Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Professional Guidance for Making Contextualized Decisions

Eva Ángeles Bermúdez López
World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2018, 4(4), 226-232. DOI: 10.12691/wjssh-4-4-3
Received November 11, 2018; Revised December 14, 2018; Accepted December 24, 2018

Abstract

Before the socio-economic scenario prevailing in Spain; high rate of unemployment, precarious employment, social gap (pronounced among the young population and especially among women), early school leaving, low competitiveness due to lack of financial funds for R & D & I projects ..., it is necessary to adopt a vision holistic and systematic Professional Guidance. Where the different responsible administrations (Education and Employment) intervene, giving coherence and continuity to the life project of each person.

1. Introduction

As recommendations for the Spanish socio-economic scenario, the OECD presented in March 2,017 the following:

1. Promote business investment in innovation in the face of insufficient investment in research and development (I + D), there is a large number of qualified young people who leave to investigate outside of Spain.

2. Reduce unemployment and achieve more inclusive growth.

To increase the employment rate that remains low, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the autonomous public services; better coordination between public social, employment and educational services. Increase in material resources (incentives for both job search and hiring by companies) and human resources (greater number of professionals specialized in Vocational Guidance, Intermediation ..., Employment Services for each job seeker.

These measures must be presided over by a holistic professional orientation (covering the different facets of each person - personal, academic, professional - and throughout the life of it). Treating each human being from its specificities and in the context / means of life in which it develops. Adopting the systematic vision; you can not guide / advise the subject by isolating it from the environment in which it lives. If not making him a participant and knowing the same.

The European Strategy 2.020 revolves around a series of Guidelines (translated into the annual National Reform Programs) necessary to reduce the school drop-out rate, reduce the employment rate and, ultimately, reduce the social and gender gap. These are the following Orientations:

Orientation nº 5: Promote the demand for employment. For this, the creation of quality employment will be facilitated; fostering, together with social partners, mechanisms to set salaries based on the capacities of people and the economic results of companies (which will eliminate the obstacles to the creation of companies, hiring of labor ...). Promoting both the working people and in the case of employers, the social, competitive and innovative economy.

Orientation nº 6: Improve the supply of labor, qualifications and skills. Member States, in cooperation with social partners, should promote an adequate training offer that meets the needs of qualification, productivity and employability. This translates into investments in all education and training systems. Covering the needs of adaptation to a dynamic and technological work market. Reinforcement in particular of qualified professionals / as both to respond to ongoing training, as well as measures conducive to obtaining good results in education and reduce school absenteeism; Posing in all the situations alternative of improvement through the Professional Orientation, Qualified Formation, Advice / Information adjusted to the social-economic reality of every moment ... Trying ultimately to have funds from both the European Social Fund, and the annual budgets of each country to boost employment, social cohesion, lifelong learning and education. Ultimately improving public administration services (whose main and last function is to offer services to citizens to meet their needs).

Orientation nº 7: Improve the functioning of labor markets. For this, they will start from the principles of flexibility and security; translated into socio-economic security, work organization, education and training opportunities, working conditions - health and safety - and means that allow the reconciliation of work-family life.

Orientation nº 8: Promote social integration, combat poverty and promote equal opportunities. Modernization by the Member States of social protection systems, promoting equal opportunities (including for men and women), facilitating accessibility and quality. Special attention deserves the actions aimed at avoiding school dropouts and reducing both poverty and social exclusion.

2. Professional Orientation for the Development of the Life Project: Holistic and Systematic Vision

The origin of the Professional Orientation, has always been linked to the different labor transformations.

It was in the USA during the 19th century that Education was introduced through Orientation as a movement linked to professional education and vocational training, subsequently emerging in Employment{1}. The interest to improve the labor conditions derived from the second industrial revolution of the S. XIX{2}, are reflected in the four interrelated areas since their creation:

1. National Education Association. NEA (1892). Education.

2. National Society for Industrial Education. NSPIE (1.906). Training.

3. National Vocational Guidance Association. NVGA (1.908). Orientation.

4. Employment Managers Association. EMA (1.917). Job.

Advancing in the different revolutions{3} until the moment that concerns us, we have the technological inclusion in all the geopolitical, socioeconomic and demographic variables{4}. Fact that points to the destruction of professions known today and the appearance of many others unknown at the moment.

In view of the current technological revolution, the population must receive Orientation and Training on a permanent basis. In order to adapt to the constant changes in the world of work. In response to this reality, it is the development of labor market and social protection policies defined in the Global Jobs Pact (ILO 2.009){5}.

2.1. Active Employment Policies and the Origin of Professional Orientation

Active employment policies and vocational guidance as a fundamental instrument to improve employability, officially arise through recommendations{6} of the OIT in 1949. In this recommendation, professional guidance is defined as the help to provide through a continuous process to all people (from school children to adults). The objective will be to provide opportunities to develop personality and to be able to choose a job that fills them with satisfaction (importance here of personal development).

This first international recommendation on Professional Guidance, has a special interest in putting it into practice with public means (guaranteeing its scope to all the people who voluntarily need it), providing it with an adequate administrative system as well as qualified technical personnel.

Highlighting collaboration not only between Education and Employment Systems, but also with other public and private institutions (especially organizations that represent people both employers and workers).

The principles and programs of Professional Guidance should be developed in collaboration with schools and other institutions / services that deal with minors during the period of transition between school life and professional life (to this day, it is still a utopia the real collaboration between the Education and Employment Systems).

Regarding the methods of Professional Guidance, the school report will be the document that shows an assessment of the ability, level of instruction, individual skills and personality to consider to receive the most appropriate professional guidance (susceptible to improvement in the present ).

Years later, the recommendation of 1949 will be replaced by the recommendation on the development of resources in 1975 (the result of the provisions of international labor agreements and recommendations directly related to employment policy, especially the Convention and the Recommendation. on discrimination - employment and occupation - of 1,958, together with the Employment Policy Convention and Recommendation of 1964). Both recommendations present Vocational Guidance through Vocational Training in the implementation of employment policies and programs (not making any distinction between active and passive employment policies so far).

In this recommendation for the development of human resources, professional guidance along with professional training will be carried out at the national and regional level by the corresponding Public Administrations (guaranteeing equal access to all young and adult people who need), to improve all spheres of economic, social and cultural life. As well as all levels of professional qualification and responsibility. The term "aptitudes" oriented to work and adapted to the needs of society is introduced here.

The policies and programs must pursue the following objectives:

a) Ensure productive employment (which corresponds to the personal aptitudes and aspirations of the worker), facilitating professional mobility.

b) Promote and develop an entrepreneurial spirit.

c) Protect working people against unemployment.

d) Protect people engaged in tasks that involve excessive physical or mental fatigue.

e) Protect workers against occupational risks through quality training.

f) Assist workers in the pursuit of personal and professional satisfaction. Improving their contribution to the economy.

g) Achieve a social, cultural and economic advance. Together with a continuous adaptation to the changes, with the participation of all those interested in the revision of the demands of the work.

h) Achieve the full participation of all social groups in the development process and benefits derived from it.

To achieve the aforementioned objectives, Member States must guarantee open, flexible and complementary systems of general, technical and professional education, as well as school and professional guidance (inside and outside the official education system). Paying special attention on the part of Members to the following aspects:

a) Ensure equal opportunities for guidance and professional training.

b) Provide continuous, realistic and widely conceived professional guidance (representing the entire population through all branches of economic activity). Talk about specialization in Professional Guidance.

c) Facilitate mobility between different types of professional training (different occupations and branches of activity).

d) Establish systematic training and professional orientation plans.

e) Offer working people the possibility of reincorporation into the educational system corresponding to their practical experience in professional life.

Vocational guidance and training policies and programs must take into account interdependence and international cooperation in the economic and technological fields. They should be constantly reviewed and promoted for this analysis and research.

Section III of this recommendation is dedicated exclusively to Professional Guidance. Which must be applied permanently and graduated to all ages. Encompassing the different choices throughout life at professional level, professional training and educational opportunities, promotion possibilities, working conditions, safety and hygiene at work and other aspects related to economic, social and cultural activity. Always working the responsibility of the person in each level.

Professional Guidance understood as an opportunity for people seeking professional improvement, quality at work, to continue with instruction, to bring education closer to those who abandoned it prematurely or who need to adapt to social, technical and economic changes. Always from the perspective of participation, activity and positive value towards the world of work.

The competent Administration must create sufficient mechanisms so that Professional Guidance reaches all people (of all ages and of different needs, employed or unemployed) collectively and individually (using adapted aptitude and aptitude tests, combined with other methods). of exploration of the personal characteristics, tests normalized by age groups, population category, level of culture, ..., to guarantee effective advice at the specific level of each person).

The third and last Recommendation 195 of the International Labor Organization on Human Resource Development: education, training and lifelong learning, 2004. It provides greater attention in Vocational Guidance as a means to alleviate the major changes in labor markets and social structures in the world, promoting youth employment as a central axis (paying special attention to the situation of low and middle income countries). The arduous result of various investigations carried out by the OIT has culminated in the preparation of a manual directed to both national development policy makers and the planning of professional orientation activities for low and middle income countries: personnel of the ministries of education, ministries of labor, public employment services, educational institutions at all levels and consultants for people involved in planning and providing professional guidance services.

Based on the review of current international trends in career guidance in high-income countries, this Recommendation places emphasis on six key elements to develop an appropriate career guidance system (dedicating the first part of the manual):

1. Understanding the context of the country.

2. Development of professional information.

3. Promotion of choice, search and maintenance of work.

4. Organization of the service offer.

5. Staff development to support the provision of services.

6. Improve governance and coordination.

In addition to indicating specific internet websites (second part of the manual) on professional guidance:

Inventory of tools and resources on professional guidance available on the Internet in different countries of high, medium and low income.

More general references; international competition standards for professional guidance specialists and standards for the development of professional information.

Regarding the current vision of professional guidance, part of the OCDE definition of it: "services and activities whose purpose is to assist people, at any age and at any time in their lives, to exercise educational options, of training and work and to manage their professions ". Importance here of the accessibility of all information referring to the labor market, to the self-reflection of people of their aspirations, interests, competences, personal attributes, qualifications and aptitudes, etc., to establish their own professional itinerary.

In high-income countries, the term career guidance has replaced vocational guidance; it deals with the choice of an occupation and educational orientation, different study options. Vocational guidance encompasses both vocational guidance and educational orientation.

In high-income countries, career guidance is classified around five specialties:

Professional information to look for a job. It includes information on occupations, skills, professional careers, learning opportunities, labor market trends and conditions, educational programs and opportunities, educational and training institutions, programs and services, both governmental and non-governmental. Considered as the cornerstone of all other professional guidance services.

Professional education. Taught in educational institutions and community. It deals with the motivations, values and knowledge of the labor market.

Advice on career possibilities. It helps people in the clarification of ideas, configuration of their own identity and decision making.

Advice for employment. Assistance to achieve short-term employment goals (preparation of curriculum vitae, profile or resume and the necessary skills to develop, employment opportunities, job interviews), access to a job and maintain it.

Labor intermediation. Services such as universities, schools ... direct people who use their services to job vacancies. Acting in a certain way as placement agencies.

Thanks to studies carried out by the OCDE, the World Bank (WB), the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training and Education (CEDEFOP) and the European Training Foundation (ETF), establish the importance of the interrelation between professional orientation, advice and information to achieve three goals in particular:

Permanent learning. Avoid early school leaving by establishing bridges between education, training and the labor market. In order to guarantee citizens knowledge and skills to adapt to the prevailing globalizing social and economic context.

Reduce unemployment and increase labor mobility by adjusting labor supply and demand.

Equity and social inclusion. Promote the integration of risk and marginalized groups in education, training and employment.

In this sense, the different systems or specializations of permanent professional orientation, must be based on a series of criteria: transparency and ease of access, attention in the different moments of transition of people, flexibility and innovation in services to adapt to the needs of the target people, processes that stimulate the constant revision of both professionals and users, specialized individualized and collective guidance, opportunities to investigate and experiment with different learning and employment options before choosing, access to educational information. occupational / labor market in an updated manner and adapted to needs between supply and demand, enabling the active participation of interested people (both physically and legally).

Thus, the Professional Orientation is framed within the Employment Policies. Which have traditionally been classified as active and passive according to García{7}. Being the Professional Orientation, a fundamental pillar of the active employment policies. While passive policies, refer mainly to the benefits that correspond to unemployed people according to their specific condition.

In Spain, Royal Legislative Decree 3/2015 regarding active employment policies says the following: ".... The set of services and programs for guidance, employment and vocational training for employment in the workplace aimed at improving the possibilities of access to employment, for hire or self, of unemployed people, to the maintenance of employment and the professional promotion of the employed people and the promotion of entrepreneurship and the social economy "{8}.

For the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCDE), active employment policies are measures aimed at improving the adjustment processes between supply and demand for employment. Being the classification of Passive and Active, basically of a financing nature.

De la Rica{9} considers that active employment policies should be based on the following lines of intervention:

- Increase the employability of active people.

- Develop a culture of entrepreneurship.

- Promote the ability of people to adapt to the world of work.

- Improve equal opportunities between men and women.

Following Cueto and Suárez{10}, it is the Autonomous Communities which, according to the decentralized nature of Spain's economic policy, must develop active employment policies based on the instrumentalization of the latter, which corresponds to the Public Employment Service of the State (SEPE).

On the other hand, according to Barrera{11}, in declarations made in 2.017, it is important to change the nature of the PAE in Spain; since half of their budget is used to encourage hiring by companies through bonuses. While in the rest of the countries of the UE, a quarter is allocated for this purpose. Destined to training and career guidance.

Thus, of the general budgets in Spain, 25% is allocated in Active Employment Policies, while the European average is 27%. Even countries like Sweden with a lower unemployment rate than in Spain, spend 46.2%.

According to Eurostat data 2.016 on spending on active employment policies, in the period (2005-2013), European countries such as Sweden or Finland, made a greater investment in PAE. Being Denmark the country that more invests today. And Spain, one of the countries that invests the least (only Italy and Greece are below in PAE spending). Reducing in our case from 2012 until today year after year.

Stopping in the labor market model of Denmark, it is characterized by its "flexibility" according to De la Rica{12}. Based on very low hiring and firing costs. This translates into a high turnover (leading to greater adaptation to the labor market, increased mobility of workers and greater opportunities). Compensating this labor model, with strong social protection, as well as an adequate investment in PAE.

Another outstanding feature of the Danish labor system is the regulation of the same by unions and employers. With minimal intervention by the state. Among key aspects such regulation (dialogue between unions and employers), are: high salaries, good working conditions (an example of this, is the presence of women in the Labor Market - is entitled to a four-week leave before giving birth and fourteen subsequent to the same, in addition to thirty-two additional weeks to be shared by the father and mother. When this period ends, more than 50% of the women opt for part-time jobs, giving way to young people in the world of work. part-time, whose contractual modality allows them to develop their life project by being well paid).

The Employment Policies (both passive and active where the Professional Orientation is framed) must be studied, reviewed, analyzed and adapted at a contextual level in each country. There is little point in trying to apply concepts such as employability, activity, participation, adaptability, acquisition of skills, etc., if we do not update the theoretical-practical basis towards what is happening in each moment. How can we direct the Orientation towards people who must be prepared for a dynamic and changing world at every moment, if the employment policies themselves do not adapt? The prevailing need to create mechanisms to monitor not only the expense and use that is made of European funds, but the functionality they have for people.

At this point, the Professional Orientation should start from the minimum unification of criteria to be functional in practice. Destined to train every person to make the right decisions in each transition process and / or change (throughout the life cycle each subject for different and increasingly greater moments of transition). It is important to guide from the holistic and systemic point of view (covering from the personality, motivations, availability, academic-social-economic-professional needs, etc., of the person and the context in which he lives) to satisfy the demands of adaptation constant to the global environment. So that you can help, advise, train each person, it must be understood by professionals as an open, dynamic, scientific process (research-action on your own practice) adapted and, above all, permanent.

The academic, professional, personal (both individual and group) and socio-economic dimensions interact with each other in unison; constantly changing the life of every human being. This being the context in which the Orientation should intervene in an integral manner. It can not be conceived in isolation (educational guidance on the one hand, vocational guidance on the other and guidance for employment on the other). It must be conceived as a whole, just like every person. Otherwise, we will never achieve the personal and social integration reflected in a profession for each subject.

The current society is dominated by a great complexity of professional, family and social profiles; altering the life cycle{13}. Faced with such a scenario full of unforeseen events, the person has less and less ability to anticipate the facts that society holds. Therefore, and more than ever, Professional Guidance must train for employability in a holistic manner.

Perhaps one of the interpretations that can be obtained from the aforementioned, is the usefulness of merging the different types of orientation (educational, vocational, professional, for employment ...) into one; Orientation for life.

For this, it is necessary that professionals work in unison from beginning to end. There is little or nothing to educate without having a clear idea of why, where and how. There must be an updated interconnection between labor / productive system and educational system. In order to work transversally on the competences demanded; on a personal level (resilience, positive attitude towards change, self-knowledge, decision making, problem solving, logical capacity to analyze and synthesize information ...), social (assertiveness, proactive communication, social skills, team work ...), professional (different professional opportunities and personal participation in them to investigate, contribute, modify and improve the different tasks that emanate from the different jobs that may develop throughout the professional career).

An example of this is to work on the professional and life project from early childhood until the end of the productive cycle of each human being. In this sense, Pilar Figuera{14} offers a study on the progression / transition of young people and adults. Where the first three steps of the graph refer to the preparatory phase. While the three upper rungs, refer to the most important phases: entry, stay - progress and exit from the work world.

However, to talk about Orientation as an integral process, this must not only appear in the transition stage of young-adult. If not since childhood. Developing personal, social, academic and employment skills should be the central issue throughout the life of the people. Mainly, so that each subject is able to adapt constantly. Conceiving the moments or stages of transition in a dynamic and unstable way. Each transition is happening more frequently nowadays. Sometimes, it involves moving forward and others, a personal, social and professional regression. And always, activity and aptitude for constant change must prevail.

3. Proposals for Improvement for the Implementation of the Professional Orientation at Holistic and Systematic Level

ASPECTS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT BY THE GUIDING PERSON:

Need to distinguish between "liquid" competences (knowledge about NNTT, changing knowledge, collaborative economy, cultural, structural, economic-social, labor ...) and "solid competences" (professionalization, to know a profession thoroughly, to know how to put into practice acquired knowledge, know how to develop the intelligence of each person from the approach of Daniel Goleman of the "multiple intelligences").

The person who directs, must possess knowledge not only of the labor market, but also of the behavior of the people (biography, needs, commitments, etc.). There are people with whom it is a Utopia to develop a Personalized Insertion Itinerary; for their immediate needs to find employment.

With regard to the gender gap in employment, the proposals for improvement could be the following, among others:

Quantity and quality of FPE actions, specialized market policies (orientation and information, employment incentives).

Need to change descriptive beliefs of the present society; stereotypes and prejudices .

Greater social spending. Spain is still below the EU average.

Transparency policies.

VISIBILIZE THE WORK OF WOMEN. Need to move forward on the relevant modifications of conciliation policies; where the laws oblige instead of advising. Examples to follow may be the case of Iceland (a country that has taken a big step in closing the wage gap by law.) In 2016, according to data from the last Global Gender Gap Report (World Economic Forum), it has been again after nine years. consecutive years, the country with the smallest gender gap, and in 2.018, the step has been qualitative and quantitative, with the approval by law so that those companies that do not demonstrate that their employees and employees charge the same (regardless of gender, ethnicity, sexuality or nationality), will be sanctioned (of application in companies that have more than 25 workers in the workforce).

4. Conclusions

One of the realities of the Spanish labor market is the generation in recent years of precarious employment. Which leads to an increase in the gender gap, specifically, as well as a general social gap.

Regarding gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (the basis of any competitive society), it is far from being an attainable reality.

As you can see, the really important thing does not figure in the route guides today.

Investment in the Spanish public university, from 2012 to the present, has been falling tragically; affecting the hiring of teaching staff, research, materials, etc. And on the other hand, the prices that young people in our country have to pay are getting higher and higher. If the public budget destined to improve the quality of the public university is reduced and prices are raised for university studies and master's degrees, it is clear that Spain does not follow the path of Innovation, Economic Development and Competitiveness.

Other facts that directly affect the socioeconomic development of our country, are the loss of active population and decreasing number of births in our country (this aspect that directly affects the contribution to Social Security and maintenance of Public Services - Education, Health, Active Employment Policies, maintenance of pensions -) technological changes, different work models that demand a qualified and adapted permanent training. Priding among other connotations, the Taylorist work model; developed in Spain between 1950-1960 and characterized by its system of scientific - technological organization of industrial work; Technological mechanization and automation predominate - decreasing both the number of labor and salaries. Leaving behind the Fordism (work model that combined the scientific organization Taylorist work to increase productivity by increasing wages of workers). Repercusing on mass consumption; generating needs to the population through media and social networks to acquire all those services and / or products generated by the increase in productivity

In this way, the employment policies that emerged following the 1997 Luxembourg summit and transmitted to the various member countries through the European Employment Strategy based on concepts such as labor market flexibility, the need to reduce social costs and labor to increase the competitiveness of companies, needs to be contextualized. Since in their day (at the beginning of the 20th century, they were created to cope with frictional unemployment at the time, they are applied unevenly and discontinuously in the different member countries. socio-economic situation prevailing especially in Spain, where unemployment is seasonal and structural.

Notes

1. Y

2. Echevarría, B. (1993). Formación Profesional. Guía para el seguimiento de su evolución. Barcelona: PPU.

3. The first revolution (1784) mechanized production through the use of energy from water (both liquid and vapor). The second (1870) used electric power to mass produce and divide / structure labor. The third (1969) automated production through information technology. The fourth revolution (reaching the present moment) is given by the fusion of technologies aimed at digital transformation (Schwab, 2.016).

4. Parker, G. (2015). El desmoramiento. Una crónica íntima de la nueva América. Barcelona: Edit. Debate.

5. Global Pact for Employment (ILO 2.009). Adopted unanimously on June 19, 2009 at the Summit on the Global Employment Crisis. It offers a framework of responses to the crisis designed to guide national and international policies in favor of economic recovery. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) ratified the pact with the adoption of Resolution E / 2009 / L.24. It called upon Member States to take the Covenant into account when preparing their plans. of employment. At the G20 Summit held in November 2009, world leaders embraced the Pact as an "employment-oriented framework for future economic growth". Its objectives are: to generate employment, expand social protection, respect labor standards, promote social dialogue and fair globalization.

6. Network of Labor Market Observatories (Central America and the Dominican Republic). Santo Domingo, April 2011. Juan Miguel de Pablo Urban OIT. "Employment Policies. Active and passive employment policies".

7. García Serrano, C. (2007), p. 37.

8. Royal Legislative Decree 3/2015, approving the revised text of the Employment Law, art. 36, pt. 1.

9. De la Rica, S. (2015), p. 3.

10. Cueto, B. and Suárez, P. (2015), p. 283.

11. María del Carmen Barrera. Secretary of Social Policies, Employment and Social Protection of the General Union of Workers (UGT).

12. De la Rica, S. (2015), p. 13.

13. CASTELLS, M. (1997). La era de la información: Vol. 1. La sociedad red. Barcelona: Alianza Editorial.

14. FIGUERA, P. (1996). La inserción del universitario en el mercado de trajo, Barcelona: EUB.

References

[1]  A.G. Watts; R.G. Sultana: “Career guidance policies in 37 conuntries: Contrasts an common themes”, en International Journal for Educational an Vocational Guidance, Vol. 4, Nº 2-3, pp. 105-122.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  ARAVENA, A. ZAMORANO, J. SILVA, R. (2008). Orientación Vocacional. Universidad de Valparaiso. Carrera de matemáticas. Psicología del adolescente.
In article      
 
[3]  Caballer, M.A. (2005): Claves de la Orientación Profesional. Estructura, planificación, diagnóstico e intervención. Editorial CCS.
In article      
 
[4]  CASTELLS, M. (1997). La era de la información: Vol. 1. La sociedad red. Barcelona: Alianza Editorial.
In article      
 
[5]  Consejo Económico y Social España. Informe del CES de las mujeres en España. 2.015.
In article      
 
[6]  Cueto, B y Suárez, P. (2015): “El papel de las políticas activas: una perspectiva desde las comunidades autónomas”, Ekonomiaz: revista vasca de economía. Núm. 87. 1º semestre, págs. 283-309. (https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servfet/articulo?codigo=5124140, consultado en mayo 2.018).
In article      View Article
 
[7]  De la Rica, S. (2015): Políticas activas de empleo: una panorámica. Fedea Policy Papers. Núm. 1. (http://documentos.fedea.net/pubs/fpp/2015/01/FPP2015-01.pdf, consultado en mayo 2018).
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Echevarría, B. (1993). Formación Profesional. Guía para el seguimiento de su evolución. Barcelona: PPU
In article      
 
[9]  Echevarría, B. (2013b). Aprendizajes profesionales en España. En CIFO. (Eds.). Formación para el trabajo en tiempos de crisis: Balance y prospectiva (pp.37-48). Madrid: Tornapunta Ediciones.
In article      
 
[10]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Muñoz, M. (Adapt). (2014). Guía de Orientación Profesional Coordinada. Barcelona: Fundación Bertelsmann. Recuperado https:www.fundacionbertelsmann.org/es/home/publicaciones-raiz/publicación/did/guía-de-orientacion-profesional-coordinada-1/.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Clares, P. (2015a). Sistema Integrado de Orientación. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 18 (2), 1-3.
In article      
 
[12]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Clares, P. (2015b). Luces entres sombras de la Orientación. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación Profesional, 18 (2), 1-13.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Echevarría, B. (2016a). Primer trienio de Formación Profesional Dual. Revista Educaweb. Visto en: http://www.educaweb.com/noticia/2016/01/12/primer-trienio-formacion-profesional-dual-9201/.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  FIGUERA, P. (1996). La inserción del universitario en el mercado de trajo, Barcelona: EUB.
In article      
 
[15]  FINGERMAN, G. (1968): Psicotecnia y orientación profesional. Buenos Aires: Editorial El Ateneo.
In article      
 
[16]  FITCH, J. (1935): “Vocational guidance in action”. Columbia University Press New York.
In article      
 
[17]  García Serrano, C. (2207): “las políticas activas del mercado de trabajo: desempleo y activación laboral”. Política y Sociedad. Vol. 44. Núm 2, págis. 135-151.
In article      
 
[18]  Hanse, E. (2006). Orientación Profesional. Un manual de recursos para países de bajos y medianos ingresos. Oficina Internacional del Trabajo. CINTERFOR.
In article      
 
[19]  Henry Borow (1964). Varieties of Work Experience. In Man in a World of Work, edited by Henry Borow. Boston: Houghton – Mifflin.
In article      PubMed
 
[20]  Hernández, J. y Pérez, J.A. (2.015). “La Universidad Española en Cifras 2.015-2.016”. CRUE Universidades Españolas.
In article      
 
[21]  HOLLAND, J.L. (1980). The influence of vocational interest inventories: some implications for psychological tesing. Counceling Psychologist 9 (1), 83-86.
In article      
 
[22]  Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Encuesta de Población Activa. “Hombres y Mujeres con y sin hijos de 6-14 años en 2.015.
In article      
 
[23]  ISUS, S. (1995). Orientación universitaria: De la enseñanza Secundaria a la Universidad. Lleida. Ediciones de la Universitat de Lleida.
In article      
 
[24]  OCDE (2014f), Competencias más allá de la Escuela: Síntesis, Informes de la OCDE sobre la educación y formación profesional, OCDE Publishing, París.
In article      
 
[25]  OCDE (2017), “Estudios económicos de la OCDE: España 2.017”, OCDE, París. www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/economic-survey-españa.htm.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  OCDE (2015d), Informe de diagnóstico de la estrategia de competencias de la OCDE: España 2015, OCDE Publishing, París. www.oecd.org/skills/nationalskillsstrategies/Diagnostic-report-Spain.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  OCDE (2017), Estudios económicos de la OCDE: España 2017, OCDE Publishing, París. www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/econo.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  OCDE y Comisión Europea (2004). Creer guidance: A handbook for policy makers, p. 10.
In article      
 
[29]  Parker, G. (2015). El desmoramiento. Una crónica íntima de la nueva América. Barcelona: Edit. Debate.
In article      
 
[30]  Rosales Bonilla, R. (2009). “Estilos de Aprendizaje en el Aula”. Congreso Internacional Retos y Expectativas de la Universidad. Visto en http://www.repositoriodigital.ipn.mx/handle/123456789/3690.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Schwab, k. (2016). The Foruth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. Foreign Affairs. Visto en: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  SUPER, D.E. (1968). “Psicología de la vida profesional”. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp. S.A.
In article      
 
[33]  SUPER, D. D. y HALL, D. (1978). “Career development: exploration and planning”. Ann. Rev of Pshychology.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Vela, A. (2016). Cómo será el mercado laboral en los próximos 10 años. Infojobs. Recuperado de https://orientacion-laboral.infojobs.net/mercado-laboral-alfredo-vela.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  WILLIAMSON, E.G. (1965). Vocational counseling: some historical, philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Nueva York; Mc Graw Hill.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Eva Ángeles Bermúdez López

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Eva Ángeles Bermúdez López. Professional Guidance for Making Contextualized Decisions. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp 226-232. http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjssh/4/4/3
MLA Style
López, Eva Ángeles Bermúdez. "Professional Guidance for Making Contextualized Decisions." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 4.4 (2018): 226-232.
APA Style
López, E. Á. B. (2018). Professional Guidance for Making Contextualized Decisions. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(4), 226-232.
Chicago Style
López, Eva Ángeles Bermúdez. "Professional Guidance for Making Contextualized Decisions." World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 4, no. 4 (2018): 226-232.
Share
[1]  A.G. Watts; R.G. Sultana: “Career guidance policies in 37 conuntries: Contrasts an common themes”, en International Journal for Educational an Vocational Guidance, Vol. 4, Nº 2-3, pp. 105-122.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  ARAVENA, A. ZAMORANO, J. SILVA, R. (2008). Orientación Vocacional. Universidad de Valparaiso. Carrera de matemáticas. Psicología del adolescente.
In article      
 
[3]  Caballer, M.A. (2005): Claves de la Orientación Profesional. Estructura, planificación, diagnóstico e intervención. Editorial CCS.
In article      
 
[4]  CASTELLS, M. (1997). La era de la información: Vol. 1. La sociedad red. Barcelona: Alianza Editorial.
In article      
 
[5]  Consejo Económico y Social España. Informe del CES de las mujeres en España. 2.015.
In article      
 
[6]  Cueto, B y Suárez, P. (2015): “El papel de las políticas activas: una perspectiva desde las comunidades autónomas”, Ekonomiaz: revista vasca de economía. Núm. 87. 1º semestre, págs. 283-309. (https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servfet/articulo?codigo=5124140, consultado en mayo 2.018).
In article      View Article
 
[7]  De la Rica, S. (2015): Políticas activas de empleo: una panorámica. Fedea Policy Papers. Núm. 1. (http://documentos.fedea.net/pubs/fpp/2015/01/FPP2015-01.pdf, consultado en mayo 2018).
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Echevarría, B. (1993). Formación Profesional. Guía para el seguimiento de su evolución. Barcelona: PPU
In article      
 
[9]  Echevarría, B. (2013b). Aprendizajes profesionales en España. En CIFO. (Eds.). Formación para el trabajo en tiempos de crisis: Balance y prospectiva (pp.37-48). Madrid: Tornapunta Ediciones.
In article      
 
[10]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Muñoz, M. (Adapt). (2014). Guía de Orientación Profesional Coordinada. Barcelona: Fundación Bertelsmann. Recuperado https:www.fundacionbertelsmann.org/es/home/publicaciones-raiz/publicación/did/guía-de-orientacion-profesional-coordinada-1/.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Clares, P. (2015a). Sistema Integrado de Orientación. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 18 (2), 1-3.
In article      
 
[12]  Echevarría, B. y Martínez Clares, P. (2015b). Luces entres sombras de la Orientación. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación Profesional, 18 (2), 1-13.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Echevarría, B. (2016a). Primer trienio de Formación Profesional Dual. Revista Educaweb. Visto en: http://www.educaweb.com/noticia/2016/01/12/primer-trienio-formacion-profesional-dual-9201/.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  FIGUERA, P. (1996). La inserción del universitario en el mercado de trajo, Barcelona: EUB.
In article      
 
[15]  FINGERMAN, G. (1968): Psicotecnia y orientación profesional. Buenos Aires: Editorial El Ateneo.
In article      
 
[16]  FITCH, J. (1935): “Vocational guidance in action”. Columbia University Press New York.
In article      
 
[17]  García Serrano, C. (2207): “las políticas activas del mercado de trabajo: desempleo y activación laboral”. Política y Sociedad. Vol. 44. Núm 2, págis. 135-151.
In article      
 
[18]  Hanse, E. (2006). Orientación Profesional. Un manual de recursos para países de bajos y medianos ingresos. Oficina Internacional del Trabajo. CINTERFOR.
In article      
 
[19]  Henry Borow (1964). Varieties of Work Experience. In Man in a World of Work, edited by Henry Borow. Boston: Houghton – Mifflin.
In article      PubMed
 
[20]  Hernández, J. y Pérez, J.A. (2.015). “La Universidad Española en Cifras 2.015-2.016”. CRUE Universidades Españolas.
In article      
 
[21]  HOLLAND, J.L. (1980). The influence of vocational interest inventories: some implications for psychological tesing. Counceling Psychologist 9 (1), 83-86.
In article      
 
[22]  Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Encuesta de Población Activa. “Hombres y Mujeres con y sin hijos de 6-14 años en 2.015.
In article      
 
[23]  ISUS, S. (1995). Orientación universitaria: De la enseñanza Secundaria a la Universidad. Lleida. Ediciones de la Universitat de Lleida.
In article      
 
[24]  OCDE (2014f), Competencias más allá de la Escuela: Síntesis, Informes de la OCDE sobre la educación y formación profesional, OCDE Publishing, París.
In article      
 
[25]  OCDE (2017), “Estudios económicos de la OCDE: España 2.017”, OCDE, París. www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/economic-survey-españa.htm.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  OCDE (2015d), Informe de diagnóstico de la estrategia de competencias de la OCDE: España 2015, OCDE Publishing, París. www.oecd.org/skills/nationalskillsstrategies/Diagnostic-report-Spain.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  OCDE (2017), Estudios económicos de la OCDE: España 2017, OCDE Publishing, París. www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/econo.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  OCDE y Comisión Europea (2004). Creer guidance: A handbook for policy makers, p. 10.
In article      
 
[29]  Parker, G. (2015). El desmoramiento. Una crónica íntima de la nueva América. Barcelona: Edit. Debate.
In article      
 
[30]  Rosales Bonilla, R. (2009). “Estilos de Aprendizaje en el Aula”. Congreso Internacional Retos y Expectativas de la Universidad. Visto en http://www.repositoriodigital.ipn.mx/handle/123456789/3690.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Schwab, k. (2016). The Foruth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. Foreign Affairs. Visto en: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond.
In article      View Article
 
[32]  SUPER, D.E. (1968). “Psicología de la vida profesional”. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp. S.A.
In article      
 
[33]  SUPER, D. D. y HALL, D. (1978). “Career development: exploration and planning”. Ann. Rev of Pshychology.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Vela, A. (2016). Cómo será el mercado laboral en los próximos 10 años. Infojobs. Recuperado de https://orientacion-laboral.infojobs.net/mercado-laboral-alfredo-vela.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  WILLIAMSON, E.G. (1965). Vocational counseling: some historical, philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Nueva York; Mc Graw Hill.
In article