Floral and Bird Biodiversity of Dingaputa Haor and Its Surrounding Area of Mohangong Upazila, Netrak...

Md. Jahirul Islam, Md. Anisuzzaman, Md. Jahangir Sarker, Maruf Hossain Minar, Md. Zihad Majumdar, Tawfiqul Islam

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Floral and Bird Biodiversity of Dingaputa Haor and Its Surrounding Area of Mohangong Upazila, Netrakona District

Md. Jahirul Islam1, Md. Anisuzzaman2, Md. Jahangir Sarker2, Maruf Hossain Minar3,, Md. Zihad Majumdar4, Tawfiqul Islam4

1Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh

2Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali

3Department of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh

4Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh

Abstract

The study was undertaken at Dingaputa haor and its surrounding area with a view to investigate the biodiversity of plants, and birds. The taxonomic status of the species of the area was categorized into threatened, endangered, common, few and very few based on their richness, uses and conservational viewpoints. The total number of plant observed 152 species under 79 families and 37 species of birds under 24 families. The present total species diversity index H represent that plants belonged that 71 1.27 species, 41families.Cultivated crops have 24 species 2.40 and 11 families. The weeds had 57 species 1.51 and 23 families. The birds had 37 species 1.89 and 24 families, other aquatic faunal species 17 2.66 and 16 families. In the biodiversity of Dingaputa haor was decreasing day by day. Agricultural crops and other aquatic fauna were listed maximum but plants, and weeds diversity index were minimum.

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Cite this article:

  • Islam, Md. Jahirul, et al. "Floral and Bird Biodiversity of Dingaputa Haor and Its Surrounding Area of Mohangong Upazila, Netrakona District." World Journal of Agricultural Research 1.4 (2013): 70-76.
  • Islam, M. J. , Anisuzzaman, M. , Sarker, M. J. , Minar, M. H. , Majumdar, M. Z. , & Islam, T. (2013). Floral and Bird Biodiversity of Dingaputa Haor and Its Surrounding Area of Mohangong Upazila, Netrakona District. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(4), 70-76.
  • Islam, Md. Jahirul, Md. Anisuzzaman, Md. Jahangir Sarker, Maruf Hossain Minar, Md. Zihad Majumdar, and Tawfiqul Islam. "Floral and Bird Biodiversity of Dingaputa Haor and Its Surrounding Area of Mohangong Upazila, Netrakona District." World Journal of Agricultural Research 1, no. 4 (2013): 70-76.

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1. Introduction

Bangladesh is rich in wetland resources. There are about 1, 14,160 hectares of beels, 1, 92,367 hectares of haors and about 5488 hectares of baors are located here and there in Bangladesh. Among 96 haors of the country, most of the haors lie in the district of Kishoregonj, Netrakona, Kushtia, Habigonj, Sunamganj, Moulvibazar and Sylhet [1]. Dingaputa haor is the inland freshwater wetland ecosystem, located at Mohonganj upazila of Netrakona district. It is also important for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. The surface area of Dingaputa Haor is 49 km2. The haor is located at (Figure 1) 24°52′00″N 90°58′00″E / 24.8667°N 90.9667°E. The word 'haor' basically derived from the word ‘saior' which is the local pronunciation of sagor in haor region [2].

The term biodiversity has been widely used, misused and interpreted [3]. Article 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity [4] defines biological diversity as: The variability among living organisms from all sources including, interalia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems [5]. Bangladesh is enriched with her diversity of aquatic biological resources containing 289 species of freshwater finfish belonging to 55 families (placing Bangladesh third in the world in terms of fish species per land area), 150 species of waterfowl, 50 species of reptiles. 24 species of mammals, 19 species of amphibians, 63 species of palaemonid and penaeid prawns [6, 7, 8], 25 species of edible tortoise and turtles, and 17 species of crabs, freshwater mussels, and snails. Moreover, 15 exotic fish species also contributed and diversified total fishery resources of the country [6]. The world-wide loss of biodiversity is widely accepted as a major problem, yet it is poorly documented because of our poor knowledge on the taxonomy of most organisms [9].

Some partial research works on biodiversity of Bangladesh were conducted by Islam [10], Safiullah [11] and Rahman [6]. But no research was yet carried out on biodiversity of the Dingaputa and its surrounding areas in the past. Keeping these views in mind the study was undertaken to identify present status of plant biodiversity and the causes of loss of wetland biodiversity of this Dingaputa hoar.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Geographical Location of the Study Area

The study area is located within the Mohonganj upazila at approximately between the latitudes of 24°52′00″N to 24.8667°N and between the longitudes of 90°58′00″E to 90.9667°E in Netrakona District in the Dhaka division of Bangladesh. It has 24011 units of house hold and total area243.2 km². It is located 30 km east from Netrakona district. The study was conducted for a period of July to October, 2010.

2.2. Biological Environment Condition of the Study Area

The Biological environment covers a vast area of flora and faunal species cultivated and observed in the study locality. Cereals, pulses crops, wood and fruit trees mainly consist of the plant community where small indigenous fishes along with cultivated species of fish and some common waterfowls and birds documented the fanual scenario. Some wild mammals, common reptiles and amphibians also found on the study area

2.3. Source of Data Collection

During collection of data both primary and secondary sources are considered. Primary data were collected from fishermen and fermer by the researcher himself. The secondary information was collected from fisheries offices, Agriculture offices,at Mohonganj upazila. The researcher collected information detailed on flora and fauna having diversity by spot visit. Several visits are made to the study area to collect accurate information.

2.4. Floral and Faunal Diversity Analysis

After completion of the study in the selected area of Dingaputa haor, the researcher discussed the floral and faunal information into the distinct systemic category to easily find out the status of the exist and extinct species of the area. The information of areas floral and fauna are arranged and tabulated in the scientific way with a view to clarifying the objectives of the study and concluded the biodiversity status of the selected area.

2.5. Species Diversity Index

Species diversity differs from species richness in that it takes into account both the numbers of species present and the dominance or evenness of species in relation to one another. As a measure of species diversity, we will calculate the Shannon index, H. Interestingly Shannon, a physicist, developed the index as a formula for measuring the entropy of matter in the universe. It turns out that the mathematical relationships hold true whether one is dealing with molecules in solution or species in an ecological community.

Where Pi is the proportional abundance of ith species such that Pi = n/N n is the number of the individuals in ith species and N is the total number of the individuals in ith species and N is the total number of the individuals of all species in the community

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Floral Biodiversity Analysis
3.1.1. Biodiversity of Plants

Dingaputa haor contained a very dense swamp forest in the past, but deforestation and the lack of conservation practices had virtually destroyed this unique forest in the last two decades. The people in the vicinity used this material in various ways: for example as roofing, wall or wall panel material for their houses and for making mats. The utilization of wetland products was now less intensive, because in recent years the vegetation had decreased considerably. Some common type of tree species about 71 were recorded fewer than 41 families, when the haor had been visited.

Another important use of the resources from this wetland was for fuel wood. Due to the scarcity of fuel wood around homesteads, the people were becoming increasingly dependent on this source of fuel. Swamp forest trees, except for hijol, were the most popular fuel wood in these areas. However, all woody shrubs including grasses were also used for this purpose. The naturally regenerating saplings in the swamp forests were being harvested at a non sustainable rate because of the scarcity of fuel. Wetlands products were also used as bio-fertilizer or green manure. All the small herbs and grasses grown in the haor were used as green manure. Farmers living around the Haor used these materials instead of chemical fertilizer. There were many aquatic plants which were grown in the Haor area, and were used as food, medicinal plants, duck feed, or for fuel.


3.1.2. Timber Plants of the Study Area

The recorded timbered plants in the dingaputa haor were 19 belonging to 15 families where all the species are tree Table 1. Mimosae were the largest families having 2 species and other families have only one species. The species abundance of swamp tree Koroch Pongamia pinnata, Hijol Barringtonia acutangula and Borun Crataeva nurvala but the plantation richness of the Raintree Samania saman, and Mahogoni Swietenia macrophylla.


3.1.3. Fruit Plants of the Study Area

Under the fruit plant species, a total of 28 plants have been recorded under 14 families having 1 herb and 27 trees. Four palms, 1 herb and 23 tree fruit plants were observed in the area with the abundance of Mango and Banana Table 2. Rutaceae was the biggest family with 5 species and Musaceae was the lowest family with single species. Moraceae 2 species, Myrtaceae 2 species, Euphorbiaceae 3 species, Palmaceae had 4 species and Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae, Caesalpinieae, Elaeocarpaceae, Averrhoaceae, Rhamnaceae, Dilleniaceae, Clusiaceae, Ebenaceae, Punicaceae, Caricaceae, and Musaceae had only one species of each.

Table 1. Timber plant species observed selected in the haor area

Table 2. Fruit plant species identified in the study area


3.1.4. Medicinal Plants of the Study Area

Only 11 species 8 families of medicinal plants was found in the haor area with species abundance of Chatim Alstonia macrophylla and Mehedi Lawsonia mermis. Tulsi belong to Labiatae, Dhutora belong to Solanaceae, Tankuni belong to Umbelliferae were the most common species of the wild medicinal plants. According to family, Solanaceae had 3 species, Meliaceae 2 species, and Mimosae, Labiatae, Combretaceae, Lythraceae, Apocynaceae, Umbelliferae having single species Table 3.

Table 3. Medicinal plant species observed in the area


3.1.5. Ornamental Plants of the Study Area

Identified species of existing ornamentals were 13 with 2 herbs, 3 trees and 8 shrubs in the haor area Table 4. Compositae with 2, Oleaceae 2 and 1 species of Magnoliaceae, Rosaceae, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Lythraceae, Sapotaceae, and Leguminosae were recorded in the Dingaputa haor area.

Table 4. Ornamental plant species identified in the area

3.2. Species Diversity Index of Plants

Species diversity index is a measure which renders considerable ecological insight Magurran, 1988. Shannon-Wiener Index of species diversity H was worked out to examine the species richness and abundance distribution in haor area.

Table 5. Formula of plant species diversity index H

The diversity index varies between the different groups of plant species Table 5. The results show that diversity and abundance was higher for medicinal species than for other plant species in haor area. The reason might be that people of the locality like to planting fruit and timber for economic purpose and their needs of fruits. It may also be due to haor land is more fertile and support to grow fruit species than other.


3.2.1. Biodiversity of Crops

A total number of 24 agricultural crops, among them 2 were recorded as cereal crops, 3 were as oil crops, 5 were as pulses crops, 3 were as cash crops, and 11 were as vegetable crops under 11 families (Table 6). Leguminosae and cucurbitaceae family have the highest number of crops. Some crops cultivation at Dingaputa haor region. As there was no germplasm museum at haor areas for long preservation of seeds of all crops and as the fertility level increased day by day, the status of crop biodiversity became poor. Rice cultivation and cattle grazing during dry season in the vast area of haor especially buffaloes, cows, goats etc. were found when visited the boitakali beel of the haor (Table 6).

3.3. Weeds Biodiversity
3.3.1. Aquatic Weeds

A total number of 18 aquatic weeds were found in the area of Dingaputa haor and its surrounding belong to 11 families having 1 shrub, 3 grasses and 14 herbs species (Table 2). The total genus of completely aquatic species was 10 bearing the dominant species Nymphaea pubescens (Sada Shapla) and Hygrorhiza aristata (Dol). Gramineae was the largest and Azollaceae was the minor family based on their species abundance in the area. Family Convolvulaceae having 2 species,Pontederiaceae 2 species, Polygonaceae 2 species, Cyperaceae 3 species, Compositae 1 species, Araceae 1 species and Amaranthaceae 1 species each (Table 7).


3.3.2. Land Weeds

Identified species of existing weeds were 39 under 16 families having 4 Shurb, 1 climber, 23 herbs and 11 grasses in the wetlands (Table 8). Grminaeae with 9, Cyperaceae 7, Commelinacae 3, Compositae 3, Amaranthaceae 3, Leguminosae 4, and Umbelliferae, Dryopteidaceae, Cruciferae, Cuscutaceae, Oxalidaceae, Boraginaceae, Bixaceae, Araceae, Poaceae with single genus and single species (Table 8).

3.4. Biodiversity of Birds
3.4.1. Migratory

The haor is an ideal place for the migratory birds. Every winter about many types of migratory birds come to this haor and make their temporary habitat here Table 9. Several bands of local poachers set poison traps on the bank of the Haor during the winter, although killing or trapping migratory birds was legally prohibited and a punishable act. The migratory birds were flying and swarming when visited the haor in winter season. This was the scenery of touching the heart.


3.4.2. Waterfowl Birds

A total number of 18 waterfowl species had been recorded under 13 families (Table 10). Migratory, resident and domestic waterfowls were identified in the wetland area. Usually for the women, duck rearing is a good practice in this area. The largest family Ardeidae having 5 species, Anatidae having 2 species, and Ciconiidae, Charadriidae, Motacillidae, Turnicidae, Pelecanidae, Accipitridae, Podicipedidae, Gaviidae, Pandionidae, represented only single species.


3.4.3. Bank Birds

Eight species under 7 families were recorded which revealed a high richness of the bank birds Table 11. Sturnidae was the largest family with 2 species. Common Myna, Bulbul was the most common birds where other species were recorded as moderately common species. Dove and Woodpecker were on the verge of extinction.

4. Conclusion

The wetland biodiversity of Bangladesh are being drastically by the impacts of the burgeoning human population. Wetlands are being continuously lost or degraded primarily because of various recent developments reflecting a lack of community awareness of wetland functions and values. Khan [12] reported that the rapid diminution of wetland biodiversity in relation to scarcity of water and pollution of water body, degradation and devastation of soil is essentially a crisis for the human spirit. The researcher identified the following causes of the depletion of wetlands biodiversity of Dingaputa haor are given here in.

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