the Rhône prodelta: Faunal response to a continental-marine organic matter gradient”, Marine Micropaleontology, Vol.70, (2009), pp. 177-200.
In article      View Article
 
[38]  M. V. A. Martins, C. Yamashita, S. H. M. Sousa, E. A. M. Koutsoukos, S. T. Disaró, J. P. Debenay and W. Duleba, “Response of Benthic Foraminifera to Environmental Variability: Importance of Benthic Foraminifera in Monitoring Studies, Monitoring of Marine Pollution, Houma Bachari Fouzia”, IntechOpen, (2019).
In article      
 
[39]  S. Hess and F. J. Jorissen, “Distribution pattern of living benthic foraminifera from Cape Breton canyon, Bay of Biscay: Faunal response to sediment instability”, Deep Sea Research, Vol.56, (2009), pp.1555-1578.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Twinkle Jacob and V. Kumar,“Bottom Water Characteristics and Their Influence on Temporal Distribution of Benthic Foraminifera from off Manapad, Gulf of Mannar, South East Coast of India.” Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6 (2019), pp. 245-254.
In article      
 
[41]  V. N. Linshy, S. S. Rana, S. Kurtarkar,R. Sarawat and R. Nigam, “Appraisal of laboratory culture experiments on benthic foraminifera to assess/develop paleoceanographic proxies”, (2007).
In article      
 
[42]  Lei Y, Li T, Jian Z, R. Nigam, “Taxonomy and distribution of benthic foraminifera in an intertidal zone of the Yellow Sea, PR China: Correlations with sediment temperature and salinity”, Marine Micropaleontology, 133, (2017), pp. 1-20.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  S. R. Kurtarkar, R. Nigam, R. Saraswat and V. N. Linshy, “Regeneration and abnormality in benthic foraminifera Rosalina leei: implications in reconstructing past salinity changes”, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v. 117, (2011), pp. 189-196.
In article      
 
[44]  D. B. Scott, J. R. Suter and E. C. Kosters, “Marsh foraminifera andarcellaceans of the lower Mississippi Delta: Controls on spatial distributions”, Micropal., Vol. 37, (1991), pp. 373-392.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  B. W. Hayward and C. J. Hollis, “brackish Foraminifera in New Zealand: A taxonomic and Ecologic review”, Micropalaeontology, Vol.40(3), (1994), pp.185-222.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  V. Yanko, M. Ahmed and M. Kaminski, “Morphological deformities of benthic foraminiferal tests in response to pollution by heavy metals: Implications for pollution monitoring”, Jour. For. Res., Vol. 28, (1998), pp.177-200.
In article      
 
[47]  B. Moghaddasi, S. M. B. Nabavi, G. Vosoughi, S. M. R. Fatemi and S. Jamili, “Abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifera in the Northern Oman sea (Iranian side) continental shelf sediments”, Research journal of Environmental sciences. Vol 3(2), (2009), pp.210-217.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  Jean-Perre Debanay, Emmanuella Geslin, Beatriz Beck Eichlier, Wania Duleba, Florence Sylvestre and Patricia Eichler, “Foraminiferal assemblages in a Hyper saline Lagoon, Araruma (R.J), Brazil, Jour. Foram. Res., Vol.31, No.2, (2001), pp.133-151.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  R. Saraswath, R. Nigam and S. Pachkhande, ‘’Difference in optimum temperature for growth and reproduction in benthic foraminifera Rosalina globularis:Implications for paleonclimatic studies”, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 405. (2011), pp.105-110.
In article      View Article
 
[50]  S. R. Kurtarkar, V. N. A. Linshy,R. Saraswat and R. Nigam, “Experimental studies on benthic foraminifera: and update on the changing trends and challenges over the past decade”, Micropaleontology and its applications. Scientific Publishers (India).(2017), pp. 311-330.
In article      
 
[51]  Kurtarkar, S.R., Saraswat, R., Kaithwar, A, and Nigam, R, ‘’How will Benthic Foraminifera Respond to Warming and Changes in productive? A Laboratory Culture Study on Cymbaloporetta plana,” Journal: Acta Geologica Sinca, volume 93, (1). 175-182.
In article      View Article
 
[52]  M. Subba Rao, D. Vedanatam and S. Nageswara Rao, “Distribution and ecology of benthonic foraminifera in the sediments of the Visakhapatnam Shelf, East Coast of India”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 27.(1979), pp. 349-369.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  B. K. S. Gupta and M. L. Machain,“Benthic foraminifera in oxygen-poor habitats”, Marine Micropaleontology, 20(3-4), (1993), pp. 183-201.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  J. J. Helley and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of Naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins”, Deep- Sea Research, 515(9), (2004), pp. 1159-1168.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  L. Moodley, G. J. Van der Zwaan, G. M. W. Rutten, R. C. E. Boom and A. J. Kempers, “Subsurface activity of benthic foraminifera in relation to porewater oxygen content: laboratory experiments”, Marine Micropaleontology, 34(1-2).(1998), pp. 91-106.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Gross, Onno, “Influence of temperature, oxygen and food availability on the migrational activity of bathyal benthic foraminifera: evidence by microcosm experiments”. Life at interfaces and under extreme conditions. Springer, Dordrecht. (2000), pp. 123-137.
In article      View Article
 
[57]  E. Gesline, J. P. Debenay, W. Duleba, C. Bonetti, “Morphological abnormalities of foraminiferal tests in Brazilian environments: Comparison between polluted and non-polluted areas”, Mar. Micropaleontol, 45, (2002), pp. 151-168.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  C. Fontanier, A. Mackensen, F. J. Jorissen, I. Anschutz,p, C. Griveadud, “Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of live benthic foraminifera from the Bay of Biscay ; micrhabitat impact and seasonal variability”, Mar. Micropalentol.58(3), (2006), pp. 159-183.
In article      View Article
 
[59]  L. L. Perez-Cruz, Machain, M. L. Castillo, “Benthic foraminifera of the oxygen minimum zone, continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico”, Foraminifera. Res. 20(4), (1990), pp. 312-325.
In article      View Article
 
[60]  T. Kuhnt, O. Friedrich, G. Schmiedl, Y. Milker, A. Mackensen, A. Luckge, “Relationship between pore density in benthic foraminifera and bottom water oxygen content”, Deep-sea Research, 176, (2013), pp. 85-95.
In article      View Article
 
[61]  T. Kuhut, R. Schiebel, G. Schmiedl, Y. Milker, A. Mackensen, O. Friedrich, “Automated and manual analyses of the port density to oxygen relationship in Globobulimina turgida”, Foraminifer. Res. 44(1), (2014), PP. 5-16.
In article      View Article
 
[62]  R. M. Ramanathan, “Quantitative differences in the living benthonic foraminifera of Vellar estuary, Tamil Nadu”, Jour. Geol. Soc. India, vol.11, no.2, (1970), pp.127 141.
In article      
 
[63]  E. Boltovskoy, R. Wright, “Recent Foraminifera”, The Hague, Dr. W. Junk B.V. Publishers, (1976), pp. 515.
In article      View Article
 
[64]  V. Kumar and V. Manivannan, “Benthic foraminifera responses to bottom water characteristics in the Palk Bay, off Rameswaram, Southeast Coast of India”, Ind. Journ. Mar. Sci., vol.30, (2001 b), pp.173-179.
In article      
 
[65]  Y. G. Lee, S. Kim, Y. W. Kim, D. U. Jeong, J. S. Sick Lee, H. J. Woo and H. C. Shin, “Benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of salinity variation in Lake Shihwa, South Korea”, Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 45, no. 3, p. 235-249, July 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[66]  J. W. Murray, E. Alve, “Natural dissolution of modern shallow water benthic foraminifera: taphonomic effects on the palaeoecological record”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 146, (1999), pp. 195-209.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  R. Saraswat, M. Kouthanker, S. Kirtankar, R. Nigam and V. N. Linshy, “Effect of salinity induced pH/ alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: a laboratory culture experiment”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 153, (2015), pp. 96-107.
In article      View Article
 
[68]  F. Guama´n-Guevara, H. Austin, N. Hicks,R. Streeter, W. E. Austin, “Impacts of ocean acidification on intertidal benthic foraminiferal growth and calcification”, PLoS ONE, 14(8), (2019).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[69]  K. Kasilingam, M. Suresh Gandhi, Rajeshwara Rao, “Near- shore foraminifera along the Palk strait, Southeast Coast of India, Tamilnadu”, Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India volume 65 (1), (2020), pp. 90-106.
In article      
 
[70]  M. Suresh Gandhi, A. Sonia Nathan, “Benthic foraminifera and geochemical studies with influence on pollution studies along the coast of Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu-ITS”, India Arab J. Geosci. 7, (2014), pp. 917-925.
In article      View Article
 
[71]  S. M. Saalim, R. Saraswat, R. Thejasino Suokhrie and R. Nigam, “Assessing the ecological preferences of agglutinated benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the western Bay of Bengal”, Deep-Sea Research Part II, (2018).
In article      View Article
 
[72]  P. Loubere, P. Meyers and A. Gary, “Benthic foraminiferal microhabitat selection, carbon isotope values, and association with larger animals; a test with Uvigerina peregrina”, The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25(1), (1995), pp. 83-95.
In article      View Article
 
[73]  C. V. Davis, S. E. Myhre and T. M. Hill,“Benthic foraminiferal shell weight: Deglacial species-specific responses from the Santa Barbara Basin”, Marine Micropaleontology, 124, (2016), pp.45-53.
In article      View Article
 
[74]  R. A. Denne and B. K. Sen Gupta, “Matching of benthic foraminiferal depth limits and water-mass boundaries in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico; an investigation of species occurrences”. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 23(2), (1993), pp.108-117.
In article      View Article
 
[75]  M. V. A. Martins, J. Honegger, F. Frontalini, J. M. A. Dias, M. C. Geraldes, F. Rocha, “Dissimilarity between living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Portugal)”, PLoS ONE, 14(1), (2019).
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[76]  P. Linke, “Metabolic adaptations of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to seasonally varying food input”, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 81. (1992), pp. 51-63.
In article      View Article
 
[77]  V. Kumar, K. Sivakumar, T. Gangaimani and K. J. Anand, “Morphological abnormalities of Benthic foraminifera from the Palk Bay, Off Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu: A tool for environmental monitoring”, Pollution Research, 25(1), (2006), pp.35-42.
In article