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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Dynamics of Urbanization and Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, India

Rupesh Kumar Gupta
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(2), 296-311. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-2-22
Received December 02, 2020; Revised February 18, 2021; Accepted February 28, 2021

Abstract

This paper is focused on a set of three growing cities of India namely Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, for the analyses of population growth and land use changes of the past four decades. For this purpose the census data and multi temporal satellite data and GIS software used. The decadal growth rates of the population in these cities are 44.25, 23.98 and 53.16 per cent in 2011. The effect of this growth has shown in the form of land use changes. The built-up land has increased by 1.84 km2, 2 km2, 4.5 km2 per annum, whereas agricultural land declined by 1.75 km2, 1.93 km2, and 4.52 km2 per annum in these cities. The findings of land use land cover and it spatial relationship between the changes of different classes are critical for understanding the past patterns and the consequences of urban growth so as to inform future insight to the planners, policy makers, risk management and conservation strategies for growth related problems.

1. Introduction

Urbanization has been a megatrend of global land-use change that can be observed in all parts of the world. By 2050 close to 70 per cent of the global population will live in cities 1. Most of the developing countries are urbanizing much faster than the developed countries, which are already predominantly urban. Most of the South Asian countries are predominantly rural in character and are experiencing rapid urbanization, particularly related to metropolitan cities. Rapid urbanization, therefore, brings opportunities for new urban developments, however, it also has brought serious losses of arable land, forest land and water bodies. Urban growth, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land to rural areas at the periphery of metropolitan areas, has long been considered a sign of regional economic vitality. But, its benefits are increasingly balanced against ecosystem impacts, including degradation of air and water quality and loss of farmland and forests, and socioeconomic effects of economic disparities, social fragmentation and infrastructure costs 2, 3.

High rates of urban expansion around the world have been shown to lead to the loss of agricultural lands 4, 5, 35, 36, 37, reduce wildlife habitat 6, 7, and alter regional hydrology and climate 8, 9, 10. The speed of growth of urban areas around the world, but especially in developing countries, also stretches the capacity of local and regional governments and institutions to provide sufficient infrastructure and services for their residents 11, 12, 13. These impacts of urbanization are related to the spatial extent and density of urban areas 14, 15, 42. As has been observed in the rest of the world, India had similar impacts of urbanization and land use land cover (LULC) change. Land use which is a highly dynamic entity in nature is one of the key parameters to quantify development. The process of urbanization in India gained momentum with the start of industrial revolution way back in 1970s followed by globalization in 1990s. Forests were cleared, grasslands ploughed or razed, wetlands drained and croplands encroached upon under the influence of expanding cities, yet never as fast as in the last decade 16. In 1991, there were 23 metropolitan cities in India, which increased to 35 in 2001 and 53 in 2011 17.

Indian cities have witnessed rapid growth over the past two decades. This growth has significantly changed the landscape of many cities. Metropolitan cities of India have been experiencing a lot of land-use and land-cover changes due to both socio-economic and natural factors 35, 36, 37. Managing urban population change will be one of the world's most important challenges in the next few decades. Understanding the urban patterns, dynamic processes, and their relationships is a primary objective in the urban research agenda with a wide consensus among scientists, resource managers, and planners, because future development and management of urban areas require detailed information about ongoing processes and patterns.

Therefore, the role of techniques such Global Positioning System, satellite remote sensing, aerial photography and Geographical Information System becomes important. Satellite Remote Sensing have been used to monitor urban growth and dynamics in hundreds of areas throughout the world over the last decades 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Timely and accurate information on existing LULC pattern, its distribution and changes over time is a prerequisite for planning, utilization and formulation of policies and programs for making any developmental plan. More often than not in developing countries, government data proves to be insufficient, inaccurate, obsolete or simply non-existent 24, 25. In such a case where only a few authentic data sources are available in hand, use of satellite imageries proves to be the best solution. In terms of analyzing urban growth, Batty and Howes 26 believe that remote sensing technology, especially considering the recent improvements, can provide a unique perspective on growth and land-use change processes. Data sets obtained through remote sensing are consistent over great areas and over time, and can provide information at a great variety of geographic scales. The information derived from remote sensing can help to describe and model the urban environment, leading to an improved understanding that benefits applied urban planning and management 27, 28, 29. Analysis of urban growth from remote sensing data, as a pattern and process, helps us to understand how an urban landscape is changing through time. This understanding includes: (1) the rate of urban growth, (2) the spatial configuration of growth, (3) whether there is any discrepancy in the observed and expected growth, (4) whether there is any spatial or temporal disparity in growth, and (5)whether the growth is sprawling or not.

In this study the population growth is a cause of land use change and the land use change is responsible for many problems. Therefore the present study is focused at preparing a multi-temporal GIS database for LULC change and to assess the spatial and temporal changes of three major cities with different background in past four decades. Primary aim of the study is to quantify the changes in various LULC classes of four decades and to analyze the rate of change and driving forces behind it. The study briefly describes the introduction and goal, followed by study area, then database and the methodology, followed result and discussion and finally the finding or conclusion.

1.1. Brief about Study Areas

Gurgaon-geographically, it is located on a rolling plain surrounded by Aravali hills along the Western and Northern sides. The study is carried out in the region located within coordinates of latitudes 28°24’ N and 28°30’30’’ N and longitudes 76°59’15’’E and 77° 7’ E under the NCR. Gurgaon, located around 35 km. from the National Capital of Delhi has been experiencing rapid growth in population and land use for the last few years. The city has a good network of roads connected to Delhi along with government investment in infrastructure development as well as a foreign investment. During last 10-20 years the city has experienced rapid changes in the land value.

In the year 2001, the state of Jharkhand was formed and the city of Ranchi was made its capital. There have been noticeable changes in the urban infrastructure of Ranchi Municipal Corporation. This study is carried out in Ranchi located within coordinates of latitudes 2315′ N and 2330′ N and longitudes 85°15′ E and 85 30′ E. Ranchi comprises of 37 wards and the city is connected by air, rail and road-national highways NH-23 and NH-33. For the preparation of land use map, Ranchi municipal boundary is considered our study area. The boundary of the study area covered almost 177.19 km2.

The Pink city of Jaipur, located at 2654’ north latitudes and 7545’ east longitudes. It’s municipal boundary extends from 2646’ north latitude to 2701’ north latitude and 7537’ east longitude to 7657’ east longitude. Our studies are the city is Jaipur which cover 444.72 km2 area.

1.2. Research Question/Objectives

The paper tried to investigate the land use pattern of three different cities of India, with different background. These three cities belonging from different structure, status and culture; such as Gurgaon a well-developed satellite town of NCR with close proximity to Delhi, whereas, Ranchi is a newly established tribal dominated state capital of Jharkhand and Jaipur is a planned city known as Pink City of India. The main focus of my research is to evaluate the impact of the rapid growth of population on the land use/land cover changes. To see the spatial pattern of land use/ land cover changes last four five decades. It is also interesting to investigate the comparative study of land transformation of the different category of land. Based on satellite remote sensing data, we assessed the rate of the urban growth over the past decades and focus on the recent trends of development (undesirable mixed land use of various types). The aims to identify land use/land cover changes of the rapid and most often haphazard expansion of urban area into the surrounding rural areas primarily within the last few decades.

2. Database and Methodology

The work has been based on satellite data and others census published secondary data, existing map, and published report. The data have been processed using Arc-GIS software. GIS helps to display the spatial location and extent of urban growth and the different categories of the land use at different periods of time, which is essential to understand the trend and rate of the change. The integration of remote sensing and GIS add greatly to our analyses of patterns.

The data collection involved secondary published data and limited primary data. To understand the complexity of dynamics of land use changes, expansion pattern of the cities and population growth, a few indicators are examined. Some major land use classes have been identified; urban (built-up), agricultural land, forest area, water body, and open field, etc. (Table 1 A). The past, current and possible future land-use dynamics of the study area have been described and analyzed. The indicators land use, roads, railway network and the agricultural area-crop land and fallow land, were captured from map sheets and imagery and each of the layers were digitized. The extension of agriculture land during the last four decades is determined by computing the area from the digitized map sheets, imagery and compared it with the areas of different time periods. The land use types and their description are shown in Table 1 A.

All images of the cities Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur (1975 to 2020 of MSS, IRS-1D (LISS-III), IRS PAN sharpened LISS-III & PAN merged data, MSS, TM, ETM+ and Google earth image data, are rectified and registered in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone and visual image classification system has been applied to classified the images in different major land use categories. The other data which used during this work like; Survey of India: toposheets: 1:63360, 1:50,000, 1:25,000 scale, census of India 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011, and guide map 1:20,000 scale. The studies were carried out in three phases:

Phase-I : Prior to Fieldwork: Based on image features, urban land use/land cover, urban growth, other feature of maps of 1971 onwards extracted and all the linear details such as roads and river were updated using topographical sheet information and existing maps. Land use was interpreted by visual interpretation technique. Unresolved land use units were marked and updated for field verification.

Phase II: Fieldwork: A Limited sample survey was carried out for ground truth data collection. Necessary corrections were incorporated in the drawing using field data.

Phase III: Digital Database Creation: Spatial framework of GIS database was organized in GIS as per the topographical maps coordinates and projection system. A grid was generated in Arc-GIS for each map/sheet covering each of three cities. All theme layers of different time periods were transferred to the above grid for commonality. Thematic map drafts were prepared on a sheet-by-sheet basis for digitization. On each sheet, all the required themes were drawn (different road, and built up land). The theme features of spatial data set were scanned and digitized for each map sheet using AutoCAD Map and Arc GIS package. The master registration points drawn on draft maps were used for registration during digitization. Different time period land use maps were prepared on the basis of published data, and imagery.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Dynamics of Urban Growth Pattern: Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur

India, with 1,220,200,000 (1.22 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world. The data show that India represents almost 17.31 per cent of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India 17 (Table 1B, Figure 1 A). In 2011, the population of India was 1.21 billion where in 2001-1.02 billion, and 1947-350 million. For the first time since Independence, the absolute increase in population is more in urban areas than in rural areas. The Rural Population of India was 68.84 per cent whereas Urban Population is 31.16 per cent. The level of urbanization increased from 27.81 per cent in 2001 census to 31.16 per cent in 2011. The proportion of rural population declined from 72.19 per cent to 68.84 per cent.

In 2011, the population of Gurgaon Municipal was 8,76,824 and the Gurgaon district had the population of 1,514,085, a change of 73.93 per cent is compare to the population as in 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Gurgaon cities recorded increase of 44.15 per cent in its population compared to 1991.The total area under Gurgaon is of about 1,215 km2. According to the study, the population of Gurgaon was 26.35 lakh in 2011, 43.30 lakh in 2021 and 58.34 lakh in 2031, because of combined effects of urbanisation, commercialisation and industrialization.

In 2011, Ranchi had population of 2,912,022, an increase 23.90 percent compared to the population in 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Ranchi recorded an increase of 28.58 percent in its population compared to 1991 (Table 1B). The initial provisional data suggest a density of 557 in 2011 compared to 449 of 2001. Total area under Ranchi district is of about 5,231 km2.

As per provisional reports of Census of India, the population of Jaipur was 2011 is 3,073,350. Jaipur city is governed by the Municipal Corporation. The total population of Jaipur as per the 1991 census was 1,518,000. The city population grew by about 5,00,000 at a decadal growth of 49.56 per cent and at annual compound rate of 4.11 per cent current estimates indicate it to be around 1,900,000. The growth rate declined in 1981-91 when it was 38.73 per cent, but now it is 35.10 per cent and has shown a consistent increase in the past 50 years. Now, according to the census 2011, the population of Jaipur municipal region is 3.07 million and Jaipur district is 66,63,971.

In fact, in the last decade, the population has increased by 0.8 million (Table 1B). The area of Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) grew 200 km2 in 1981 to 218 km2 in 1991 and 288 km2 in 2001. In terms of share, 87 per cent of the total population live in the JMC area, of which 7 per cent lives in the walled city. While the proportion of population living within the JMC increased (primarily due to expansion in area), the proportion of population in the walled city declined. This can be regarded as positive phenomena as the walled city is already very densely populated. The Walled City has a spatial extent of only 6.7 km2 but houses nearly 0.4 million people. The 2001 census shows that the population of the Walled City has declined from 1991. The reason for this is the movement of inhabitants from the area to new residential colonies being developed in the periphery in want of better living environment.

3.2. Land Use Land Cover Dynamics
3.2.1. Land Use Pattern of Gurgaon

Due to close proximity to Delhi, Gurgaon is one of the favorable places of investment, which attracts investors for the development of infrastructure. The statistics reveal that out of the 126.77 km2 as total area of Gurgaon city/region, nearly 81per cent was under agriculture in 1971. It has reduced to (50.67per cent) in 1993, 26.5 percent in 2002 and 14.92 in 2019. The rate of decline has been higher during the last decade. Between 1971-93 around 38.43 km2 of agricultural land was lost, between 1993-2002 around 30.65 km2 and during 2002-2019 around 14.67 km2 (Table 2A & Table 2B, Figure 1B to Figure 1F).

The area under ‘built up land’ category substantially increased from 11.36 km2 (8.96per cent) in 1971 to 99.97 km2 (78.86per cent) in 2019. The rate of increase of built up area has been higher between 1993-2002 (3.6 km2 per annum) by an addition of 33.06 km2 compared to 1971-93 period (1.81 km2 per annum) during which 39.78 km2 was added and 15.77 km2 added in 2002-2019,(less than 0.93 km2 per annum). There was 33per cent decline in wasteland (from 7.48 km2 to 5.01 km2), more rapidly during the last decade than in the first two decades. ‘Other land uses’ have reduced by 25 per cent from 1971 to 2002 (from 5.26 km2 to 3.97 km2) with a rate of decline from 10 per cent during 1993-2002, as compared to 15 per cent during 1971-1993 and 3.97 km2 to 3.14, during 2002 to 2019 (Table 2A & Table 2B). Figure 1B to Figure 1F, depict land use pattern in and around of Gurgaon in 1971 to 2019 and shows the land use changes during the last decade (1993-2002) which is still continuing. This can be attributed to rapid outsourcing of economic activities and increase in the demand for residential and commercial purpose. The villages in Gurgaon region can broadly be classified into three categories based on the process of their transformation: Rural - dominated with agricultural land and primary activities; transitional semi rural to semi urban - dominated with built up land and territory activities. The process of urban sprawl is clearly brought out in Figure 1B to Figure 1F.

Figure 1B & C (Urban Sprawl & Land Use 2019) highlights the following:

• Major conversion of agricultural land into commercial, residential and the other urban land uses.

• The impact of mega city Delhi and development of physical infrastructure especially the transport system has triggered the land use changes.

• The open areas, greenery of surrounding area as well as its vicinity to Delhi are some factors, which attract the people towards this satellite city.

• The increase in population size has simultaneously led to the areal growth and spatial changes in the city thus, altering its landscape.


3.2.2. Land Use Pattern of Ranchi

A considerable change in land use has occurred during the last few decades. The change from rural to urban land is fast. The shortage of land has led to speculation and an increase in land values (Table 3A to Table 3C, Figure 2A to Figure 2D). The growing difference between the demand and supply of house sites has increased, and stresses on fringe areas or agricultural land has continued to increase for residential and industrial purposes and the cost of land in the city is rapidly moving high.

Computing the area of all the settlements from toposheets of 1928, 1965 and comparing it with the area obtained from the classified satellite imagery of different time period for the built-up area determined the urban growth over a period of seven decades. A change detection analysis shows that Ranchi is expanding at the cost of plain and open areas; and built-up land increased from low and medium density to high density on the basis of analysing the land use profile of 1965, 1985, 2004 and 2020 (Table 3B & Table 3C).

Land Use / Land Cover of 1965: The result shows that out of total area, agricultural area (cropped area/fallow) was 77 per cent; built up land 11 per cent; open space for public use 3.44; and road network was 2.59. In this period, Ranchi was a small town and the majority of land was under forest, plateau and agriculture.

Land Use / Land Cover of 1985: After twenty years, following observations were made, 74 per cent of the total study area was agricultural (cropland/fallow land and open space), a decrease of 3 per cent as compared to its previous percentage in 1965 due to the utilization of agricultural land for settlement or built up land.

Areal extent of Built up land indicates the development of the city during this period. 21.14 per cent of the total area was occupied under built up and comprises of high density, medium density, and low density areas. 2.86 per cent of the total area falls under land transformation category which is indicative of the developmental stage of the city (Figure 2A to Figure 2D). City shows spatial growth and physical development in circular form, west and northwest of the city (Table 3C) along with the spatial extension. The population increased (0.4 million) during this period and the rate of growth is more than 90 per cent.

Land Use / Land Cover of 2004: During 1985-2004, the built up land rose from 21.14 to 33.89 per cent, an increase of 12.75 per cent. During this period, agriculture and open area declined and the other area land reduced (Figure 2C). This indicates that the city is in growing stage. Due to the rapid growth of population in this region (0.85 million, 2001), the demand of land tremendously increased and encroached the surrounding plain.

Land Use / Land Cover of 2020: during 2004-2020, the built up land extend from 58.36 km2 to 114.31 km2 (34.97 to 64.58 per cent), whereas agricultural land decline from 92.56 km2 to 29.55 km2 (52.29 to 16.69 per cent). This indicates that the city growing very fast in last decade due to rapid growth of population and development of infrastructure.

Agriculture and fallow land decreased from 74.86 (in 1985) to 29.55 per cent (in 2020) due to the utilization of agricultural and fallow land for settlement and commercial purpose or converted into built-up land. Most of the growth took place in north and north-west directions in circular form, encroaching on the nearby agricultural and fallow lands. In the last decade plantation increased from 0.67 (in 1985) to 5.39 per cent (in 2020) due to govt. and public efforts (Figure 2B).

It is observed that three sub-categories of land use have undergone substantial changes. The maximum change occurred in the agricultural land. It indicates a threat to the conversion of the rich agricultural land into non-agricultural (built-up area) in the region. The statistics reveal that the settlement area was about 18 km2 in 1928, 48 km2 in 1980, 89 km2 in 1996, 91 km2 in 2004 and 114.31 km2 in 2020. The average annual increase was about 0.97 km2 (1.04 per cent) during 1928-2020. The main conversion was from agriculture to built-up and road network. Agricultural land was reduced by about 73 km2 (i.e., from 159 km2 or 89.83 per cent to 29.55 km2 or 16.69 per cent) during the period of 1928 to 2020. It indicates a threat to the conversion of the rich agricultural land into non-agriculture (built-up area) in the region (Figure 2A).

Major Findings: On the basis of satellite data, secondary data and field survey, the following observations are made:

• Ranchi city has expanded towards northeast and southwest directions as well as north and north-west directions in circular form, and engulfing productive cropped areas.

• Due to deforestation and the loss of crop, fellow land the city is putting heavy pressure on ecological areas.

• Major conversion of land use is from crop and fellow to commercial, residential and other uses.

• Due to a capital for the state, it has witnessed of high rapid changes in land use.

• The increase in infrastructure (e.g. roads, water, electricity etc.) has not kept pace with the growth of population. As a result, the city is experiencing uncertain development.


3.2.3. Land Use Pattern of Jaipur

Our research reveals that the study area has experienced significant changes. During 1975 to 1986 the high density built up land increased by 73 per cent whereas, the medium density showed the increase of 144 per cent but the low density shown less growth of only 38 per cent. The high density urban built up land grow much more during 2009 to 2020 and 2003 to 2009 where it was 285.74 per cent and 88 per cent respectively. During 1991 to 2003 more than 200 per cent growth has been recorded in terms of low density areas. But at the same time high density and medium density did not show much more growth (Table 4A, Figure 3A to G). The last decade the built up land increased by 29.02 per cent growth, whereas highest growth recorded by high density 285.74 percent, followed by medium density 173.62 percent. The other categories like low density decline by 83.35 per cent, agricultural land 38.75, forest 79.37 percent respectively.

During 1975 to 2020, the total area of built up land was 46.39 km2, in 1975, 83.92 km2 in 1986, 113.3 km2 in 1991, 172.62 km2 in 2003, 197 km2 in 2009, and 255 km2 in 2020 (Figure 3A). Here the area has grown up much rapidly than last decade due to development of infrastructure and industries.

The urbanization was assessed with the help of spatial data, namely historic city plan, remotely sensed satellite data, toposheet, existing map. In other words, the study incorporated old and new generation land use data for a change study. Overall land use changes in Jaipur city in different land cover types is one of the major indicators to show general changes of the landscape. The most inevitable aspect of urbanization is horizontal growth of the town and change in land uses (Table 4B, Figure 3A, to Figure 3G).

The relative increase of urban/built-up land was the greatest during 1975 to 1986; it was 81 per cent, 1986-91, 35 per cent, 1991-2003, 52, 14 per cent in 2003-2009 and 29 percent in 2020. Cropland (280 km2 in 1975 and 147 km2 in 2003, 2009 it’s only 103 km2 and in 2020 shrink to 63.97 km2), and fallow land (132 km2 in 1975 and 29 km2 in 2003, 23 km2 in 2009 and 13.54 km2 in 2020) decrease were the major land use changes of city.

Similarly, the percentage land area under industrial land use has increased from 9.07 to 11.49 in 1991. Although the total forest area under forests is seen to have increased from 1975 to 1991, i.e. from 82 per cent during 1975-1986 and 8 per cent 1986-1991. The areas of cropland, urban/built-up land, water, and barren land increased, and forestland and grassland slightly decreased from 1975 to 2009, but in last decade the high density and medium density built up land, mining, wasteland increased and other categories were decline respectively.

The Table 4B reveals that the urban built up land continually increased from 1975 to 2020. The rate of growth was varying from one time period to another. In 1975-1986, the growth was 80.9 per cent where in 1986-91 it was 35, 1991-2003, 52.4, 14.7 in 2003 to 2009 and 29 percent in 2009 to 2020, respectively. Among built up land, the low density area always shows high rate of growth followed by high density and medium respectively. The impact of urban growth is seen in agricultural land which continues to decline at the rate of 21.1, 15.5, 21.5, 13.9 and 38.75 per cent respectively during different time periods between 1975 and 2020. In the agricultural land the major impact is shown on fallow lands which shrink rapidly. However, the forest area has grown much more during 1975-86.

Second important land use category is forest. Table 4A also shows that there are no changes of forest in the last three decades. People, NGO’s as well as government are aware about this and they continue their efforts in maintaining the health of forest. The forest cover was 29.11 km2 in 1975 which increased to 56.8 km2 by 2003, 56.48 km2 in 2009 and 46.29 km2 in 2020. This increase is also due to imposing ban on mining activities in vicinity of Jaipur. But in last decade shows that the mining area increased and the forest area decreased due to development of infrastructure and growth of city.

Figure 3A & Figure 3B (urban growth 1975-2020, and land use 2020) highlights the following:

• Population has grown from 0.3 million in 1951 to 2.3 million in 2001, 2.9 million in 2010, 3.4 million in 2015 and 3.9 million in 2020. The annual average growth rate from 1971 to 2001 was in the range of 4.1 to 4.7 and 2001 to 2020 between 2.6 to 2.9.

• The population growth forced the change in land use. For example, during 1975-2009, the crop area shrink by 2.08 km2/year, whereas the crop able area has declined from 35 to 14 per cent, fallow land reduced from 28 to 3 per cent that is 2.21 km2/year, wasteland from 14 to 9 per cent.

• Major conversion of fallow and agricultural land into commercial, residential and the other urban land uses. The last decade 2009 to 2020, the high density built up land increased more than 285 per cent, medium density 173, whereas low density decline 83 per cent respectively.

• The impact of rapid growth and development of physical infrastructure especially the transport system has triggered the land use changes.

• The open areas, greenery of surrounding as well as its vicinity to Delhi are some factors, which attract the people towards this pink city.

The proximity of Gurgaon, is about 15miles from the national capital, New Delhi, and has witnessed rapid changes in the last 3 decades. Due to closeness to airport and the good infrastructures it attracts Foreign Direct Investment and consequently the land value increased in the city. Outsourcing required workplaces for thousands of white-collar employees. In New Delhi, rents are exorbitant and space is limited, and Gurgaon as an alternative. It did have advantages: it was close to New Delhi airport and Maruti-Suzuki automobile plant had opened in the 1980s. But Gurgaon still seemed remote and DLF a major company took a risk to locate there. The absence of local government helped Gurgaon become a leader of India’s growth boom. But that absence had also created a dysfunctional city. No one was planning at a micro level; every developer pursued his own agenda as more islands sprouted and state agencies struggled to keep pace with growth.

Ranchi, a summer city earlier, now due to the rapid growth of population and deforestation, the entire scenario of the city and its surrounding environment has changed. The unplanned urban growth is shown in Ranchi. Areas are being converted for urban use without any systematic developing plan and without a corresponding investment in infrastructure. The result of the poor land management exists with inadequate service provision and infrastructure and with a corresponding lack of accessibility that may prove very problematic to resolve.

The rapid growth of population in Jaipur city from 0.63 million in 1971 to 3.07 million in 2011 forced the change in the structure of the city. Along with the population the requirement of residential area increased and it effected the environment and living style of people. The slums and unauthorized colonies emerged to meet the demand for housing by the rising population immigrating to the city in search for better living conditions. The rapid growth of population has posed many environmental problems in the city and led to the congestion of walled city 30.

4. Conclusion

The rapid expansion of urban land use area around cities accompanied the massive decreases in green cover that occurred during the study period of around 1971-2020. This resulted in a reduction of natural habitat and a sharp decrease in the biodiversity of the cities. The spatio-temporal analysis based on multi temporal satellite data revealed that there are considerable differences among the current urban growth trends in these cities. The high resolution satellite data makes it possible to investigate the extent to which different cities fall into different urban expansion types, so that the commonalities and differences among them can be better understood.

The Jaipur city is an old planned city in north-west India, and Gurgoan, a satellite of the capital city of India, whereas, Ranchi is a capital of the state Jharkhand, has been shown the rapid growth of population. The driving forces of land use changes of these three cities vary from one to another. In Jaipur, people were attracted from arid and semi-arid area of state for employment, opportunities, education and good infrastructure and also people from India and abroad visit there as a tourist. Whereas Gurgaon, is a shadow of Delhi and natural attraction for people from India and abroad for residential and investment purpose. It might be a sleeping city for some people who prefer to reside here and who work in Delhi. The third one, Ranchi, is oldest summer city of independent India and capital of tribal state of Jharkhand is attracting people for opportunity of work, education, environment and investment purpose.

If we see the major problem of these three cities, In Gurgoan, there is no any micro level city plan and city growth depends on the builder and developers of that area. The location plays a major role to attract the people. The Old planned city Jaipur especially known as walled city is not in position to carry the rapid growth of population it has environmentally collapsed which is seen in the form of air pollution, increasing heat intensity 38, water level decline etc. 31. New Jaipur Development Authority demarcated new boundary according to the requirement and demand of people, but it did not help to reduce the pressure on municipal or walled city. As far as Ranchi, its new state capital and there is a good scope for people from the surrounding areas and they move towards the capital city to fulfill their need and requirement. The last two decades, the development process which is going on here is neither planned and nor environment friendly.

The urban growth and land cover changes process differ between areas with different levels of human development. For example, in Tokyo there has been large population loss in the city Centre as many residents have migrated to the outlying suburban areas 32, whereas the population has tended to increase in urban centres in India 33 and China 34. Thus, further research is also needed to investigate the relationships between population growth, population and settlement density, land use changes to inform future land development and conservation strategies.

Competing Interests

Author declare that they have no competing interests.

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[8]  McDonald R I, WeberKF, Padowski J, Boucher T and ShemieD. Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 113. 9117-22, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Kalnay E and CaiM. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate Nature 423. 528-31, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  SetoKCand Shepherd JM. Global urban land-use trends and climate impacts Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability 1. 89-95, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Todes A, Kok P, Wentzel M, Van Zyl J and CrossC. Contemporary South African urbanization dynamics Urban Forum 21. 331-48, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Ahluwalia I J. Urban governance in India J. Urban Affairs 41. 83-102, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mahendra A and Seto KC. Upward and Outward Growth: Managing Urban Expansion for More Equitable Cities in the Global South (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute). p71 (www.citiesforall.org), 2019.
In article      
 
[14]  SetoKCet al. Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change edOEdenhofer et al (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)) pp 923-1000, 2014.
In article      
 
[15]  Güneralp B et al. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114. 8945-50, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Rahman,A. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Urban Environmental Mamangement and Sustainable Development of Delhi, India, Applied Remote Sensing for Urban Planning, Governance and Sus tainability, Springer Verlag Publishers, New York, 2007, pp. 165-197, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Govt. of India. Census of India, 1991, 2001 and 2011. Registrar General and Census Commissioner (1993). Census Atlas, Delhi Census Handbook (1991, 2001), Directorate of Census Operations, Government of India, New Delhi, 1991, 2001 & 2011.
In article      
 
[18]  Miller RB, Small C. Cities from space: potential applications of remote sensing in urban environmental research and policy. Environ Sci Policy 6(2): 129-137, 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sudhira HS, Ramachandra TV, Jagadish KS (2004) Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 5(1): 29-39, 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Fox J, Vogler JB. Land-use and land-cover change in montane mainland Southeast Asia. Environ Manag. 36(3): 394-403, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Jat M K, Garg P K, Khare D. Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf. 10(1): 26-43, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Zeng C, Zhou Y, Wang S, Yan F, Zhao Q. Population spatialization in China based on night-time imagery and land use data. Int J Remote Sens. 32(24): 9599-9620, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Lasaponara R, Lanorte A. Satellite time-series analysis. Int J Remote Sens. 33(15): 4649-4652, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Rahman A, Kumar S, Fazal S, Siddiqui MA. Assessment of land use/land cover change in the North-West District of Delhi using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens. 40(4): 689-697, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Pandit MK, Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Bhaskar A, Brook BW. Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodivers Conserv 16(1): 153-163, 2007
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Batty M, Howes D. Predicting temporal patterns in urban development from remote imagery. In: Donnay JP, Barnsley MJ, Longley PA (eds) Remote sensing and urban analysis. Taylor and Francis, London, 185-204, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Banister D, Watson S, Wood C. Sustainable cities: transport, energy, and urban form.Environ Plan B. 24 (1): 125-143, 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Longley PA, Mesev V. On the measurement and generalization of urban form. Environ Plan A volume. 32 (3) pages 473-488, 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Longley PA, Barnsley MJ, Donnay JP. Remote sensing and urban analysis: a research agenda. In: Donnay JP, Barnsley MJ, Longley PA (eds) Remote sensing and urban analysis. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 245-258, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  SAFAGE. Jaipur Water Supply and Sanitation Project Feasibility Study; Water Demand Population, Urban Development, Water Demand of Jaipur city; Draft final report; Appendix I, vol I of 2 july 1998.
In article      
 
[31]  Gupta, R., Singh.R.B. Environmental Implications of Land Use Change in Jaipur City Using Satellite Data, Indian Journal of Regional Science, Vol. XXXXIV, No.2,2012 pp 141-154, 2012.
In article      
 
[32]  Bagan H and Yamagata Y. Landsat analysis of urban growth: how Tokyo became the world’s largest megacity during the last 40 years Remote Sens. Environ. 127 210-22, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Taubenböck H, Wegmann M, Roth A, Mehl H and Dech S. Urbanization in India—spatiotemporal analysis using remote sensing data Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 33 179-88, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Seto K C and Fragkias M. Quantifying spatiotemporal patterns of urban land use change in four cities of China with a time series of landscape metrics Landsc. Ecol. 20 871-88, 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Gupta, R. Monitoring Urban Growth Pattern of Delhi Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Journal of Global Resources, Biannual International Peer-Reviewed Journal, Vol.7, No.1, pp26-35, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Gupta, R. The Pattern of Urban Land Use Changes: A Case Study of the Indian Cities, Environment and Urbanization ASIA, Vol.5, No 1, pp 83-104.2014, Sage Publication.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Gupta, R. Study of Population Change and Urban Land Use relationship using an integrated Remote Sensing and GIS Approach, Deccan Geographer, Vol.44, Pp 1-12, 2006.
In article      
 
[38]  Gupta, R. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Urban Heat Island Effect in Jaipur City Using Satellite Data, Sage Pub.-Environment and Urbanization ASIA, Vol.3, No 2, pp 359-374. Sept.2012 http://eua.sagepub.com/content/3/2.toc
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Govt. of India. Census of India, 2001. Registrar General and Census Commissioner (1993), Census of India, (1991), Census of India, (2011). Census Atlas, Directorate of Census Operations, Government of India, New Delhi, 2001.
In article      
 
[40]  Govt. of India. District Census Handbook Abstract,(Village & Town Directories), Directorate of Census Operations, Bihar, Parts XIII-A&B, Series-4, 1981, 2001.
In article      
 
[41]  Govt. of India. Economic Survey 2002-2003, Economic Division, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, New Delhi, 2003, 2011.
In article      
 
[42]  Govt. of India. Thematic Issue and Sectoral Programme, 9th Five Year Plan, Vol. - 2, Planning Commission, Government of India ,New Delhi, 2005.
In article      
 
[43]  Govt. of Rajasthan. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan; Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Jaipur, 2002, 2011. NASA. Satellite maps provide better urban sprawl insight. NASA News Release, 2 June 2001.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Rupesh Kumar Gupta

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Normal Style
Rupesh Kumar Gupta. Dynamics of Urbanization and Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2021, pp 296-311. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/2/22
MLA Style
Gupta, Rupesh Kumar. "Dynamics of Urbanization and Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.2 (2021): 296-311.
APA Style
Gupta, R. K. (2021). Dynamics of Urbanization and Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(2), 296-311.
Chicago Style
Gupta, Rupesh Kumar. "Dynamics of Urbanization and Land Use/Land Cover Changes of Gurgaon, Ranchi and Jaipur, India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 2 (2021): 296-311.
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[7]  Grimm N B et al. Global change and the ecology of cities Science 319. 756-60, 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  McDonald R I, WeberKF, Padowski J, Boucher T and ShemieD. Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 113. 9117-22, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Kalnay E and CaiM. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate Nature 423. 528-31, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  SetoKCand Shepherd JM. Global urban land-use trends and climate impacts Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustainability 1. 89-95, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Todes A, Kok P, Wentzel M, Van Zyl J and CrossC. Contemporary South African urbanization dynamics Urban Forum 21. 331-48, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Ahluwalia I J. Urban governance in India J. Urban Affairs 41. 83-102, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mahendra A and Seto KC. Upward and Outward Growth: Managing Urban Expansion for More Equitable Cities in the Global South (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute). p71 (www.citiesforall.org), 2019.
In article      
 
[14]  SetoKCet al. Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change edOEdenhofer et al (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)) pp 923-1000, 2014.
In article      
 
[15]  Güneralp B et al. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114. 8945-50, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Rahman,A. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Urban Environmental Mamangement and Sustainable Development of Delhi, India, Applied Remote Sensing for Urban Planning, Governance and Sus tainability, Springer Verlag Publishers, New York, 2007, pp. 165-197, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Govt. of India. Census of India, 1991, 2001 and 2011. Registrar General and Census Commissioner (1993). Census Atlas, Delhi Census Handbook (1991, 2001), Directorate of Census Operations, Government of India, New Delhi, 1991, 2001 & 2011.
In article      
 
[18]  Miller RB, Small C. Cities from space: potential applications of remote sensing in urban environmental research and policy. Environ Sci Policy 6(2): 129-137, 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sudhira HS, Ramachandra TV, Jagadish KS (2004) Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 5(1): 29-39, 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Fox J, Vogler JB. Land-use and land-cover change in montane mainland Southeast Asia. Environ Manag. 36(3): 394-403, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Jat M K, Garg P K, Khare D. Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf. 10(1): 26-43, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Zeng C, Zhou Y, Wang S, Yan F, Zhao Q. Population spatialization in China based on night-time imagery and land use data. Int J Remote Sens. 32(24): 9599-9620, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Lasaponara R, Lanorte A. Satellite time-series analysis. Int J Remote Sens. 33(15): 4649-4652, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Rahman A, Kumar S, Fazal S, Siddiqui MA. Assessment of land use/land cover change in the North-West District of Delhi using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens. 40(4): 689-697, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Pandit MK, Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Bhaskar A, Brook BW. Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya. Biodivers Conserv 16(1): 153-163, 2007
In article      View Article
 
[26]  Batty M, Howes D. Predicting temporal patterns in urban development from remote imagery. In: Donnay JP, Barnsley MJ, Longley PA (eds) Remote sensing and urban analysis. Taylor and Francis, London, 185-204, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Banister D, Watson S, Wood C. Sustainable cities: transport, energy, and urban form.Environ Plan B. 24 (1): 125-143, 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Longley PA, Mesev V. On the measurement and generalization of urban form. Environ Plan A volume. 32 (3) pages 473-488, 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Longley PA, Barnsley MJ, Donnay JP. Remote sensing and urban analysis: a research agenda. In: Donnay JP, Barnsley MJ, Longley PA (eds) Remote sensing and urban analysis. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 245-258, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[30]  SAFAGE. Jaipur Water Supply and Sanitation Project Feasibility Study; Water Demand Population, Urban Development, Water Demand of Jaipur city; Draft final report; Appendix I, vol I of 2 july 1998.
In article      
 
[31]  Gupta, R., Singh.R.B. Environmental Implications of Land Use Change in Jaipur City Using Satellite Data, Indian Journal of Regional Science, Vol. XXXXIV, No.2,2012 pp 141-154, 2012.
In article      
 
[32]  Bagan H and Yamagata Y. Landsat analysis of urban growth: how Tokyo became the world’s largest megacity during the last 40 years Remote Sens. Environ. 127 210-22, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Taubenböck H, Wegmann M, Roth A, Mehl H and Dech S. Urbanization in India—spatiotemporal analysis using remote sensing data Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 33 179-88, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Seto K C and Fragkias M. Quantifying spatiotemporal patterns of urban land use change in four cities of China with a time series of landscape metrics Landsc. Ecol. 20 871-88, 2005.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Gupta, R. Monitoring Urban Growth Pattern of Delhi Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Journal of Global Resources, Biannual International Peer-Reviewed Journal, Vol.7, No.1, pp26-35, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Gupta, R. The Pattern of Urban Land Use Changes: A Case Study of the Indian Cities, Environment and Urbanization ASIA, Vol.5, No 1, pp 83-104.2014, Sage Publication.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Gupta, R. Study of Population Change and Urban Land Use relationship using an integrated Remote Sensing and GIS Approach, Deccan Geographer, Vol.44, Pp 1-12, 2006.
In article      
 
[38]  Gupta, R. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Urban Heat Island Effect in Jaipur City Using Satellite Data, Sage Pub.-Environment and Urbanization ASIA, Vol.3, No 2, pp 359-374. Sept.2012 http://eua.sagepub.com/content/3/2.toc
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Govt. of India. Census of India, 2001. Registrar General and Census Commissioner (1993), Census of India, (1991), Census of India, (2011). Census Atlas, Directorate of Census Operations, Government of India, New Delhi, 2001.
In article      
 
[40]  Govt. of India. District Census Handbook Abstract,(Village & Town Directories), Directorate of Census Operations, Bihar, Parts XIII-A&B, Series-4, 1981, 2001.
In article      
 
[41]  Govt. of India. Economic Survey 2002-2003, Economic Division, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, New Delhi, 2003, 2011.
In article      
 
[42]  Govt. of India. Thematic Issue and Sectoral Programme, 9th Five Year Plan, Vol. - 2, Planning Commission, Government of India ,New Delhi, 2005.
In article      
 
[43]  Govt. of Rajasthan. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan; Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Jaipur, 2002, 2011. NASA. Satellite maps provide better urban sprawl insight. NASA News Release, 2 June 2001.
In article