Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt...

Hussein Ali Salim, Basheer Nsaif Jasim, Ali Dhumad Kadhim, Iman Sahib Salman, Abdalsalam Awni Abdalbaki

World Journal of Agricultural Research

Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions

Hussein Ali Salim1,, Basheer Nsaif Jasim1, Ali Dhumad Kadhim2, Iman Sahib Salman1, Abdalsalam Awni Abdalbaki1

1Ministry of Agriculture

2Ministry of Science and Technology

Abstract

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum, Spent mushroom compost and carbendazim 50 % W.P with solarized and unsolarized soil to promote some of plant growth parameters of tomato plants infested with Fusarium wilt disease under in vivo conditions. The application of T. harzianum with spent mushroom compost exhibited the maximum number of fruits per plant after 150 days. Also tomato plants treated with carbendazim showed a significant stimulatory effect on weight of five fruits per replicate (g) of tomato plants by 132.50 g and increased the cost benefit ratio by 2.57 followed by treatment of T. harzianum by 2.31 in comparison with treatment of F. oxysorum alone.

Cite this article:

  • Hussein Ali Salim, Basheer Nsaif Jasim, Ali Dhumad Kadhim, Iman Sahib Salman, Abdalsalam Awni Abdalbaki. Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp 5-8. http://pubs.sciepub.com/wjar/5/1/2
  • Salim, Hussein Ali, et al. "Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions." World Journal of Agricultural Research 5.1 (2017): 5-8.
  • Salim, H. A. , Jasim, B. N. , Kadhim, A. D. , Salman, I. S. , & Abdalbaki, A. A. (2017). Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(1), 5-8.
  • Salim, Hussein Ali, Basheer Nsaif Jasim, Ali Dhumad Kadhim, Iman Sahib Salman, and Abdalsalam Awni Abdalbaki. "Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions." World Journal of Agricultural Research 5, no. 1 (2017): 5-8.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

Tomato is the most important vegetable crop in the tropics [3]. F. oxysporum causes foot and root rot in tomato plants and is a serious problem for both field and greenhouse crops [8]. Successful biological control systems commonly employ and naturally occurring, antagonistic microorganisms that are able to reduce the activities of plant pathogens. Such antagonists can compete with pathogens for nutrients, inhibit pathogen growth by secreting antibiotics, or reduce pathogen populations through parasitism. In addition, some of these microorganisms induce resistance in host plants, which enhances the plant’s ability to defend itself from pathogen attack [4]. T. spp have evolved numerous mechanisms that are involved in attacking other fungi such as competition for space and nutrients, mycoparasitism, production of inhibitory compounds, inactivation of the pathogen's enzymes and induced plant resistance [2, 5, 9, 15, 13, 18]. Soil solarization is a hydrothermal process of disinfesting soil of plant pathogens that is accomplished through passive solar heating [16]. The composts, in general, enhanced microbial activity (total fungi and bacteria) in amended soils resulting in reduction in inoculums density and capacity as well as better plant growth (in terms of shoot and root lengths) and disease control. Mushroom composts were most effective in reducing the mean inoculum load of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Iycopersici [12]. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate Cost benefit ratio of tomato yield by using T. harzianum, spent mushroom compost and carbendazim 50 % W.P with solarized and unsolarized soil against F. oxysporum.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Source of Fungi, Spent Mushroom Compost and Tomato Seeds

Pathogenic fungal isolate, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and antagonistic fungal biocontrol, T. harzianum and Spent mushroom compost were obtained from Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Naini, Allahabad, Tomato cultivar seeds CO - 3 were collected from IIVR (Indian Institute of Vegetable Research), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2.2. Inoculants of Pathogenic and Trichoderma Fungi, Carbendazim and Spent Mushroom Compost

F. oxyspoum f.sp. lycopersici was subcultured on potato dextrose agar at 27±1°C. Fusarium culture suspension (3×105cfu/ ml) was added as soil treatment for each pot. Carbendazim 50 % W.P was applied @ 2 kg a.i/ha, whereas T. harzianum @ 2 g / pot and spent mushroom compost was mixed with soil in the pots @ 20 g / kg of soil [14].

2.3. Greenhouse Experiment

Tomato seeds transplanted in pots (15 cm diameter) containing a sandy clay soil under greenhouse conditions, Four plants / pot and five pots for each treatment were used. Also, the solarized and unsolarized soils was mixed with FYM @ 100 g / pot and were filled in thirty pots. The experiment was laid out in CRD.

3. Results and Discussion

A pots experiment was carried out to examine the in vivo efficiency of T. harzianum, spent mushroom compost and Carbendazim to antagonize F. oxyspoum under greenhouse conditions. The maximum number of fruits per plant was recorded in T5 (non S.S + C +F.o) 3.25 at 90 days and T4 (S.S + S.m.c + T.h +F.o) 6.10, 8.10 at 120 and 150 days respectively as compared with other treatments (Figure 1), similar finding by [11, 19] reported that application of selected antagonist T. harzianum has significantly increased the number of fruits / tomato plant.

Trichoderma can parasitize fungal pathogens and produce antibiotics, in addition, the fungus have many positive effects on plant growth, yield, nutrient uptake, fertilizer utilization efficiency, rate of seed germination and systemic resistance to plant diseases [6, 7, 10].

The result of Figure 2 revealed that significantly increased in the weight of five fruits per replicate of tomato plants in treatments T6 (S.S + tomato plant) 158.60 g, T5 (non S.S + C +F.o) 132.50 g, T2 (S.S + S.m.c + F.o) 131.60, T4 (S.S + S.m.c + T.h +F.o) 114.70 g, and T3 (S.S + T.h +F.o) 102.50 g as compared with T1 (non S.S +F.o) 0.00 g. [1] reported that significant increase was noticed with the fungicide treatment in the yield of tomato plants as compared with control treatment. [17] reported that the fruit yield were increased when tomato plants were treated with T. harzianum.

Figure 1. Effect of S.m.c, T. harzianum and carbendazim using solarized and unsolarized soil on the Number of fruits per tomato plant at 90, 120, 150 days
Figure 2. Effect of S.m.c, T. harzianum and carbendazim using solarized and unsolarized soil on the weight of five fruits per replicate (g) at 125 days
3.1. Cost Benefit Ratio

The data with respect to cost benefit ratio as influenced by various treatments is presented in Table 3 which revealed that the higher amount of monetary return was obtained with T6 (S.S + tomato plant) with 4.50, followed by T5 (non S.S + C +F.o) 0.5kg/ha with 2.57, T3 (S.S + T.h +F.o) 2.5 kg/ha with 2.31,T4 (S.S +S.m.c+ T.h +F.o) 4000+ 2.5Kg/ha with 1.41,T2 (S.S + M.C + F.o) 4000 Kg/ha with 1.26.The minimum cost benefit ratio in T1 (Non S.S + F.o) obtained (0).

Notice: Cost benefit ratio without units

Table 1. Cost of agronomical practices of cultivation per hectare

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