## Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition

**Kshitij Varshney**^{1}, **Vivek Pal**^{1}, **Anuradha Tomar**^{1,}

^{1}Electrical & Electronics Department, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India

### Abstract

This paper briefs about partial shading condition and different methods in literature which can be used under partial shading condition. This will be helpful for all who want the idea of partial shading condition and also get a fair idea about different techniques available and also update themselves with current happenings about MPPT.

**Keywords:** Photo Voltaic(PV), Global Maximum Power Point(GMPP), Perturb and Observe(P&O), incremental Conductance(IC), Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT)

*World Journal Control Science and Engineering*, 2015 3 (1),
pp 13-16.

DOI: 10.12691/wjcse-3-1-3

Received December 20, 2014; Revised February 15, 2015; Accepted February 26, 2015

**Copyright**© 2015 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

### Cite this article:

- Varshney, Kshitij, Vivek Pal, and Anuradha Tomar. "Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition."
*World Journal Control Science and Engineering*3.1 (2015): 13-16.

- Varshney, K. , Pal, V. , & Tomar, A. (2015). Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition.
*World Journal Control Science and Engineering*,*3*(1), 13-16.

- Varshney, Kshitij, Vivek Pal, and Anuradha Tomar. "Review of MPPT Techniques under Partial Shading Condition."
*World Journal Control Science and Engineering*3, no. 1 (2015): 13-16.

Import into BibTeX | Import into EndNote | Import into RefMan | Import into RefWorks |

### 1. Introduction

Despite the concerns of solar power generation being costing more than other conventional methods of power generation. Commercialization of PV power systems in happening at a rapid pace throughout the world. MPP tracker decides the efficiency of any PV system. Research communities are attracted towards MPPT because of its simplicity yet complex under partial shading condition. Many algorithms have been developed in the past like P&O, IC but they cannot locate real MPP and get stuck with local MPP.. Many alterations to conventional and also new algorithms have been proposed to track the GMPP.

The content on MPPT has increased so much recently that it is difficult for any researcher to update himself with the literature unless precise summaries are not provided. In this paper only significant work has been cited and papers with minor modifications may not be included in reference list. Apologies are offered to authors.

**1.1. Partial Shading**

When one(or many) of the module in a solar panel comes under the effect of shading(which can be due to trees, neighboring buildings, clouds and many more circumstances can be there), its voltage drops, so, it works as a load instead of working as a generator ^{[1]}. A bypass diode is connected to ensure that particular shaded module doesn't get damaged. Voltage mismatch can occur in parallel connected modules. So, a blocking diode is connected for providing protection under such conditions.

Under Partial shading (when some part of module is under shading), bypass diode starts conducting. So, in P-V curve we do not get a unique maximum power point (MPP) but receive several local peaks and one MPP. Bypass diode can be uninstalled from the system to simplify the complications of so many peaks, but as a result power is reduced which significantly increase the cost of solar power generation. So, a bypass diode is not removed.

### 2. Conventional MPPT Techniques

**2.1. Perturb & Observe(P&O)**

Working Principle is provided in figure. Firstly, voltage and Current are sensed from which power is calculated, if the new power calculated is greater than previous power calculated then perturbation (Φ) is, provided which effects the power and the new power is retained. In next cycle this process is repeated and power never sticks to a point even if it is MPP. Perturbation can be ﬁxed step and adaptive.

Authors in ^{[2]} has proposed a two-stage grid connected inverter; authors in ^{[3]} has proposed a novel MPPT control algorithm for a half bridge inverter; Authors in ^{[4]} designed the one-cycle controller for single-stage inverter. In ^{[5]}, MPPT for soft- switching boost converter is proposed; authors in ^{[6]} propose a three-point weight comparison P&O method. An adaptive P&O scheme by authors of ^{[7]} has been proposed.

P&O has advantages of its simplicity. But because of limitations in conventional P&O, modifications are required. In ^{[8]} a two-mode modiﬁed P&O is proposed by authors, but tracking speed is reduced under few shading conditions; In ^{[9]} authors have proposed a new GMPP algorithm, in this P&O algorithm is embedded in Genetic Algorithm(GA) which creates a single algorithm, due to this number of sampling cycles is reduced. In ^{[10]}, an alternative P&O using the comparison of two instantaneous power values is proposed, but it is a complex method; Authors in ^{[11]} propose a voltage sweep method.

**2.2. Incremental Conductance**

We know that at MPP, the derivative of power with respect to voltage (dP/dV), is zero, i.e.,

(1) |

Equation (1), can be rearranged in the following form :

(2) |

where and are the increments of PV current and voltage, respectively. The rules for IC can be described as :

(3.1) |

(3.2) |

(3.3) |

Because the equation (3) is derived from P-V curve, the current cannot be used as the final output. Instead P-I curve is utilized. From the above set of equation (3) we can infer that perturbation occur in such a way that it moves towards MPP. When it reaches the MPP it stops there and again move only when a change in current is observed ^{[12]}. Authors in ^{[13]} proposes IC without battery. In works by authors ^{[14, 15]}, IC method is proposed by applying a two-mode scheme. In ^{[16]} authors proposes, a hybrid approach. In ^{[17]} an error is introduced with the help of instantaneous conductance and the incremental conductance.

Authors in ^{[18]} propose an improved IR method. In ^{[19]} authors, change the value of perturbation in original IC with respect to dP/dV. Authors in ^{[20]} propose a modiﬁed IC method. Authors of ^{[21]} suggest another adaptive IC. Authors of ^{[22]} proposed an alternate adaptive IC. But at both local peaks and global peak has dP / dV = 0 so IC can't differentiate among them, so modifications are required. Authors of ^{[23]} propose a neural network based modified IC algorithm. Authors of ^{[24]} implement a two-stage IC method; authors of ^{[25]} propsed a linear function to reach real MPP.

**2.3. Hill Climbing (HC)**

In the HC the operating point of the solar panels is updated by perturbing the duty cycle. Following equations summarize the HC operation:

where d(k) is duty cycle and (Φ) is step-size(fixed or adaptive).

The HC method is also known as direct duty cycle technique. Authors of ^{[26]} utilize HC in buck converter battery charging PV system, in ^{[27]}, the authors apply HC for ﬂy back inverter; authors of ^{[28]} utilize HC on a high gain inverter. In ^{[29]}, HC is applied in parallel connected MPPT system. Authors in ^{[30]} suggested three-level boosting MPPT control; authors of ^{[31]} proposed fully adaptive HC. The algorithm gets stuck at the local peaks, so, modifications are required. In ^{[32]}, duty cycle sweep methodology has been proposed. Work by authors of ^{[33]} applies multiple input boost converter for micro-inverters based on modiﬁed HC.

### 3. Soft Computing Techniques

**3.1. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC)**

The work of the FLC is to reach MPP faster. There are four segments required for designing a fuzzy logic controller are: fuzzification, rule base, inference engine and defuzzification. Fuzzification is the process of changing the PV panel parameters into fuzzy sets utilizing a pre-determined fuzzy membership function. The rule base is a collection of rules which set the output for given values of input. The inference engine generates a logical decision based on the given inputs and fuzzy rule base. The defuzzifier then convert the fuzzy output back to actual value ^{[34]}. In ^{[35]}, an FLC uses seven linguistic variables, in ^{[36]} and ^{[37]}, signiﬁcance is given to speciﬁc linguistic variables. Authors of ^{[38]} had provided array power variation and duty cycle as inputs to FLC. Work by authors of ^{[39]} suggests 3-input FLC. In ^{[40]}, authors utilize the Fuzzy Cognitive Networks (FCN). In ^{[41]}, FLC in conjunction with HC method is employed. In ^{[42]}, an adaptive FLC is suggested; Authors of ^{[43]} suggests a single input fuzzy logic controller (SI-FLC).

**3.2. Artificial Neural Network (ANN)**

In ANN inputs are PV array parameters such as V_{oc} and I_{sc}. The output is a reference signal, which can be voltage, current or duty cycle. The neurons have to be trained. Once it is trained, ANN can be utilized as MPP estimator which will provide the reference value to the MPPT controller for controlling purposes. In ^{[46]}, the ANN identifies the MPP using a gradient descent algorithm; in ^{[47]} authors have developed an ANN based P&O controller. Authors in ^{[48]} suggests a novel ANN technique; In ^{[49]} authors propose a three layer feed-forward ANN, in conjunction with FLC.

**3.3. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)**

PSO is a population-based search method, developed on the nature of bird ﬂocks ^{[50]}. The algorithm has a number of particles where each particle can be a candidate solution Particles copy the success of nearby particles, and get to their own successes. The position of a particle is dependent on the best particle nearby, also best solution searched by the particle. Particle position, x_{i}, are found using:

(4) |

Note that in (4), where the velocity component, v_{i}, represents the step size. The velocity is calculated by:

(5) |

where, w is the inertia weight, c_{1} and c_{2} are the acceleration coefficients, r_{1,}r_{2 }belongs to U(0,1), P_{best i} is the personal best position of particle i, and G_{best} is the nearby best position of particle i.

Authors in ^{[51]} utilizes the PSO algorithm to predict the MPP of PV system; Authors of ^{[52, 53]} employs PSO to track the true MPP; Authors of ^{[54]} formulated an analytical expression and then the PSO is employed to track the MPP. In ^{[55]}, current based PSO is suggested; by the authors of ^{[56]} an Adaptive Perceptive PSO (APPSO) have been proposed; in ^{[57]}, the authors combine PSO with IC methods; by authors of ^{[58]} PSO algorithm have been employed in the direct control structure; improvement of ^{[58]} (suggested by the same authors) is available in ^{[59]}.

### 4. Conclusion

Going by the amount of research work, it can be concluded that the MPPT is continuously being researched. This implies that improvements and new techniques are destined to happen in near future. In uniform isolations conditions there is no as such problems and only efficiency is being increased by improving or combining existing technique. But the real concern is for partial shading condition where still new techniques are being developed. In new techniques PSO shows the greatest viability. But research will continue to get the maximum power from PV system.

### References

[1] | Ishaque K., Salam Z., “A review of maximum power point tracking techniques of PV system for uniform insolation and partial shading condition”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 19 (2013), Page(s): 475-488. | ||

In article | |||

[2] | K Chomsuwan, P Prisuwanna, V Monyakul, “Photovoltaic grid-connected inverter using two-switch buck-boost converter”, Photovoltaic specialists conference, 2002. Conference record of the twenty-ninth IEEE, 2002, p. 1527-1530. | ||

In article | |||

[3] | Hashimoto, T Shimizu, G Kimura, “A novel high performance utility interactive photovoltaic inverter system”, Industry applications conference, Conference record of the 2000 IEEE, 2000, p. 2255-2260 vol. 2254. | ||

In article | |||

[4] | Fortunato M, Giustiniani A, Petrone G, Spagnuolo G, Vitelli M., “Maximum power point tracking in a one-cycle-controlled single-stage photovoltaic inverter, industrial electronics”, IEEE Transactions on 2008;55:2684-93. | ||

In article | |||

[5] | Sang-Hoon P, Gil-Ro C, Yong-Chae J, Chung-Yuen W., “Design and application for PV generation system using a soft-switching boost converter with SARC”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2010;57:515-22. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[6] | H Ying-Tung, C China-Hong, “Maximum power tracking for photovoltaic power system”, Industry applications conference, 2002. 37th IAS annual meeting, Conference record of the, 2002, p. 1035-1040 vol. 1032. | ||

In article | |||

[7] | A Al-Amoudi, L Zhang, “Optimal control of a grid-connected PV system for maximum power point tracking and unity power factor”, In: power electronics and variable speed drives, 1998. Seventh international conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 456), 1998, p. 80-85. | ||

In article | |||

[8] | Patel H, Agarwal V. Maximum power point tracking scheme for PV systems operating under partially shaded conditions, industrial electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2008; 55:1689-98. | ||

In article | |||

[9] | Daraban S.; Petreus D.; Morel C., A novel MPPT (maximum power point tracking) algorithm based on a modified genetic algorithm specialized on tracking the global maximum power point in photovoltaic systems affected by partial shading, In: Energy Vol. 74, September 2014, Page(s): 374-388. | ||

In article | |||

[10] | Carannante G, Fraddanno C, Pagano M, Piegari L. Experimental performance of MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic sources subject to inhomogeneous insolation. IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics 2009;56:7 | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[11] | E Koutroulis, F Blaabjerg, A New Technique for tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays operating under partial-shading conditions, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, in press (2012). | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[12] | Mohamed A. Eltawil , Zhengming Zhao, MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25(2013) 793-813. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[13] | Harada K, Zhao G. Controlled power interface between solar cells and AC source, power electronics. IEEE Transactions on 1993; 8:654-62. | ||

In article | |||

[14] | Yeong-Chau K, Tsorng-Juu L, Jiann-Fuh C. Novel maximum-power-point- tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system, Industrial Electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2001; 48:594-601. | ||

In article | |||

[15] | GJ Yu, YS Jung, JY Choi, I Choy, JH Song, GS Kim, A novel two-mode MPPT control algorithm based on comparative study of existing algorithms, In: photovoltaic specialists conference, 2002. Conference record of the twenty- ninth IEEE, 2002, p. 1531-1534. | ||

In article | |||

[16] | H Koizumi, K Kurokawa, A Novel Maximum power point tracking method for PV module integrated converter, In: power electronics specialists conference, 2005. PESC ‘05. IEEE 36th, 2005, p. 2081-2086. | ||

In article | |||

[17] | W Wenkai, N Pongratananukul, Q Weihong, K Rustom, T Kasparis, I Batarseh, DSP-based multiple peak power tracking for expandable power system, In: applied power electronics conference and exposition, 2003. APEC ‘03. Eighteenth annual IEEE, 2003, p. 525-530 vol. 521. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Qiang M, Mingwei S, Liying L, Guerrero JM. A. Novel improved variable step- size incremental-resistance MPPT method for PV systems, industrial electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2011; 58:2427-34. | ||

In article | |||

[19] | L Jiyong, W Honghua, A novel stand-alone PV generation system based on variable step size INC MPPT and SVPWM control, In: power electronics and motion control conference, 2009. IPEMC ‘09. IEEE 6th international, 2009, p. 2155-2160. | ||

In article | |||

[20] | Wu L, Zhao Z, Liu J. A. single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system with modiﬁed MPPT method and reactive power compensation, energy conversion. IEEE Transactions on 2007; 22:881-6. | ||

In article | |||

[21] | L Jae, B HyunSu, C Bo Hyung, Advanced incremental conductance MPPT algorithm with a variable step size, In: power electronics and motion control conference, 2006EPE-PEMC 2006. 12thinternational, 2006, p. 603-607. | ||

In article | |||

[22] | D Menniti, A Burgio, N Sorrentino, A Pinnarelli, G Brusco, An incremental conductance method with variable step size for MPPT: design and implementation, In: electrical power quality and utilisation, 2009. EPQU 2009. 10th international conference on, 2009, p. 1-5. | ||

In article | |||

[23] | Punitha K.; Devaraj D. ; Sakthivel S., Artificial neural network based modified incremental conductance algorithm for maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic system under partial shading conditions,In: Energy Vol. 62, December 2013, Page(s): 330-340. | ||

In article | |||

[24] | Kobayashi K, Takano I, Sawada Y. A study of a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2006; 90:2975-88. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[25] | Young-Hyok J, Doo-Yong J, Jun-Gu K, Jae-Hyung K, Tae-Won L, Chung-Yuen W. A. real maximum power point tracking method for mismatching compensation in PV array under partially shaded conditions, power elec- tronics. IEEE Transactions on 2011; 26:1001-9. | ||

In article | |||

[26] | Koutroulis E, Kalaitzakis K, Voulgaris NC. Development of a microcontroller- based, photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system, power electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2001; 16:46-54. | ||

In article | |||

[27] | Kasa N, Iida T, Chen L. Flyback inverter controlled by sensorless current MPPT for photovoltaic power system, industrial electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2005; 52:1145-52. | ||

In article | |||

[28] | Jain S, Agarwal V, Single-Stage Grid A. Connected inverter topology for solar PV systems with maximum power point tracking, power electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2007; 22:1928-40. | ||

In article | |||

[29] | Gules, De Pellegrin Pacheco J, Hey HL, Imhoff J. A maximum power point tracking system with parallel connection for PV stand-alone applications, industrial electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2008; 55:2674-83. | ||

In article | |||

[30] | Jung-Min K, Bong-Hwan K, Kwang-Hee N. Three-phase photovoltaic system with three-level boosting MPPT control, power electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2008; 23:2319-27. | ||

In article | |||

[31] | Pandey A, Dasgupta N, Mukerjee AK. High-performance algorithms for drift avoidance and fast tracking in solar mppt system, energy conversion. IEEE Transactions on 2008; 23:681-9. | ||

In article | |||

[32] | M Lie, S Yaojie, L Yandan, B Zhifeng, T Liqin, S Jieqiong, A. high performance MPPT control method, In: materials for renewable energy & environment (ICMREE), 2011, p. 195-199. | ||

In article | |||

[33] | SV Dhople, JL Ehlmann, A Davoudi, PL Chapman, Multiple-input boost converter to minimize power losses due to partial shading in photovoltaic modules, In: energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), 2010, p. 2633-2636. | ||

In article | |||

[34] | Mahammad A.K. ; Saon S.; Chee W.S.,Development of Optimum Controller based on MPPT for Photovoltaic System during Shading Condition. In: Procedia Engineering Vol. 53, 2013, Page(s): 337-346. | ||

In article | |||

[35] | AMA Mahmoud, HM Mashaly, SA Kandil, H El Khashab, MNF Nashed, Fuzzy logic implementation for photovoltaic maximum power tracking, In: industrial electronics society, 2000. IECON 2000. 26th annual confjerence of the IEEE, 2000, p. 735-740 vol. 731. | ||

In article | |||

[36] | Veerachary M, Senjyu T, Uezato K. Neural-network-based maximum- power-point tracking of coupled-inductor interleaved-boost-converter- supplied PV system using fuzzy controller, industrial electronics. IEEE Transactions on 2003; 50:749-58. | ||

In article | |||

[37] | N Khaehintung, K Pramotung, B Tuvirat, P Sirisuk, “RISC-microcontroller built-in fuzzy logic controller of maximum power point tracking for solar- powered light-ﬂasher applications”, in: Industrial Electronics Society, 2004. IECON 2004. 30th Annual Conference of IEEE, 2004, p. 2673-2678 Vol. 2673. | ||

In article | |||

[38] | MG Simoes, NN Franceschetti, M Friedhofer, “A fuzzy logic based photo- voltaic peak power tracking control”, In: industrial electronics, 1998. Proceedings. ISIE ‘98. IEEE international symposium on, 1998, p. 300-305 vol. 301. | ||

In article | |||

[39] | Masoum MAS, Sarvi M., “Design, simulation and implementation of a fuzzy- based maximum power point tracker under variable insolation and tem- perature conditions”, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology 2005;29:6. | ||

In article | |||

[40] | Kottas TL, Boutalis YS, Karlis AD, “New maximum power point tracker for PV arrays using fuzzy controller in close cooperation with fuzzy cognitive networks, Energy Conversion”, IEEE Transactions on 2006;21:793-803. | ||

In article | |||

[41] | Alajmi BN, Ahmed KH, Finney SJ, Williams BW., “Fuzzy-logic-control approach of a modiﬁed hill-climbing method for maximum power point in microgrid standalone photovoltaic system”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 2011; 26:1022-30. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[42] | N Patcharaprakiti, S Premrudeepreechacharn, “Maximum power point tracking using adaptive fuzzy logic control for grid-connected photovoltaic system”, In: power engineering society winter meeting, 2002. IEEE, 2002, p. 372-377 vol. 371. | ||

In article | |||

[43] | I Purnama, L Yu-Kang, C Huang-Jen, “A fuzzy control maximum power point tracking photovoltaic system”, In: fuzzy systems (FUZZ), 2011 IEEE international conference on, 2011, p. 2432-2439. | ||

In article | |||

[44] | BN Alajmi, KH Ahmed, SJ Finney, BW Williams, “A maximum power point tracking technique for partially shaded photovoltaic systems in microgrids”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, , in press (2011). | ||

In article | |||

[45] | Syafaruddin E, Karatepe T. Hiyama, “Fuzzy wavelet network identiﬁcation of optimum operating point of non-crystalline silicon solar cells”, Computers & amp. Mathematics with Applications 2012; 63:68-82. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[46] | Veerachary M, Yadaiah N., “ANN based peak power tracking for PV supplied DC motors”, Solar Energy 2000; 69:343-50. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[47] | AMZ Alabedin, EF El-Saadany, MMA Salama, “Maximum power point tracking for Photovoltaic systems using fuzzy logic and artiﬁcial neural networks”, In: power and energy society general meeting, 2011 IEEE, 2011, p. 1-9. | ||

In article | |||

[48] | X Jinbang, S Anwen, Y Cheng, R Wenpei, Y Xuan, “ANN based on IncCond algorithm for MPP tracker”, In: bio-inspired computing: theories and applications (BIC-TA), 2011 sixth international conference on, 2011, p. 129-134. | ||

In article | |||

[49] | Syafaruddin E, Karatepe T. Hiyama, “Artiﬁcial neural network-polar coordinated fuzzy controller based maximum power point tracking control under partially shaded conditions”, IET Renewable Power Generation 2008;3:15. | ||

In article | |||

[50] | R Eberhart, J Kennedy, “A new optimizer using particle swarm theory”, In: micro machine and human science, 1995. MHS ‘95, Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on, 1995, p. 39-43. | ||

In article | |||

[51] | F Qiang, T Nan, A., “Complex-method-based PSO algorithm for the maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic system”, In: information technology and computer science (ITCS), 2010 second international conference on, 2010, p. 134-137. | ||

In article | |||

[52] | M Miyatake, T Inada, I Hiratsuka, Z Hongyan, H Otsuka, M Nakano, Control characteristics of a ﬁbonacci-search-based maximum power point tracker when a photovoltaic array is partially shaded, In: power electronics and motion control conference, 2004. IPEMC 2004. The 4th international, 2004, p. 816-821 Vol. 812. | ||

In article | |||

[53] | M Miyatake, F Toriumi, T Endo, N Fujii, A Novel maximum power point tracker controlling several converters connected to photovoltaic arrays with particle swarm optimization technique, In: power electronics and applications, 2007 European conference on, 2007, p. 1-10. | ||

In article | |||

[54] | Y Liu, D Xia, Z He, MPPT of a PV system based on the particle swarm optimization In: electric utility deregulation and restructuring and power technologies (DRPT), 2011, p. 1094-1096. | ||

In article | |||

[55] | K Ishaque, Z Salam, H Taheri, A Shamsudin, Maximum power point track- ing for PV system under partial shading condition via particle swarm optimization, In: applied power electronics colloquium (IAPEC), 2011 IEEE, 2011, p. 5-9. | ||

In article | |||

[56] | Roy Chowdhury S, Saha H. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2010; 94:1441-7. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[57] | F Keyrouz, S Georges, “Efﬁcient multidimensional maximum power point tracking using bayesian fusion”, In: electric power and energy conversion systems (EPECS), 2011, p. 1-5. | ||

In article | |||

[58] | K Ishaque, Z Salam, M Amjad, S Mekhilef, “An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based MPPT for PV with reduced steady state oscillation”, IEEE transactions on power electronics, 27 (2012) 3627-3638. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[59] | K Ishaque, Z Salam, “A deterministic particle swarm optimization maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic system under partial shading condition”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, In press (2012). | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||