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Diversity of Anurans in Temporary Breeding Grounds at Dharwad, Karnataka, India

Manjunath B. Hosamani, Girish G. Kadadevaru
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2022, 10(2), 44-48. DOI: 10.12691/aees-10-2-2
Received January 01, 2022; Revised January 29, 2022; Accepted February 07, 2022

Abstract

To record anuran diversity, a study was conducted at eight temporary breeding sites in and around Dharwad (15°26’N 74°58’E), Karnataka, India. For sampling, anuran population, we have used acoustics and visual encounter method. A total of 12 species belonging to four families and eight genera were recorded. The diversity, abundance and relative abundance was highest at site B5 and it was lowest at site B2. Mirohyla ornata was the most abundant species found in all the eight study sites. Hopalobatrachus crassus was the least abundant species. In the pair-wise comparison, beta diversity was highest between the sites B5 and B8 and it was least between the sites B2 and B8. The Jaccard's similarity index was highest between sites B1 and B3, and the minimum similarity was observed at site B8. The study provides a baseline data on anuran assemblage that can be used for evaluating the amphibian status and taking conservation measures to protect the habitat and the species.

1. Introduction

In amphibians, breeding grounds are of great importance for reproductive success, and they play a pivotal role in the conservation of species 1, 2. The biotic community of the temporary water pockets is comparatively different from that of the permanent aquatic bodies 3. The temporary water pools support several groups of animals, but only a few become specialized and develop strong adaptive capabilities to survive in these kinds of environments. The fast colonization rate, short time, and rapid reproduction of these species distinguish them from other species 4. As temporary water pools are subjected to dryness for most of the year, predators and parasites are less in these, and thus the temporary pools are preferred more for breeding by the anurans. Most amphibians are sensitive to environmental variations and are susceptible to habitat degradation 5, 6, 7. Compared to other vertebrates, amphibians are smaller in size with a higher relative abundance that allows them to quantify from a localized area using field techniques 8. The declines in the amphibian population have been reported from different parts of the world 9, 10, 11, 12. The single most important cause for the decline is habitat degradation largely due to human activity such as urbanization and land conversion for agricultural use 13. In India, the reports on the amphibian community in temporary breeding grounds are limited 14. The present work is undertaken to study the diversity of anurans in temporary breeding grounds at different sites of Dharwad and nearby places. The study generates a baseline data on anuran assemblage that can be used for taking conservation measures.

2. Materials and Methods

A total of 08 breeding grounds were identified at Dharwad and nearby places (15º26’ N 74º58’ E). The survey of anurans on temporary water bodies was carried out between 2016 and 2018 during rainy months. Field observations were made after heavy rains. Breeding grounds were identified based on calling and breeding activity. Each breeding ground consisted of two to eight smaller puddles and pools, nearly 42 puddles were encountered. The puddles size ranged from 2mtrs to 8mtrs (Table 1). The survey work was conducted in all the sites by following standard methods for measuring and monitoring amphibian diversity 6. At each breeding ground 2-3hrs was dedicated to count the anurans. Both the calling and silent individuals were counted using single man power to avoid overlapping. Weekly 2-3 visits were given during rainy month gradually it was reduced to one visit per week during scanty rains. Anurans were identified based on the call characters and morphological features using available taxonomic keys 15. All the calculations were performed using PAST 4.06b software. 16.

3. Results

During 17 months survey, a total of 1498 individuals were encountered at 8 temporary breeding grounds. 12 species belonging to 4 families and eight genera were recorded. Family Dicroglossidae and Microhylidae represented with five and four species each respectively, family Bufonidae with two species and one representative from family Rachophoridae (Table 2).

Species, Abundance, and Relative abundance: Highest species were observed at the breeding site B5 where 11 species were recorded followed by site B6 with nine species and least number of four species was recorded at site B8. Abundance and relative abundance was highest at breeding site B5 with 307 individuals and the relative abundance was 20.425% which is followed by B2 with 272 individuals and relative abundance of 18.097%. The breeding site B7 showed least abundance of 101 individuals with a relative abundance of 6.719% (Table 2).

Diversity indices: The breeding site B2 showed a highest Dominance of D=0.3288, followed by B7 with D=0.3455 and the least dominance of D=0.135 was recorded at site B5. Simpson (1-D) was highest at site B5 with 0.865 followed by B1 with 0.7054 and least was recorded at the B2with 0.6259. Shannon diversity index was highest at site B5 with H'=2.176 followed by site B6 where it was H'=1.608 and the least value was observed in site B2 with H'=1.17 (Table 3).

  • Table 4. Beta diversity between temporary breeding grounds sampled during study period. (The highest beta diversity values are represented in bold)

The pair-wise comparison of beta diversity of the breeding grounds was highest between site B5 and B8 where the value is 1, which mean high diversity. It is followed by sites B4 and B6 with 0.77, and the least diversity of 0.20 was observed between sites B2 and B8 (Table 4). The Jaccard's similarity index was highest between sites B1 and B3 followed by sites B5 and B6 and the site B8 showed the least similarity (Figure 1).

4. Discussion

At temporary pools, anuran acts as health indicators as their population fluctuates with the hydro-period of the pools. They help to maintain the ecosystem by balancing energy transfer from lower trophic levels to the upper. It also helps in structuring the biotic composition and assemblage of the entire system 14, 17. The pond hydroperiod also acts as a primary factor in determining species richness. It strongly affects the community, and many researchers have suggested that hydroperiod positively correlates with species richness 18, 19, 20, 21. Some research also suggests that a long hydroperiod negatively impacts the occurrence of amphibian species like Epidalea calamita that rely on ephemeral, temporary wetlands characterized by low rates of predation and competition. 22, 23. In our study, breeding grounds B5 and B6 are situated near a larger water body. The site B5 which showed highest number of species, abundance, relative abundance, Shannon diversity and evenness compared to B6.

Small ponds have a high probability of pond drying, and large ponds have a high chance of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators. Drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size 24. Evenness of the site is decided by the homogeneity of species abundance in a community, a high value of the evenness can be found in samples with high or low species abundance. The low carrying capacity of habitat may limit both the number of species that occupy an environment and species abundance 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32.

The Beta diversity when compared among the breeding grounds, the site B5 and B8 showed the highest diversity. High species richness is due to high habitat heterogeneity. In the present study at the site B5, highest numbers of puddles were found and it had diverse habitat features compared with other sites that supported highest number of anuran species. Similar observations were reported from Brazil 25, 28, 33, 34, 35. In nature, species occur where ecological requirements are easily met 36. Several factors determine the distribution of species at a particular place. The narrow-mouthed frog M. ornata and cricket frog M. agricola prefer shallow pools. These frogs were observed in large number in all the study sites. Similar observation was reported in the cricket frogs of the genus Phrynobatrachus 37. Larger frogs require deep and large water pockets. In the present study, the large sized frog H. tigerinus was reported from site B5 and B6 and other large sized frog H.crassus was restricted to B8. The tree frog Polypedatus maculatus was found in all sites except site B4 and B7 where the habitat lacks bushy vegetation. In the present study, among the nine species, M. ornata was the dominating species found in all the eight sites with an abundance of 526 individuals and relative abundance of 34.99%. M. agricola was the second in position with 524 individuals and 34.97% of relative abundance. H. crassus was the least abundant species restricted to only one breeding site (Figure 2).

  • Figure 2. Percentage occurrence of Species at different temporary breeding grounds [Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (H_tig), Hoplobatrachus crassus (H_cra), Spaerotheca pashchima (S_pas), Euphylictics cyanophlyctis (E_cyn), Minervarya agricola (Mi_agr), Microhyla ornata (M_orn),Microhyla rubra(M_rub),Uperodon variegata (U_var),Uperodon taprobanica (U_tap), Polypedates maculatus (P_mac), Duttaphrynus melanostictus (D_mel),Duttaphrynus scaber (D_sca)]

5. Conclusion

The study of anuran diversity at temporary breeding sites of Dharwad revealed that the abundance and diversity is different in all eight sites. The species richness, diversity, and abundance were highest at site B5. Though site B2 had good vegetation cover the species richness, abundance, and diversity was least. M. ornata was the dominating species represented with highest number of individuals that are recorded in all the eight study sites. The study provides a baseline data on anuran assemblage that can be used for evaluating the amphibian status and taking conservation measures to protect the habitat and the species.

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by UGC, SAP-II grants. Manjunath Hosamani thanks Karnatak University, Dharwad for awarding University Research Studentship (URS). MH also thanks to all his research colleagues who helped in preparing the manuscripts.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The author(s) declared no conflict of interest with respect to authorship and publication of this article.

References

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In article      View Article
 
[2]  Beebee. T.I.C. Habitat selection by amphibians across an agricultural Land-Heathland transect in Britain. Biol.Conser. 27, 111-124. 1983.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Zacharias, I., Dimitriou, E., Dekker A. & Dorsman, E. Overview of temporary ponds in the Mediterranean region: Threats, management and conservation issues. J. Envi Biol, 28(1): 1-9. 2007.
In article      
 
[4]  Jakob, C., Poizat, G., Veith, M., Seitz A., & Crivelli, A. J. Breeding phenology and larval distribution of amphibians in a Mediterranean pond network with unpredictable hydrology. Hydrobiologia, 499: 51-61. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Blaustein, A. R.,Wake, D. B. & Sousa, W. P. Amphibian declines: Judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions. Conservation Biology 8: 60-71. 1994
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[6]  Pearman, P. B. Correlates of amphibian diversity in an altered landscape of Amazonian Ecuador. Conservation Biology. 11: 1211-1225. 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Young, B. E., Lips, K. R., Reaser, J. K., Ibañez, R., .Salas, A. W., Cedeno, J. R., Coloma, L. A., Ron, S., La Marca, E., Meyer, J. R., Muñoz, A., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., & Romo, D. Population declines and priorities for amphibian conservation in Latin America. Conservation Biology. 15: 1213-1223. 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Heyer, W. R., Donnelly M. A., Mc Diarmid R.W., Hayek L-AC., Foster M.S. Measuring and Monitoring biological diversity Standard methods for amphibians. Biological diversity handbook series. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1994.
In article      
 
[9]  Bury, R. B., Campbell, H. W., & Scott, N. J. Role and importance of nongame wildlife. In: Proceedings of the N. Am.Wildlife Nat. Resour. Conference. (Eds N. Scott andW.W. Campbell). Portland Oregon, USA. 197-207. 1980.
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[12]  Olson, H. D. & Leornard, P. W. Amphibian inventory and monitoring: A standardized approach for the PNW. In: SamplingAmphibians in Lentic Habitats. (Eds H.D. Olson, P.W. Leonard & B.R. Bury). Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Olympia, Washington. 1997.
In article      
 
[13]  Vial, J. L. & Saylor, T. The Status of Amphibian Populations. A Compilation and Analysis. IUCN/SSC, Declining Amphibian Population Task Force, Working Document 1. 35. Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. 1993.
In article      
 
[14]  Paromit Chatterjee & Krishnendu Mondal. Diversity of Anurans and their Habitat Preference in Temporary Water Pools of a Rock Mining Area at Steel City Durgapur, East India. Advances in Biological Research 10 (6): 374-381. 2016.
In article      
 
[15]  Dinesh, K. P., Radhakrishnan, C., Channakeshavamurthy, B. H., Deepak, P. and Kulkarni, N. U., A Checklist of Amphibians of India with IUCN Conservation Status.Version 3.0. updated till April 2020. available at http://zsi.gov.in (online only). 2020.
In article      
 
[16]  Hammer, Ø., D. A. T. Harper & P. D. Ryan. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 9pp. 2001.
In article      
 
[17]  Snodgrass, J. W., Komoroski, M. J., Bryan Jr A. L. & Burger, J. Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydro period and amphibian species richness: implications for wetland regulations. Conservation Biology, 14: 414-419. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Pechmann, J. H .K, Scott, D. E. Gibbons, J. W. & Semlitsch R. D. Influence of wetland hydroperiod on diversity and abundance of metamorphosing juvenile amphibians. Wetlands Ecol and Manag 1: 3-11. 1989.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Snodgrass, J. W., Komoroski, M. J. Bryan, Jr. A. L. & Burger. J. Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydroperiod, and amphibian species richness: Implications for wetland regulations. Conservation Biology 14: 414-419. 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Babbitt, K. J., Baber, M. J. & Tarr, T. L. Patterns of larval amphibian distribution along a wetland hydroperiod gradient. Canadian Journal Zoology. 81: 1539-1552. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Andre P. Couto, Eduardo Ferreira, Rita T. Torres, &Carlos Fonseca. Local and Landscape Drivers of Pond-Breeding Amphibian Diversity at the Northern Edge ofthe Mediterranean. Herpetologica, 73(1). 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Tejedo, M., & Reques, R. Effects of egg size and density on metamorphic traits in tadpoles of the Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita). J of Herp. 26: 146-152. 1992.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Pleguezuelos, J. M., Ma´rquez, R. & Lizana M. (eds.). Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de Espana. Direcci ˜ on General de ´ Conservacion de la Naturaleza, Spain. 2002.
In article      
 
[24]  Semlitsch R. D, Peterman W. E, Anderson T. L, Drake D. L, Ousterhout B. H. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians. PLoS ONE 10(4) 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Cardoso, A. J. Andrade G. V. & Haddad, C. F. B. Distribuição espacial em comunidade de anfíbios (Anura) no sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 49 (1): 241-249. 1989.
In article      
 
[26]  Gascon, C. Population and community – level analyses of species occurrences of central Amazonian rain forest tadpoles. Ecology 72 (5): 1731-1746. 1991.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Huston, M. A. Biological Diversity, The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, 681p. 1994.
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[28]  Pombal Jr, J. P. Distribuição espacial e temporal de anuros (Amphibia) em uma poça permanente na Serra de Paranapiacaba, sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 57 (4): 583-594. 1997.
In article      
 
[29]  Brandão, R. A. & Araújo. A. F. B. A herpetofauna da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, p. 9-21. In: J. Marinho-Filho. Rodrigues F.M. & Guimarães M.M. (Eds). Vertebrados da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas. História Natural e Ecologia em um Fragmento de Cerrado do Brasil Central. Brasília, Ibama. 1998.
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[32]  Vasconcelos, T. S. Santos T. G. Rossa-Feres D. C. & Haddad C. F. B. Influence of the environmental heterogeneity of breeding ponds on anuran assemblages from southeastern Brazil. Canadian Journal Zoology. 87: 699-707. 2009.
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[33]  Arzabe, C., Carvalho C. X. & Costa. M. A. G. Anuran Assemblages in Crasto Forest Ponds (Sergipe State, Brazil): Comparative Structure and Calling Activity Patterns. Herpetological Journal. 8: 111-113. 1998.
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[34]  Arzabe, C. Reproductive activity patterns of anurans in two different altitudinal sites within the Brazilian Caatinga. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 16 (3):851-864. 1999.
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[35]  Bernarde, P. S. & Kokubum, M. N. C. Anurofauna do Município de Guararapes, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Amphibia, Anura). Acta Biológica Leopoldensia 21 (1): 89-97. 1999.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Manjunath B. Hosamani and Girish G. Kadadevaru

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Manjunath B. Hosamani, Girish G. Kadadevaru. Diversity of Anurans in Temporary Breeding Grounds at Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 10, No. 2, 2022, pp 44-48. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/10/2/2
MLA Style
Hosamani, Manjunath B., and Girish G. Kadadevaru. "Diversity of Anurans in Temporary Breeding Grounds at Dharwad, Karnataka, India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 10.2 (2022): 44-48.
APA Style
Hosamani, M. B. , & Kadadevaru, G. G. (2022). Diversity of Anurans in Temporary Breeding Grounds at Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 10(2), 44-48.
Chicago Style
Hosamani, Manjunath B., and Girish G. Kadadevaru. "Diversity of Anurans in Temporary Breeding Grounds at Dharwad, Karnataka, India." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 10, no. 2 (2022): 44-48.
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  • Figure 2. Percentage occurrence of Species at different temporary breeding grounds [Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (H_tig), Hoplobatrachus crassus (H_cra), Spaerotheca pashchima (S_pas), Euphylictics cyanophlyctis (E_cyn), Minervarya agricola (Mi_agr), Microhyla ornata (M_orn),Microhyla rubra(M_rub),Uperodon variegata (U_var),Uperodon taprobanica (U_tap), Polypedates maculatus (P_mac), Duttaphrynus melanostictus (D_mel),Duttaphrynus scaber (D_sca)]
  • Table 3. Diversity indices of anuran species at different Temporary breeding grounds during study period
  • Table 4. Beta diversity between temporary breeding grounds sampled during study period. (The highest beta diversity values are represented in bold)
[1]  Cooke, A. S. & Ferguson, P. F. Changes in status of the frog (Rana temporaria) and the toad (Bufo bufo) on part of the East Anglian Fenland in Britain. Biol.Conserv. 9, 191-198. 1976.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Beebee. T.I.C. Habitat selection by amphibians across an agricultural Land-Heathland transect in Britain. Biol.Conser. 27, 111-124. 1983.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Zacharias, I., Dimitriou, E., Dekker A. & Dorsman, E. Overview of temporary ponds in the Mediterranean region: Threats, management and conservation issues. J. Envi Biol, 28(1): 1-9. 2007.
In article      
 
[4]  Jakob, C., Poizat, G., Veith, M., Seitz A., & Crivelli, A. J. Breeding phenology and larval distribution of amphibians in a Mediterranean pond network with unpredictable hydrology. Hydrobiologia, 499: 51-61. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Blaustein, A. R.,Wake, D. B. & Sousa, W. P. Amphibian declines: Judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions. Conservation Biology 8: 60-71. 1994
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Pearman, P. B. Correlates of amphibian diversity in an altered landscape of Amazonian Ecuador. Conservation Biology. 11: 1211-1225. 1997.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Young, B. E., Lips, K. R., Reaser, J. K., Ibañez, R., .Salas, A. W., Cedeno, J. R., Coloma, L. A., Ron, S., La Marca, E., Meyer, J. R., Muñoz, A., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., & Romo, D. Population declines and priorities for amphibian conservation in Latin America. Conservation Biology. 15: 1213-1223. 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Heyer, W. R., Donnelly M. A., Mc Diarmid R.W., Hayek L-AC., Foster M.S. Measuring and Monitoring biological diversity Standard methods for amphibians. Biological diversity handbook series. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1994.
In article      
 
[9]  Bury, R. B., Campbell, H. W., & Scott, N. J. Role and importance of nongame wildlife. In: Proceedings of the N. Am.Wildlife Nat. Resour. Conference. (Eds N. Scott andW.W. Campbell). Portland Oregon, USA. 197-207. 1980.
In article      
 
[10]  Blaustein, A. R. & Wake, D. B. Declining Amphibian Populations: Global Phenomena? Trends Ecol. Evol. 5, 203-204. 1990.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Vial, J. L. Declining Amphibian Population Task Force. Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission. IUCN no. 16, June 1991. Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. 1991.
In article      
 
[12]  Olson, H. D. & Leornard, P. W. Amphibian inventory and monitoring: A standardized approach for the PNW. In: SamplingAmphibians in Lentic Habitats. (Eds H.D. Olson, P.W. Leonard & B.R. Bury). Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Olympia, Washington. 1997.
In article      
 
[13]  Vial, J. L. & Saylor, T. The Status of Amphibian Populations. A Compilation and Analysis. IUCN/SSC, Declining Amphibian Population Task Force, Working Document 1. 35. Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. 1993.
In article      
 
[14]  Paromit Chatterjee & Krishnendu Mondal. Diversity of Anurans and their Habitat Preference in Temporary Water Pools of a Rock Mining Area at Steel City Durgapur, East India. Advances in Biological Research 10 (6): 374-381. 2016.
In article      
 
[15]  Dinesh, K. P., Radhakrishnan, C., Channakeshavamurthy, B. H., Deepak, P. and Kulkarni, N. U., A Checklist of Amphibians of India with IUCN Conservation Status.Version 3.0. updated till April 2020. available at http://zsi.gov.in (online only). 2020.
In article      
 
[16]  Hammer, Ø., D. A. T. Harper & P. D. Ryan. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 9pp. 2001.
In article      
 
[17]  Snodgrass, J. W., Komoroski, M. J., Bryan Jr A. L. & Burger, J. Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydro period and amphibian species richness: implications for wetland regulations. Conservation Biology, 14: 414-419. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Pechmann, J. H .K, Scott, D. E. Gibbons, J. W. & Semlitsch R. D. Influence of wetland hydroperiod on diversity and abundance of metamorphosing juvenile amphibians. Wetlands Ecol and Manag 1: 3-11. 1989.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Snodgrass, J. W., Komoroski, M. J. Bryan, Jr. A. L. & Burger. J. Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydroperiod, and amphibian species richness: Implications for wetland regulations. Conservation Biology 14: 414-419. 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Babbitt, K. J., Baber, M. J. & Tarr, T. L. Patterns of larval amphibian distribution along a wetland hydroperiod gradient. Canadian Journal Zoology. 81: 1539-1552. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Andre P. Couto, Eduardo Ferreira, Rita T. Torres, &Carlos Fonseca. Local and Landscape Drivers of Pond-Breeding Amphibian Diversity at the Northern Edge ofthe Mediterranean. Herpetologica, 73(1). 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Tejedo, M., & Reques, R. Effects of egg size and density on metamorphic traits in tadpoles of the Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita). J of Herp. 26: 146-152. 1992.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Pleguezuelos, J. M., Ma´rquez, R. & Lizana M. (eds.). Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de Espana. Direcci ˜ on General de ´ Conservacion de la Naturaleza, Spain. 2002.
In article      
 
[24]  Semlitsch R. D, Peterman W. E, Anderson T. L, Drake D. L, Ousterhout B. H. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians. PLoS ONE 10(4) 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Cardoso, A. J. Andrade G. V. & Haddad, C. F. B. Distribuição espacial em comunidade de anfíbios (Anura) no sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 49 (1): 241-249. 1989.
In article      
 
[26]  Gascon, C. Population and community – level analyses of species occurrences of central Amazonian rain forest tadpoles. Ecology 72 (5): 1731-1746. 1991.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Huston, M. A. Biological Diversity, The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, 681p. 1994.
In article      
 
[28]  Pombal Jr, J. P. Distribuição espacial e temporal de anuros (Amphibia) em uma poça permanente na Serra de Paranapiacaba, sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 57 (4): 583-594. 1997.
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[29]  Brandão, R. A. & Araújo. A. F. B. A herpetofauna da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, p. 9-21. In: J. Marinho-Filho. Rodrigues F.M. & Guimarães M.M. (Eds). Vertebrados da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas. História Natural e Ecologia em um Fragmento de Cerrado do Brasil Central. Brasília, Ibama. 1998.
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