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Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis, Characterisation of Alanine Templated Aluminophosphate Zeolite and Study of Its Application as Adsorbent

Shalini K S, Nirmala B
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, 7(6), 231-237. DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-6-4
Received October 20, 2019; Revised November 21, 2019; Accepted December 02, 2019

Abstract

The present work is concerned with synthesis of aluminophosphate zeolites with tridymit framework by employing microwave technique and alanine as structure directing agent. Aluminophosphate zeolite was characterised using XRD, SEM- EDAX, BET and FTIR. Adsorption efficiency of the synthesised aluminophosphate zeolite was evaluated using water soluble dye methylene blue as a model pollutant. Influence of pH, Adsorbent dosage, Dye concentration and contact time were studied. Experimental data fitted well with pseudo bimolecular kinetic model and freundlich’s adsorption isotherm (R2=1) with yielding a maximum adsorption capacity of 37.016ppm mg-1.

1. Introduction

Unusual physicochemical properties of zeolites and zeolite like frameworks such as Silicates, aluminosilicates, aluminophosphates and metal substituted aluminophosphate zeolites play a significant role in augmenting their industrial applications mainly as adsorbents, catalysts and in membrane separation 1, 2, 3. Aluminophosphates specifically are important members of this family as they have silicon free composition but are also similar to zeolites in morphology and function.

Microporous nature of aluminophosphates retards the rate of diffusion on to molecular sieves there by reducing the efficiency of the molecules as adsorbents, catalysts or membrane separation. Synthesis of mesoporous aluminophosphate with ordered structure will enhance diffusion of reactants on to zeolite frameworks 4. Intensive research is being carried out in this field of designing and synthesis of aluminophosphates with desired structural and physicochemical properties for specific applications by altering various synthetic parameters such as Aluminium phosphate ratio, by using different structure directing agents such as surfactants, quaternary ammonium salts, amines, organosilanes etc., changing synthesis conditions like Ionothermal synthesis 5, hydrothermal synthesis 6, Solvothermal synthesis 7, vapour phase synthesis 8, solvent free synthesis 9 etc. Combinatorial methods are being employed for the synthesis of aluminophosphate zeolites 10 conventional techniques involve High temperature and pressure along with long reaction times.

Water soluble dyes or colouring agents such as Methylene blue, Malachite green, trypan blue, Evan’s Blue, sulphur dyes etc., are used extensively in many industries such as paper, pulp, leather, textiles and hence are major threat to environmental safety, particularly to our water bodies. With growing awareness about environment and its wellbeing massive research work is being done worldwide in developing materials and techniques to aid in removing these pollutants from water bodies. Although various techniques both physicochemical and biological techniques such as flocculation 11, precipitation, coagulation, ozonation, photo degradation, membrane filtration are available, it has been found tough to remove organic dyes and pigments using conventional methods owing to their complex structures and stability towards action of light or oxidizing agents and resistance to aerobic digestion. Adsorption is one of the favourable techniques for removing water soluble dyes 12 and Aluminophosphate zeolites are promising materials in removal of these water soluble dyes by adsorption.

Microwave assisted synthesis of aluminophosphates offers the advantage of quick synthesis of aluminophosphates under normal temperature and pressure 5, 13, 14, 15. Current study gives a brief account of synthesis of Aluminophosphate with tridymit framework employing microwave assisted synthetic technique and amino acids as structure directing agents. Structure and morphology of aluminophosphates were studied using XRD, IR, SEM-EDAX and BET. Adsorption capacity of the synthesised aluminophosphates in removing water soluble dyes was evaluated using Methylene Blue as model adsorbent.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Synthesis

Aluminium Hydroxide (LR grade) used as source of Aluminium, Ortho phosphoric acid (LR grade) used as source of Phosphorus and (±) alanine(LR grade) was used as structure directing agent for the synthesis of aluminophosphates. Methylene Blue (LR grade) was used to evaluate adsorption capacity of AlPOs.

3.9g (1mmol) of Aluminium hydroxide was dispersed in 10mL of distilled water and stirred for 15 min. 5.6mL (2mmol) of orthophosphoric acid was added dropwise to the dispersion with constant stirring. Reaction mixture was stirred for 1h at room temperature. 2.22g (0.05mmol) of Alanine was dissolved in 10mL of distilled water and added to the reaction mixture with constant stirring. The gel was aged for 1h at room temperature and subjected to microwave irradiation (160W, 20 min) after noting the Initial and Final pH. White precipitate of Aluminophosphates formed was washed thoroughly with distilled water under ultra-sonication. The product was then filtered and dried in hot air oven at 200°C for 2h.

2.2. Characterization

Phase purity of the synthesised Aluminophosphates was examined using powder x-ray diffraction pattern (XRD smart lab x-ray diffratometer (CuK α , λ=1.5406 å). FTIR spectra of the particles give an understanding in to the nature of bonding. Details pertaining to surface morphology, elemental composition and crystal size were obtained using SEM with EDAX (VEGA 3 TESCAN). Surface area was determined using Quatachrome instruments-Nova station 0, version 3. Adsorption studies with respect to methylene blue were studied using colorimeter.

2.3. Adsorption Studies

Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time 16, 17, 18.

2.4. Effect of pH

100ml of 5ppm methylene blue solution was adjusted to different initial pH values (pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). The solutions were then stirred with 5mg of adsorbent. 2ml of the solution was withdrawn at regular intervals, centrifuged and absorbance of the centrifugate was measured. Percentage of adsorption was calculated using eq. 1.

(1)
2.5. Effect of Adsorbent Dosage

100ml of 5ppm methylene blue solution was stirred with different amount of adsorbent (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 mg). 2ml of dye solution was withdrawn at regular interval of time and absorbance was measured after removing catalyst by centrifugation. Percentage of adsorption was calculated using eq. 1.

2.6. Effect of Initial Dye Concentration

100ml of dye solution of varying concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5ppm) was stirred with 10mg of adsorbent. Dye solution was withdrawn at regular interval of time, centrifuged and absorbance of centrifugate was measured. Percentage of adsorption was calculated using eq.1.

The results obtained were analysed using kinetic models and adsorption isotherms to understand the nature of adsorption of methylene blue by aluminophosphate zeolites.

3. Results and Discussions

X-Ray diffraction pattern of Ala templated alumminophosphates presented in Figure 1a. All the peaks in the diffraction pattern of the obtained compound can be indexed as belonging to ALPO4-tridymit (orthorhombic) phase (a= b= 7.082 and c= 6.993) corresponding to JCPDS no-11-500. Average particle size D calculated using Debye- Scherrer equation (2) 19,

(2)

Willamson–Hall (W-H) method was used to calculate the lattice strain from the following modified Scherrer equation (3) 19,

(3)

W-H plot of βcosθ against 4sinθ is shown in Figure 1b. Dislocation density (δ) is estimated using the below equation (4), the calculated physical parameters are given in Table 1.

(4)

SEM images of synthesized Aluminophosphate zeolites are given in Figure 2 and from the image it is evident that the particles have a spherical morphology and EDAX (Figure 3) confirms the purity of the synthesized Aluminophosphate zeolites.

Surface area and Pore size analysis: Nitrogen adsorption, desorption isotherms of Aluminophosphates (Figure 4a) shows no typical hysteresis indicating the presence of blind cylindrical, cone shaped or wedge shaped pores (Figure 4a) 20.

A linear plot of [1/W ((Po/P)-1)] vs P/Po presented in Figure 4b. The surface area of the aluminophosphates was found to be 2.743m2/g. From nitrogen desorption isotherm using BJH analysis, pore volume and pore radius were determined and found to be 0.004cm3/g and 19.2Ǻ respectively (Figure 4c). Hence synthesized aluminophosphates can be considered to be mesoporous in nature 21.

Infrared spectroscopy: FTIR spectrum of Aluminophosphate zeolites shown in Figure 5. Peaks around 468-545cm-1 corresponds to bending vibrations of PO4, Sharp peak at 615 cm-1 can be attributed to interaction between alumina and Al3+. Symmetric stretching of PO4 tetrahedra is confirmed by sharp peaks in the region 700-740cm-1. Characteristic peak of PO4 tetrahedra is observed at 1115 cm-1. Broad band in the region 3000-3100cm-1 corresponds to the presence of surface hydroxyl groups 21.

4. Adsorption studies of Methylene Blue on to Aluminophosphates

Methylene blue was used as a model dye to study the effectiveness of aluminophosphate zeolites as adsorbents. From Figure 6 it is evident that adsorption is maximum at pH 7. Adsorption attains equilibrium with in initial 20 minutes irrespective of adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentrations (Figure 7 and Figure 8). Aluminophosphate zeolites were found to be more effective as adsorbents at lower dosages but efficiency decreases with increasing dosage. This is due to blocking of pores on zeolite surface due to aggregation of adsorbents with increased concentration. A compilation of previous results of methylene blue adsorption from literature is given in Table 2.

Decrease in adsorption efficiency can be attributed to low surface area of ala templated aluminophosphate zeolites and also to the blind pores in the adsorbent.

Kinetic parameter data presented in Table 3 confirms that the process of adsorption follows pseudo bimolecular kinetics. In this model, rate of adsorption depends on the amount of dye adsorbed on to the surface of adsorbent and to the amount adsorbed at equilibrium. A plot of t/qt vs time in minutes gives a straight line graph with pearson correlation coefficient R2 value equal to 0.9697 (Figure 9). From the plot, rate of adsorption was found to be 7.21 x 102 ppm mg-1 min-1. It also implies that the adsorption process is a multilayer process which is augmented by the results of study of adsorption isotherm models. A plot of Ce/qe vs Ce (Langmuir’s isotherm) and –logCe vs –log qe (Freundlich’s Isotherm) were presented in Figure 10 (a) and (b) respectively. From the two plots, it can be derived that plot of –logCe vs –log qe gives a straight line graph with slope 1/n and intercept –log Kf. Adsorption process fits well with freundlich’s adsorption model of multilayer adsorption as suggested by pearson correlation factor which was calculated to be 1 and dimensional quantity n which corresponds to intensity of adsorption was determined to be 1 indicating that the process of adsorption is moderate 26. Adsorption of methylene blue on to Aluminophosphate zeolite follows freundlich adsorption isotherm indicating a multilayer adsorption process (Figure 10) 16, 17. Experimental parameters corresponding to Kinetic study and adsorption isotherm study of adsorption of methylene blue on ala templated aluminophosphate are presented in Table 3 24.

5. Conclusion

Aluminophosphates with orthorhombic phase was synthesized using alanine as structure directing agent under ambient conditions. Scanning electron microscope images confirm aggregates of roughly spherical plate like structures with dimensions in the range of 230nm. Surface area of Aluminophosphates was found to be 2.743m2/g and pore radius 19.2Ǻ. Adsorption of methylene blue by amino acid templated aluminophosphates follows pseudo second order kinetics with rate 7.21 x102 ppm mg-1min-1 and follows freundlich adsorption isotherm indicating a multilayer process.

Acknowledgement

Authors are grateful to STIC, Cochin for providing instrumentation facilities for characterization.

References

[1]  Y. Wang, X. Zou, L. Sun, H. Rong and G. Zhu, “A zeolite-like Aluminophosphate membrane with molecular seiving property foe water desalination,” Chemical Science, vol. 9, pp. 2533-2539, 7 March 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[2]  Y. Li, L. Li and J. Yu, “Applications of Zeolites in Sustainable Chemistry,” Chem, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 928-949, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  X.-Y. Yang, L.-H. Chen, Y. Li, J. C. Rooke, C. Sanchez and B.-L. Su, “Hierarchically porous materials: synthesis strategies and structure design,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 481-558, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Z. Liu, Y. Hua, J. Wang, X. Dong, Q. Tian and Y. Han, “Recent progress in the direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites: synthetic strategies and characterization methods,” Materials Chemistry Frontiers, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 2195- 2212, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Y.-P. Xu, Z.-J. Tian, S.-J. Wang, Y. Hu, L. Wang, B.-C. Wang, Y.-C. Ma, L. Hou, J.-Y. Yu and L.-W. Lin, “Microwave-Enhanced Ionothermal Synthesis of Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 3965-3970, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  T. Ban, S. Iriyama and Y. Ohya, “Bottom-up synthesis of aluminophosphate nanosheets by hydrothermal process,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 537-542, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Z.-Z. Bao, A.-H. Sun, S.-D. Han, J.-H. Li, G.-M. Wang and Z.-H. Wang, “Aluminophosphates prepared using in situ generated tetramethylammonium cations as structure directing agents,,” Solid State Sciences,, vol. 61, pp. 77-83, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  S. Thoma and T. Nenoff, “Vapor phase transport synthesis of zeolites from sol–gel precursors,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 41, no. 1-3, pp. 295-305, 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  N. Sheng, Y. Chu, S. Xin, Q. Wang, X. Yi, Z. Feng, X. Meng, X. Liu, F. Deng and F.-S. Xiao, “Insights of the Crystallization Process of Molecular Sieve AlPO4-5 Prepared by Solvent-Free Synthesis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 138, no. 19, pp. 6171-6176, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  K. Choi, D. Gardner, N. Hilbrandt and T. Bein, “Combinatorial Methods for the Synthesis of Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 2891-2894, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  M. O. Agunbiade, E. Van Heerden, C. H. Pohl and A. T. Ashafa, “Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment,” BMC Biotechnology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51-59, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[12]  S. Selvaraju and B. L. GRACE, “Removal of Dyes from Wastewater using Adsorption -A Review,” International journal of biosciences and technology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 47-51, 2009.
In article      
 
[13]  R. Martínez-Palou, “Microwave-assisted synthesis using ionic liquids,” Molecular Diversity, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3-25, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Z. Liu, J. Zhu, T. Wakihara and T. Okubo, “Ultrafast synthesis of zeolites: breakthrough, progress and perspective,” Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 14-31, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  T. Pan, Z. Wu and A. C. Yip, “Advances in the Green Synthesis of Microporous and Hierarchical Zeolites: A Short Review,” Catalysts, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 274, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  C. Kannan, K. Muthuraja and M. R. Devi, “Hazardous dyes removal from aqueous solution over mesoporous aluminophosphate with textural porosity by adsorption,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vols. 244-245, pp. 10-20, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  K. Muthuraja and C. Kannan, “Kinetic and Isotherm Studies of Removal of Metanil Yellow Dye on Mesoporous Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Chemical Science Transactions, vol. 2, no. S1, pp. 195-201, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  A. B. Albadarin, M. N. Collins, M. Naushad, S. Shirazian, G. Walker and C. Mangwandi, “Activated lignin-chitosan extruded blends for efficient adsorption of methylene blue,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 307, pp. 264-272, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  A. W. Burto, K. Ong, T. Rea and I. Y. Chan, “On the estimation of average crystallite size of zeolites from the Scherrer equation: A critical evaluation of its application to zeolites with one-dimensional pore systems,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 75-90, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  G. Leofanti, M. Padovan, G. Tozzola and B. Venturelli, “Surface area and pore texture of catalysts,” Catalysis Today, vol. 41, no. 1-3, pp. 207- 219, 1998.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  H. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, H. Cai and J. L. J. Liu, “Amorphous magnesium substituted mesoporous aluminophosphate: An acid-base sites synergistic catalysis for transesterification of diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate in fixed-bed reactor,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 292, p. 109757, 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  M. Shaban, M. R. Abukhadra, M. G. Shahien and S. S. Ibrahim, “Novel bentonite/zeolite-NaP composite efficiently removes methylene blue and Congo red dyes,” Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 275-280, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  T. Huang, M. Yan, K. He, Z. Huang, G. Zeng, A. Chen, M. Peng, H. Li, L. Yuan and G. Chen, “Efficient removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using magnetic graphene oxide modified zeolite,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 543, pp. 43-51, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  H. Aysan, S. Edebali, C. Ozdemir, M. C. Karakaya, N. K. Aysan, S. Edebali, C. Ozdemir, M. C. Karakaya and N. Karakaya, “Use of chabazite, a naturally abundant zeolite, for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue dye,,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 235, pp. 78-86, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  I. Shah, R. Adnan, W. Ngah, W. Saime and N. Mohamed, “Iron Impregnated Activated Carbon as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue: Regeneration and Kinetics Studies,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1-23, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[26]  T. N. Ramesh, D. V. Kirana, A. Ashwini and T. Manasa, “Calcium hydroxide as low cost adsorbent for the effective removal of indigo carmine dye in water,” Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 165-171, 2017.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Shalini K S and Nirmala B

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Shalini K S, Nirmala B. Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis, Characterisation of Alanine Templated Aluminophosphate Zeolite and Study of Its Application as Adsorbent. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp 231-237. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/7/6/4
MLA Style
S, Shalini K, and Nirmala B. "Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis, Characterisation of Alanine Templated Aluminophosphate Zeolite and Study of Its Application as Adsorbent." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 7.6 (2019): 231-237.
APA Style
S, S. K. , & B, N. (2019). Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis, Characterisation of Alanine Templated Aluminophosphate Zeolite and Study of Its Application as Adsorbent. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 7(6), 231-237.
Chicago Style
S, Shalini K, and Nirmala B. "Microwave Assisted Green Synthesis, Characterisation of Alanine Templated Aluminophosphate Zeolite and Study of Its Application as Adsorbent." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 7, no. 6 (2019): 231-237.
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[1]  Y. Wang, X. Zou, L. Sun, H. Rong and G. Zhu, “A zeolite-like Aluminophosphate membrane with molecular seiving property foe water desalination,” Chemical Science, vol. 9, pp. 2533-2539, 7 March 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[2]  Y. Li, L. Li and J. Yu, “Applications of Zeolites in Sustainable Chemistry,” Chem, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 928-949, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  X.-Y. Yang, L.-H. Chen, Y. Li, J. C. Rooke, C. Sanchez and B.-L. Su, “Hierarchically porous materials: synthesis strategies and structure design,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 481-558, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Z. Liu, Y. Hua, J. Wang, X. Dong, Q. Tian and Y. Han, “Recent progress in the direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites: synthetic strategies and characterization methods,” Materials Chemistry Frontiers, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 2195- 2212, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Y.-P. Xu, Z.-J. Tian, S.-J. Wang, Y. Hu, L. Wang, B.-C. Wang, Y.-C. Ma, L. Hou, J.-Y. Yu and L.-W. Lin, “Microwave-Enhanced Ionothermal Synthesis of Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 3965-3970, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  T. Ban, S. Iriyama and Y. Ohya, “Bottom-up synthesis of aluminophosphate nanosheets by hydrothermal process,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 537-542, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Z.-Z. Bao, A.-H. Sun, S.-D. Han, J.-H. Li, G.-M. Wang and Z.-H. Wang, “Aluminophosphates prepared using in situ generated tetramethylammonium cations as structure directing agents,,” Solid State Sciences,, vol. 61, pp. 77-83, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  S. Thoma and T. Nenoff, “Vapor phase transport synthesis of zeolites from sol–gel precursors,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 41, no. 1-3, pp. 295-305, 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  N. Sheng, Y. Chu, S. Xin, Q. Wang, X. Yi, Z. Feng, X. Meng, X. Liu, F. Deng and F.-S. Xiao, “Insights of the Crystallization Process of Molecular Sieve AlPO4-5 Prepared by Solvent-Free Synthesis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 138, no. 19, pp. 6171-6176, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  K. Choi, D. Gardner, N. Hilbrandt and T. Bein, “Combinatorial Methods for the Synthesis of Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 2891-2894, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  M. O. Agunbiade, E. Van Heerden, C. H. Pohl and A. T. Ashafa, “Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment,” BMC Biotechnology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51-59, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[12]  S. Selvaraju and B. L. GRACE, “Removal of Dyes from Wastewater using Adsorption -A Review,” International journal of biosciences and technology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 47-51, 2009.
In article      
 
[13]  R. Martínez-Palou, “Microwave-assisted synthesis using ionic liquids,” Molecular Diversity, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3-25, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Z. Liu, J. Zhu, T. Wakihara and T. Okubo, “Ultrafast synthesis of zeolites: breakthrough, progress and perspective,” Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 14-31, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  T. Pan, Z. Wu and A. C. Yip, “Advances in the Green Synthesis of Microporous and Hierarchical Zeolites: A Short Review,” Catalysts, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 274, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  C. Kannan, K. Muthuraja and M. R. Devi, “Hazardous dyes removal from aqueous solution over mesoporous aluminophosphate with textural porosity by adsorption,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vols. 244-245, pp. 10-20, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  K. Muthuraja and C. Kannan, “Kinetic and Isotherm Studies of Removal of Metanil Yellow Dye on Mesoporous Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves,” Chemical Science Transactions, vol. 2, no. S1, pp. 195-201, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  A. B. Albadarin, M. N. Collins, M. Naushad, S. Shirazian, G. Walker and C. Mangwandi, “Activated lignin-chitosan extruded blends for efficient adsorption of methylene blue,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 307, pp. 264-272, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  A. W. Burto, K. Ong, T. Rea and I. Y. Chan, “On the estimation of average crystallite size of zeolites from the Scherrer equation: A critical evaluation of its application to zeolites with one-dimensional pore systems,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 75-90, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  G. Leofanti, M. Padovan, G. Tozzola and B. Venturelli, “Surface area and pore texture of catalysts,” Catalysis Today, vol. 41, no. 1-3, pp. 207- 219, 1998.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  H. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Liu, H. Cai and J. L. J. Liu, “Amorphous magnesium substituted mesoporous aluminophosphate: An acid-base sites synergistic catalysis for transesterification of diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate in fixed-bed reactor,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 292, p. 109757, 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  M. Shaban, M. R. Abukhadra, M. G. Shahien and S. S. Ibrahim, “Novel bentonite/zeolite-NaP composite efficiently removes methylene blue and Congo red dyes,” Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 275-280, 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  T. Huang, M. Yan, K. He, Z. Huang, G. Zeng, A. Chen, M. Peng, H. Li, L. Yuan and G. Chen, “Efficient removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using magnetic graphene oxide modified zeolite,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 543, pp. 43-51, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  H. Aysan, S. Edebali, C. Ozdemir, M. C. Karakaya, N. K. Aysan, S. Edebali, C. Ozdemir, M. C. Karakaya and N. Karakaya, “Use of chabazite, a naturally abundant zeolite, for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue dye,,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 235, pp. 78-86, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  I. Shah, R. Adnan, W. Ngah, W. Saime and N. Mohamed, “Iron Impregnated Activated Carbon as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue: Regeneration and Kinetics Studies,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1-23, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[26]  T. N. Ramesh, D. V. Kirana, A. Ashwini and T. Manasa, “Calcium hydroxide as low cost adsorbent for the effective removal of indigo carmine dye in water,” Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 165-171, 2017.
In article      View Article