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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Impacts of Ambient Atmospheric Pollution and Their Challenges to Survival

Jacob Joshua , Sujatha C.H
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, 7(6), 216-223. DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-6-2
Received October 01, 2019; Revised November 05, 2019; Accepted November 19, 2019

Abstract

Owing to the National Integration, rapid industrialization and economic development, majority of the cities are transformed into mega or metropolises, and changed their life style to a great extent. This meticulous inclination has thrown a number of hazardous waste materials in the form of smoke, haze into the atmospheric platform with the composites of particulate matter and trace gases. The detriments are derived from sources like fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicular transportations, house hold activities and reclamation of agricultural land activities. World Health Organization, reports one in eight of global deaths accounts for the Air Pollution menace and attributes to reach the trend nearly ten million all over the world. Interim targets are prescribed globally by the Air Quality Guidelines to maintain a healthy atmosphere; hence policies should be planned in a judicial approach through Air quality Index, the yard stick for pollution assessment for sustaining cleaner energy.

1. Significance of Clean Blue Sky

According to the reports on World Health Organization , 2014, one in eight of global deaths accounts for the Air Pollution menace and attributes to reach the trend approximately ten million all over the world 1. As a part of National integration and changes in economic developmental pattern the major cities are transformed in to megacities and metropolises. This meticulous inclination reduces the life expectancy and overshadows the image of the clean hygienic blue sky worldwide.

The economic changes and industrialization has thrown out a number of hazardous chemicals into the atmospheric realm by means of stationary and mobile sources like natural and anthropogenic activities. These pollutants has created adverse environmental situation in the whole ecosystem because of their concentration limits are beyond the limits of the prescribed standards recommended by WHO 2. These airborne aerosols confines the energy balance of the Earth, atmospheric circulation pattern, hydrological cycle, the ability of reproduction in biological organisms, thereby enhancing various cardiovascular and allergenic diseases to the community 3, 4. Such detrimental substances are derived from various sources like fossil fuel combustion mainly coal and petroleum derived products, refuse incinerators, construction activity, forest fires, natural windblown dust, emissions from thermal power plants and industries, motor vehicular transportations, house hold activities and reclamation of agricultural land activities (Figure 1). Other than the human activities the upshot of catastrophes like volcano eruptions, earthquakes, wild forest fires, and hazes are also generates toxic gases and plumes with various chemical constituents.

2. Classification of Atmospheric Pollutants

Mainly atmospheric Air Pollutants (APs) include trace gases and particulate matter comprising varying sizes of significant chemical moieties emanating from enough number of sources to affect the human health. The major inorganic and organic gaseous APs are: CO, NOx, SO2, O3, volatile and persistent hydrocarbons like dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls etc 5. CO is initiated by incomplete combustion and through road transportation facilities. The emitted nitrogen oxides react with the atmospheric ozone radicals of ozone forming NO2. The major natural and anthropogenic SO2, a precursor of sulphuric acid accounting the major constituent of acid rain are produced by volcanic eruptions, smelting of certain ores and production through oceans; combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels like coal and heavy fuel oils and gasoline. Ozone formation in the lower atmosphere is due to a series of reactions with NO2 and volatile organic compounds. Volatile and persistent organic compounds such as benzene, dioxins, and furans are evolved through the combustion processes for energy production and incomplete combustion of plastics etc. Particulate matter includes a multitude of pollutants such as metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, nickels, vanadium, chromium manganese etc.,) organic compounds such as dioxin type (polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins-PCDDs and furans-PCDFs, and dioxin like compounds (PCBs), pesticides, biologically derived ones, carbon particles etc 6. These varying size ranging (PM2.5 and PM10 keeping the aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 um and 10 um respectively) complex variety of components are derived by means of natural and human –made activities. They are categorized as: Ultrafine <0.1 μm; Fine particles <1 μm; and coarse particle > 1 μm. 4.These aerosol particles reside in the atmospheric realm from hours to week depending upon their sizes, properties and meteorological conditions and the distribution patterns are highly changing spatio-temporally. The chemical reactivity and water interactions of aerosol particles in the atmospheric environment are controlling the atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and have strong impact on climate variation and human health.

3. The WHO or the EPA Recommended Key Pollutants

The current WHO Air Quality guidelines are under amendment and waiting for the latest publication in the year 2020. These guidelines are prepared on the basis of the expert evaluation acquiring the current scientific evidence for the key pollutants like particulate matter , PM; Ozone, O3; nitrogen dioxide, NO2; sulphur dioxide, SO2 and it could apply universally. According to the sufficient availability of sensitive, reliable tools, all the particle sized particulate matter is measured routinely in terms of micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3). It is reported in terms of daily or annually. The widespread indicator to monitor pollution is Particulate Matter( PM)which affects mostly the society than any other pollutant under the Earth 7, 8. It comprised of both volatile and non volatile components of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. It includes ammonia, organic materials, sulfates, nitrates, black carbon, mineral dust and moisture content comprising complex compounds. These particles penetrate deeply into the lungs and blood stream and develop various cardiovascular and respiratory disease syndromes.

4. Threshold Limits for the Key Pollutants

Certain interim targets are prescribed by the Air Quality Guidelines to maintain a healthy atmosphere and also to avoid the acute and chronic health risk associated with the different sized particle matter such as Fine Particulate (PM2.5) and Coarse Particulate (PM10) matter. Fast developing urban cities with middle income countries are more reflective to encounter the health effects due to PM rather than the under developed region of comparable geographical area 9. The WHO Air Quality guidelines reduced the threshold limits of annual average fine particulate matter (fpm) from 35 μg/m3 to 10 μg/m3 for reducing the death rate due to air pollution. Other than particulate matter, the trace gases like ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentration levels showed higher in the urban areas of low and middle income countries leading to bronchial and other respiratory related inflammations. Ozone, the chief constituent of photochemical smog, derived by the light reaction with nitrogen dioxide emitted from vehicle and industries are having significant health problems. The recommended reduced guideline value is 100μg/m3 in 8 hours mean from the previous value as 120ug/m3. Similarly the NO2 formed by combustion processes are also included as the main sources of aerosols to show various health effects especially in children. The set guideline value is 40 μg/m3. Likewise great care should be taken for the exposure of the toxic gas, SO2 produced from the sources like smelting of mineral ores and also burning of fossil fuels which are chiefly used for domestic heating, motor vehicles and power generation. Volcanic plumes rich in ash and SO2 , are hazardous to aviation, and transformed into persistent sulfate aerosols which could alter the brightness of clouds and precipitation and contribute a certain extent in climate change. The recommended concentration level of SO2 is 20 μg/m3 /24-hour, thereby to control deforestation caused by acid rain and other health consequences like chronic respiratory infections and heart diseases. WHO is the custodian to take action ahead for implementing and mitigation of air pollution by providing sustainable transport facilities, clean household energy solutions and also to develop tools for assessing often the health benefits to reduce mortality rate at each country on a regional basis and finally end up with universal levels. Many countries satisfied with their own ambient Air quality Standards prescribed their own legislators to fulfill the regions demographic pattern of living. The Clean Air Act functions according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards set by environmental Protection agency for selected harmful pollutants causing public health issues. The Clean Air Act identifies two types of standards as primary standards and secondary standards each focusing different category. The primary standards give importance to protect the health of children and adults whereas the secondary standards are prominence to public protection like environment including agricultural fields, animals and transportation feasibility etc. The levels of concentration of the criteria pollutants are expressed by parts per million (ppm) or micrograms per cubic meter of air (μg/m3). In this framework, a National Air Quality Index has been instigated for eight pollutants like Particulate Matter, Nitrogen dioxide, Sulfur dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Ozone, ammonia and Lead to get access in a very adaptable manner to the public 10.

5. Deviations of AQ to Create Health Issues

No threshold limits have been identified in which no health effects are recorded and hence WHO instructed to follow the guidelines to accomplish the minimum concentration limits for particulate matter for implying minimum health effects. Most of the world population were not following the WHO Air Quality guidelines and the environmental health risk caused by Air Pollution 2 is intense, therefore should reduce the levels of Air Pollutants. Each country could maintain the prescribed Air Quality standards which could trim down the burden of stroke, heart diseases, and respiratory diseases leading to cancer. In both urban and rural areas, Air Pollution was caused premature deaths and was estimated nearly 5 million and this mortality was specifically due to the exposure of particulate matter of size 2.5 microns or less in diameter. This ambient Air Pollution is chiefly experienced by the low and middle income people especially residing in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific region. Besides, indoor Air Pollutants aroused by domestic ways of heating such as house-hold cooking, warm up their residents with biomass, kerosene fuels and coal also add the concentration levels of particulate matter in turn reason out for various health problems. In such situations, policies should be planned and adapted by investing judiciously for sustaining cleaner conveying facilities, energy-equipped clean house-hold services, efficient power generating equipment, industries with inbuilt incinerators using combustion technologies, well organized municipal sewage waste management scheme with facility for biogas capture and production etc. All these could control the originates of aerosol particles to the atmosphere and would build up sound heath to the society.

6. Air Quality Index – A signature to maintain a Healthy Environment

The atmospheric air quality directly notifies how to live and breathe to go ahead for a healthy life. Knowingly or unknowingly everybody understands that nearly seconds to days these AQ are changing. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with the local air quality agency in each country have been working readily to impart the data and make the information about outdoor air quality as easy to find and understand how well the AQ maintains for leading a healthy life. In this lacuna, a key tool adopted is the Air Quality Index (AQI). Therefore, EPA and all the other local officials of every country use the AQI to provide information regarding the local air quality, and how the unhealthy air may affect human being in the community along with how well everybody could take care to protect their health.

The daily measured and reported Air Quality Index (AQI) works like a yard stick which explains how clean or polluted the air that we breathe for the existence of our life. The AQI focuses on health effects that familiarize within a few hours or days after breathing the air. The US Environmental Protection Agency, regulated by the Clean Air Act worked out the AQI for five major air pollutants: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbonmonoxide, sulfurdioxide, andnitrogendioxide 11. These air borne particles pose the major threat to the public health of the whole Universe and EPA has established a National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for each of these pollutants to protect public health.

The AQI yardstick runs from 0 to 500, higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution the more intense will be the ill effects on human being. For example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect the society, over 300 represents hazardous air quality. An AQI value of 100 corresponds to the general National Air Quality Standard for the pollutant, which is the level set by EPA, to protect the public health. When it indicates below 100 are generally considered as satisfactory. Whereas above 100, air quality is designated to be unhealthy- for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone, in the later stage, these AQI values will be higher. The following description chart (Table 1) clarifies more clearly the AQI to understand and view the people’s health. 12.

In this description chart each category corresponds to the six levels of health concern and its significance on health risk.

Ÿ AQI representing 0 to 50 indicates “Good”, and the Air quality is considered satisfactory, and this range poses little or no risk by Air Pollution.

Ÿ The ranges between 51 to 100 AQI is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people.

Ÿ AQI ranges 101 to 150 “It is Morbid for Sensitive Groups”. The general public is not likely to be affected at this AQI range, whereas people with lung disease, older adults and children are still at a greater risk from exposure to ozone. Besides, persons with heart and lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from the presence of these particles in the air.

Ÿ AQI is 151 to 200 denotes “unhealthy” in which everyone may begin to experience some adverse health effects, and also experience more serious effects for members of the sensitive groups.

Ÿ "Very Unhealthy" range of AQI is 201 to 300 which would trigger a health alert, signifies everyone may experience more serious health effects.

Ÿ AQI greater than 300 represents “Hazardous”, also trigger health warnings of emergency conditions. This situation is more likely to be affected to the entire population.

For each AQI category, EPA has allocated or designated a specific color to make it easier for the public and thereafter take measures and be alert for the intensity of air pollution creating unhealthy levels in their communities. The color orange and red records “unhealthy for sensitive groups," "unhealthy for everyone,” respectively.

In order to protect people from the particulate pollution, the following plans should be reschedule for carrying out outdoor activities that spend on busy roads, more emphasis should be given free from smoking, avoid from fireplaces and enjoy the place of greeneries with clean air in their residing areas. Take attention to public burning of garbage, less use of fireworks and candles; reduce the consumption of energy from self driven vehicles for transportation for making AQ feasible.

7. The Driving AAP Influencing Forcers

Apart from anthropogenic emissions, certain driving meteorological forces also plays a crucial role by affecting directly or indirectly the transport and deposition of APs, thereby deteriorating the atmospheric AQ 13. These meteorological drivers are mainly Relative Humidity, Temperature, Wind Speed and Directions, Sea Surface Temperature and Pressure etc., which are having dominant roles in the dispersion of spatio-temporal transformation and the removal of APs from one geographic region to another. These meteorological forcers augment to affect the diffusion, dilute and accumulate PM in urban cities 14, 15. In this context, for accounting Air Quality, studies were performed pertaining to identify and characterize the aerial –temporal pattern and their PM composition 16. Previous studies on AQ reveals a conclusive pattern and was observed an aerial and seasonal distribution pattern. The noted results highlights a maximum highest concentration of PM occurred in the winter season, followed by spring and autumn;whereas the coarse particle of PM recorded in the spring season than that of other seasons. Besides, the population density, economy, the meteorological parameters, rainfall intensity, the terrific transportation facilities like ring roads, express highways, national highways, conventional railways, high-speed railways etc., are accountable for considering AQ. Furthermore, the changing climate pattern like the easterly and westerly wind also contribute to lead for the transport of PMs in a particular geographic area of the country and make large variations for the formation of air pollutants which may differ in each season. A Real – time observation was conducted at Beijing and reported that easterly wind directed to elevate PM concentrations followed by southerly wind; however a reverse trend was observed for northerly wind. Comparatively, by the northerly wind, clean air transports with fewer amounts of pollutants from the mountain province to the atmospheric environment 17. A case study in China showed that Shanghai was susceptible to thunderstorms and typhoons which have a humid subtropical climate with cold winter and summer 18, 19. Mostly wind speed was well correlated with pollutant transport along with all seasons except summer, because the horizontal dispersion would modulate the pollutant’s concentration levels at a certain extent. Whereas in summer, the atmospheric boundary layer can grow quite well due to the vertical dispersion 17. In addition, the lower boundary layer with humid atmospheric conditions promote to enhance the primary critical pollutants like PMs, CO, SO2 and NO2. Also, wind speed intensity take away the PM, thereby increases the solar radiation and the high temperature plays to initiate to form O3 specifically in the summer season 20. According to 7, temperature is directly relates to PM by means of causing atmospheric turbulence and chemical reactions. The accumulation of airborne pollutants often positive to the speed of the wind directed from other directions than that of a specific direction. Therefore, understanding the intrinsic mechanisms operating to enhance or decrease the Atmospheric Pollution is paramount to forecast accurate AP under different season with varying meteorological factors accompanying divergent geographic regime conditions. These could formulate the decision and policy makers to execute effective control measures for AP to acquire serious and adequate action plan on public health issues.

8. Qualitative and Quantitative Mapping of AAP

The distribution pattern of emissions from different source origin is based on the conspicuous interrelationship between the meteorological and the AQ assessment components. The refuse measurement should be based on the region in which any major industrial complex is situated on the banks of a coastal region or not. In such conditions, both the interlinked parameters along with the minor sources within the multifaceted region are accounted to interpret the AQ of the specific area under examination. Furthermore, the other contributing factors also taken into consideration like population density, GDP, vehicular freight volume, and the domestic mode of living in which what type of energy consumption are used for various house hold activities. Generally, most of the AQ studies are dealt with urban cities prone to dense population residing centre, customary to exploit motor vehicle, therefore traffic related aerosol emissions are vigilant due to the concurrent epidemics of health impact issues. Initially, the accuracy of the model should be validated to simulate the approach model with the usual network observation. Finally, these simulated results will provide the exact record on the emission trend of the industrial emanates particularly trace gases like SO2 and PM plumes with the complex mixture of both inorganic and organic toxic substances causing various diseases to the public. The volcanic plumes also contain ash and SO2 which could hinder the aircraft trajectories or pathways. Sulphate aerosols are derived through the transformation of SO2 and hamper the brightness of clouds and also initiates to the precipitate formation thereby in turn affect rain. SO2 is having greater specificity to its emission pathways and thereby choosing it as a target pollutant 21. It could also pursue the track of industry based pollution zone and beyond the trajectory, to provide sharp records of difference on the emissions and background concentrations than any other chemical species under consideration. Hence, the combination of network AQ acquiring data with model simulations is an effective approach to evaluate the impact of prominent industrial /other emission sources for validating airborne pollutants. Multiple prominent sources like wind driven from a far places also countable rather to perceive as a single specific source for a particular region. The quantitative and qualitative estimations also observe how these emission pathways affects the other nearby semi-urban or rural area where the wind directions and their speed are extremely oriented to season. Consequently, AQ assessment should be systematically carried out casing spatio-temporarily where the blueprint of wind driven flow is one of the first hand characteristic factor especially in the coastal regime where enough number of industrial units were situated and are being built all over the globe 21.

9. Interpretation of Air Quality Potentials

The scientific community have recognized the reality of climate change and noted an unprecedented warming with elevated heat index over all domains in the second half of the 20th century onwards and still it is continuing in the range of 1.4 to 5.8°C by the year 2100 in comparison to 1990 22. Significant observational evidence in the physical and biological changes has been witnessed in majority of the countries due to the contribution of climate variations. The effects of aerosol on climate were either direct (scattering and absorption of radiation) or indirect (formation of cloud condensation nuclei, precipitation effects, chemical and biological doings) activities 4. These could result in the shrinkage of glaciers, erratic rainfall, changes in the frequency and degree for extreme events like flood, earthquake, Tsunami etc., alterations in the wet or dry conditions which will change the pattern of agriculture, shifts in the growing season, early flowering of trees and emergence of insects, and also sea level rise between 0.09 and 0.88 meters by 2100 relative to 1990 and degradation of marine ecosystems 22. The alteration in sea surface temperature would alter the marine productivity. Loss of harvest will increase unemployment in agricultural fields and lead to the incidence of poverty and thereby increase the number of refugees to throw away into different regions. The climate change impacts vary at different geographical regions. Both positive and negative impacts were recorded like water scarce regions benefitted with unexpected rainfall, and suffered with unanticipated flood events. In tropical and subtropical least developed countries would experience the vulnerability in the highest rate having fewest resources and finally bear the extreme climate change. These alterations end with decrease in life expectancy and concurrent effect on investment and socio-economic problems 23 throughout the world. The impacts of climate change chiefly depend on the degree of mitigation efforts carried out by each Nation with their regional capacities. If stringent mitigation is undertaken such as control over the emissions of GHGs, then the scale of adaptation efforts will be less and thereby reduces the damages of climate change 24.

10. Health Effects –Acute, Chronic and Non Clinical

Particulate Matter, a proxy indicator for air pollution induces adverse health effects leading to premature deaths, skin allergies, pulmonary inflammation, cardiovascular and various types of respiratory diseases. The cause of these adverse health effects may be due to the generation of free radical oxidative stress by the trace metals or organic compounds, covalent modification of key intracellular proteins or the suppression of normal defense mechanisms. The toxic effects of heavy metals attributes to enhance the formation of divalent or polyvalent cation (Ca, Zn and Mg) thereby acting as charge carriers, intermediates in catalytic reactions, inhibit enough number of enzymes, also the metals could bind to DNA, affecting the expression of genes 25. For the past several decades, incidents were reported globally especially in prominent urban cities. Airborne allergens accounted drastically and elevated the episode of allergy causing illness. Exclusive usage of traffic-related motor vehicle emission is the ground to enhance the levels of fine particulate matter including trace gases like nitrogen dioxides to cause poor Air quality (AQ). The aerosol particles penetrate deep into the lungs and enter into the blood stream. In the later stage, chronic effects such as cardiovascular disorder and other respiratory syndrome would put in along with the probable risk of lung cancer. In certain cases like the low and the middle income countries, household open fire combustion or the use of traditional use of stoves for cooking, heating and lighting elevate the PM concentration levels; thereafter increase the risk for various acute respiratory infections, heart diseases along with the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. These health risks are not only from PM exposure, but also from other key gaseous pollutants-ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. These gaseous aerosols are a major factor in asthma morbidity and mortality, trigger the breathing problems, bronchial symptoms, lung inflammation and subsequently lessen the functioning of lung. Studies on epidemiology observed that bronchitis symptoms enhances in the case of asthmatic children in association with long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Whereas people with asthma increases the pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms after a periods of exposure to sulphur dioxide or within a few minutes. Other than the respiratory syndromes, sulphur dioxide causes irritation of the eyes, inflammation of the respiratory tract causing coughing and elevates chronic bronchitis.

For the control over these allergens, a progressive improvement in the AQ should be maintained by keeping the emission limits of airborne particulate matter including the gaseous aerosols. These could only be possible with the thorough understanding of the source origin of complex chemical components, their interrelationship with the meteorological influencing factors such as temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and other critical forcers like population density, the various type of vehicular usages, house-hold utility fuels used for various domestic purposes. New technological particle filter devices are encouraged and should be introduced in all sorts of exhausts filters both in the industrial emission pathways and also traffic motor vehicles. Such facilities would suppress the emission of volatile or non-volatile dangerous chemical particles into the atmosphere. Besides, advancement in the catalytic convertor system are also introduced and initiated extensively as a part of effective mitigation measures. Furthermore chemical transport models, satellite and ground monitoring technologies also well advanced to assess significantly the fine particulate matter which is one of the key markers designated for affecting human health 26, 27.

11. How to Tackle the AAP Menace

Ambient Atmospheric Pollutants (AAP), comprises complex chemical constituents with varying sizes and play a significant role in the Air Quality Assessment leading to know the concurrent health issues. These air borne particles are derived from both nonpoint and point sources of emission which are finding their way into the atmospheric realm with spatio-temporal coverage. Their sites of origin are scattered on different geographical region and are influenced by changing meteorological parameters for deviating the Air Quality tremendously. Remediation of a deteriorated environmental sphere is a major concern to the public and numerous technological approaches are in progress all over the world. Knowledge on the magnitude of pollutant composition is paramount to settle the problem of countless health impacts and thereby the authorities should be active in the remediation approach. Remediation is a broad subject dealing with the combined process of biological, chemical or physical methods introduced to reduce the pollutant concentration or to keep the Air Quality Index within the prescribed threshold limits. It can be possible either as a controlled processes or uncontrolled processes. These two processes are dependent upon the critical pollutants under consideration and also the supporting factors like Relative Humidity, wind speed, seasons, population density, vehicular freight volume etc. For remediation, there exist different choices for selection and examination, fixing the effective costs, public acceptance, and environmentally friendly approach and to know whether it is feasible to protect public health is the regulatory guidelines are technically acceptable for the community. Specific information on the climate / weather conditions at the site under inspection are important to develop a suitable remediation process, simultaneously recording the controlling factors like rain fall, temperature etc. , are proposed to develop appropriate strategic action plan. The following control measures are adopted to minimize Atmospheric Pollution, a number of benefits are envisaged by adhering different conventional ways of approaches. They are briefly discussed as: Zero emission type of Electric Vehicles (EVs) over conventional petrol/diesel cars which could reduce the running costs to 1/3 of utilizing petrol and thereby saved the maintenance cost along with fuel consumption cost along with the emissions of Atmospheric Pollutants. Apart from these a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) are simple and strong and has less number of accessories like moving parts including like exhaust system, starter motors, fuel injection systems, radiators., etc. The only requirements are brakes, tyres and suspension and only think about the replacement of batteries within the time period of nearly 8 years. Also Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has come to practice in the roadway with petrol engines and requires serving often but needed little maintenance due to the lesser moving parts. In some of the foreign countries encourages EV owners by reducing the registration fees each year. Furthermore, the consumption of renewable energy or green power can be utilized for recharging the E V batteries, and thereby reduce the emission of GHGs gas to certain extent and also less dependent of other foreign countries for fuel oil. EVs are having lower risk of explosions and improve safety. For example, the famous International EV Manufacturing companies like Ford, Nissan are turned towards to the more eco-friendly production of green materials. This will reduce harmful exhaust emissions into the atmosphere and make clean air to breath and better health. EV is the way forward with the motto of “no fuel, no emissions” mounting the shrinkage of carbon foot print through the use of renewal energy from Green energy source and save various ways of vehicle tariff by means of less maintenance costs during their lifetimes. EV owns a superior performance and popularity with high positive in character than that of traditional engines.

Solar Power energy is technologically advanced in terms of less maintenance and offer high warranty utilizing system with their effectiveness of less tear and wear having renewable source of energy. It is available and accessible throughout the day in all over the world with the minimum of five billion years. This could drop out the energy bills and arises to receive income for the export of the surplus energy received through solar grid panel systems. It is having diverse electricity or heat supply system where no accessibility of energy grid system. While keeping the solar energy system clean, it is devoid of less maintenance and the solar panel offer enough number of years as warranty without wear and tear. For the technological developments in the field of physics and nanotechnology have increased far effectively the input of solar power systems.

12. Walkway

For improving the safety of pedestrians, generally walkways can be either created by providing stabilized or separated and widened from the roadway using paved surfaces or shoulders. These would help to prevent traffic crashes and pedestrians death rate including easy mobility, their safety and increase their healthy comfortable recreational facilities.

13. Waterway

Water transport is another way of flexible safety services to carry heavy and bulky goods like coal and other beneficial materials. Requires less construction and operational maintenance cost and is a very constructive approach for the relief operations during the time of calamities like flood and rains when either the rail or road ways are disrupted.

Greeneries, such as trees could contribute large enough to increase food and nutrition security for initiating increase urban biodiversity by means of planting and animals. These greeneries which could absorb carbon dioxide and act in the role of climate mitigation changes to make the cities a healthier place for live by reducing heat island effect. Trees are superb filters for capturing pollutants like nitrogen dioxides, sulphurdioxides ,carbon monoxides along with fine particulates consisting of dust, dirt or smoke by trapping them on leaves and bark. Urban green spaces could increase the property value, recover both physical and mental health by providing enough oxygen. Trees could help to prevent soil erosion and also water pollution. Trees, the food provider would protect the UV-B exposure on children especially in schools and playgrounds and could control the possibility of causing skin cancer much better. Trees could mark the specific seasons and also endow with economic small business opportunities like green waste management and landscaping etc. Greeneries would make group gathering and a habitat for wildlife and create a soothing canopy for different species like birds, bees, squirrels etc.

Share taxi also could pave the way for bettering the life style by reducing the intensity of vehicle usage such as airport transfers, saving waiting time, creating a new friendship line.

Phoenix Robotix is an environment monitoring device, a cloud- connected network of online air pollution monitoring systems for smart cities. Through this Odisha-based IoT startup could access high-resolution pollution data from different locations and store it. Through these web platform, the recorded data such as certain air pollution parameters, like trace gases like nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, etc, weather parameters like temperature, humidity, rainfall, pressure, wind speed and wind direction can be accessed through mobile application. The device is very suitable in agriculture field, educational institutions and research institutions to have awareness of Air quality. Besides, the evergreen innovations based on purifying with filters or nanofibres like Shellios, Chakr, Nasofilters etc., would help forcombating air pollution while breathing. The Air Quality Data System developed by certain startup companies gives the real-time data on air quality.

14. Conclusion

The current research should aim to characterize kinetically the new aerosol particle formation such as black or elemental carbon, their aging and deposition, activation of cloud condensation nuclei etc. Besides, for the control over the adverse aerosol health effects, knowledge on both atmospheric and biomedical chemistry should be advocated to have a thorough knowledge on these potentially hazardous substances. To achieve these concepts, wishes an active civil society with open mind, accountable policy with decision practicing leaders for implementing and functionalizing certain laws and regulations. Make uniform National strategies for a sustainable development such as poverty reduction by noting the vulnerability assessment, empowerment of communities, integration of impacts into macro economic projections etc.

Disclosure Statement

No Potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

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[19]  Xu, W., Zhao, C., Ran, L., Deng, Z., Liu, P., Ma, N., Lin, W., Xu, X., Yan, P., He,X., Yu. J., Liang, W., Chen, L. 2011a. Characteristics of pollutants and their correlation to meteorological conditions at a suburban site in the North China plain. Atmospheric Chemical Physics. 11.4353-4369.
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[27]  Eleftheria Chalvatzaki, Sofia Eirinichatoutsidou, HeliLehtomaki, Susana Marta almeida, KonstantinosEleftheriadis, Otto Hanninen and MihalisLazaridis. 2019. Characterization of Human Health risks from Particulate Air Pollution in selected European cities. Atmosphere, 1096.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Jacob Joshua and Sujatha C.H

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Jacob Joshua, Sujatha C.H. Impacts of Ambient Atmospheric Pollution and Their Challenges to Survival. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp 216-223. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/7/6/2
MLA Style
Joshua, Jacob, and Sujatha C.H. "Impacts of Ambient Atmospheric Pollution and Their Challenges to Survival." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 7.6 (2019): 216-223.
APA Style
Joshua, J. , & C.H, S. (2019). Impacts of Ambient Atmospheric Pollution and Their Challenges to Survival. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 7(6), 216-223.
Chicago Style
Joshua, Jacob, and Sujatha C.H. "Impacts of Ambient Atmospheric Pollution and Their Challenges to Survival." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 7, no. 6 (2019): 216-223.
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  • Table 1. AQI values for describe levels of health concern (Note: Values above 500 are considered Beyond the AQI) [12]
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[11]  (http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria2016.html).
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[12]  (http:/ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards2018.html).
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[13]  Fast, D.J., Foy De, B., Acevedo Rosas, F., Caetano, E., carmichel, G., Emmons, L., Mckenna, D., Mena, M., Skamarock, W., Tie, X., Cou¸ R.L., Barnard, J.C., Wiedinmyer, C., Madronich, S., 2007. A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns. Atmospheric Chemical Physics. 7 (9), 2233-2257.
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[15]  Fortelli, A., Scafetta, N., Mazzarella, A., 2016. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy). Atmospheric environment. 143, 218-228.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Xiaoyang Li, Hongquan Song, Shiyan Zhai, Siqi Lu, Yunfeng Kong. 2019. Particulate matter pollution in Chinese cities: Areal-temporal, variations and their relationships with meteorological conditions. Environmental pollution 246, 11-18.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Hongliang Zhang, Yungang Wang, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Xiao-Ming Hu. 2015. Relationships between meteorological parameters and criteria air pollutants in three megacities in China. Environmental Research 140, 242-254.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Bai, L., Ding, G., Gu, S., Bi, P., Su, B., Qin, D., Xu, G., Liu, Q., 2014. The effects of summer temperature and heat waves on heat-related illness in a coastal city of China, 2011-2013. Environmental Research. 132, 212-219.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  Xu, W., Zhao, C., Ran, L., Deng, Z., Liu, P., Ma, N., Lin, W., Xu, X., Yan, P., He,X., Yu. J., Liang, W., Chen, L. 2011a. Characteristics of pollutants and their correlation to meteorological conditions at a suburban site in the North China plain. Atmospheric Chemical Physics. 11.4353-4369.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Sandeep, A., Rao, T.N., Ramkiran, C.N., Rao, S.V.B. 2014. Differences in atmospheric boundary-layer characteristics between wet and dry episodes of the Indian summer monsson. Bound-Lay. Meteorol. 153 (2), 217-236.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Sheng-Po-Chen, Chieh-Heng Wang, Wen-Dian Lin, Yu-Huei Tong, Yu-Chun Chen, Ching-jui Chiu, Hung- Chi Chiang, Chen-Lun Fan, Jia-Lin Wang, Julius S,. Chang. 2018. Air Quality impacted by local pollution sources and beyond--Using a prominent petro-industrial complex as a study case. Environmental Pollution 236, 699-705.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  PCC, 2001a. Climate Change 2001: The Scientifi c Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp.
In article      
 
[23]  IPCC, 2001b: Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 398 pp.
In article      
 
[24]  IPCC, 1999. Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere [Penner, J.E., et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 373 pp.
In article      
 
[25]  Costa, M., Yan, Y., Zhao, D., Salnikow, K., 2003. Molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis:gene silencing by nickel delivery to the nucleus and gene activation/inactivation by nickel-induced cell signaling. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 5, 222.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Jill Engel-Cox, Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall, V.Martin, Erica Zell. 2013. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter, Atmospheric Environment, 80, 584-590.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Eleftheria Chalvatzaki, Sofia Eirinichatoutsidou, HeliLehtomaki, Susana Marta almeida, KonstantinosEleftheriadis, Otto Hanninen and MihalisLazaridis. 2019. Characterization of Human Health risks from Particulate Air Pollution in selected European cities. Atmosphere, 1096.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Sources from Press release from Deccan Chronicle, dated 23rd February 2019)
In article      
 
[29]  Press release from Times of India dated May 13, 2019.
In article