## Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials

Department of Mathematical Education, Faculty of Educations, Akdeniz University, TR-07058 Antalya, Turkey### Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate two new classes of generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials and Apostol-Euler polynomials . In particular, we obtain addition formula for the new class of the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials. We also give some recurrence relations and Raabe relations for these polynomials.

**Keywords:** ** **Bernoulli polynomials and numbers, Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials, Apostol-Euler polynomials, Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials

*Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory*, 2013 1 (1),
pp 54-58.

DOI: 10.12691/tjant-1-1-11

Received November 28, 2013; Revised November 30, 2013; Accepted December 03, 2013

**Copyright:**© 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

### Cite this article:

- Kurt, Burak. "Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials."
*Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory*1.1 (2013): 54-58.

- Kurt, B. (2013). Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials.
*Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory*,*1*(1), 54-58.

- Kurt, Burak. "Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials."
*Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory*1, no. 1 (2013): 54-58.

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### 1. Introduction, Definitions

Bernoulli polynomials play an important role in various expansions and approximation formulas which are useful both in analytic theory of numbers and the classical and the numerical analysis. These polynomials can be defined by various methods depending on the applications. There are six approaches to the theory of Bernoulli polynomials. We prefer here the definition by generating functions given by Euler ^{[4]}.

The classical Bernoulli polynomials and the classical Euler polynomials are defined respectively as

(1.1) |

(1.2) |

The corresponding Bernoulli numbers and Euler numbers are given by

From (1.1) and (1.2), we easily derive that

(1.3) |

(1.4) |

(for details, see ^{[11, 12, 13]}).

The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials order and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials order are defined respectively by the following generating functions

(1.5) |

(1.6) |

Recently, Srivastava *et. al.* in (^{[13, 14, 15]}) have investigated some new classes of Apostol-Bernoulli, Apostol-Euler polynomials with parameters a, b, and c. They gave some recurrence relations and proved some theorems.

For one can obtain the classical polynomials (1.1) and (1.2). Other generalizations can be developed as well.

**Definition 1.** *[Natalini *^{[12]}* and S. Chen et al. *^{[3]}*] The generalized Bernoulli polynomials** ** **are de**fi**ned, in a suitable neigbourhood of** ** **by means of the generating functions*

(1.7) |

From (1.7) for we obtain the generating function of classical Bernoulli polynomials From (1.7) for we obtain the generalized Bernoulli numbers

**Definition 2. ***[Kurt *^{[9]}*] For** ** **the generalized Bernoulli polynomials** ** **of order** ** **are defined by means of the generating function*

(1.8) |

*in suitable neigbourhood of** *

The case was first introduced by Natalini and Bernardini ^{[6]}. For we obtain classical Bernoulli polynomials.

By the same motivation, the generalized Euler polynomials of order and generalized Euler numbers of order were defined by the author ^{[10]}

(1.9) |

and

(1.10) |

From (1.9) and (1.10) and for we obtain classical Euler polynomials and classical Euler numbers respectively:

By the same motivation, the generalized Genocchi polynomials of order and generalized Genocchi numbers of order can be defined as

(1.11) |

and

(1.12) |

### 2. New Classes of Generalized Apostol-Euler Polynomials and Apostol-Bernoulli Polynomials

The following definitions provide a natural generalization of the Apostol-Euler polynomials of order and the Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials of order where

**De****fi****nition 3.** *We de.ne the generalized Bernoulli polynomials** ** **of order** ** **and the generalized Euler polynomials** ** **of order** ** **respectively** **by*

(2.1) |

(2.2) |

*and*

(2.3) |

For (2.1) reduces to (1.7).

For (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3) reduce to classical Bernoulli polynomial, classical Euler polynomial and classical Genocchi polynomial.

From (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3), we obtain

and

**Theorem 1. ***Let** ** **Then the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli poly**n**omials** ** **and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials** ** **satisfy the following relations*

(2.4) |

(2.5) |

*and*

(2.6) |

*respectively.*

*Proof. *Considering the generating function (2.1) and comparing the coefficients of in the both sides of the above equation, we arrive at (2.4). Proof of (2.5) and (2.6) are similar.

**Theorem 2. ***The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials** ** **satisfy the** **following recurrence relation:*

(2.7) |

*Proof. *Considering the expression and using generating function (2.1), the proof follows.

**Corollary 1. ***The generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials** ** **satisfy the following recurrence relation:*

(2.8) |

**Theorem 3. ***There is the following relation between the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials** ** **for** ** **and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials** ** **for** *

(2.9) |

*Proof. *We take and instead of and respectively. We write as:

Comparing the coefficients of , we obtain (2.9).

**Theorem 4. ***The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials** ** **satisfy the** **following recurrence relation:*

(2.10) |

*Proof. *From (2.1) for we write as

(2.11) |

(2.12) |

We put (2.12) in the right hand side of (2.11). Then

If we make necessary operations in the last equation and comparing the coefficients of we arrive (2.10).

**Theorem 5. ***The following relations hold true:*

(2.13) |

*and*

(2.14) |

*Proof. *From (2.1) for

Comparing the coefficients of we obtain (2.13).

For the proof of (2.14), we write

Comparing the coefficients of we arrived to result.

**Corollary 2. ***The new generalized Bernoulli polynomials** ** **for** ** **and** **the new generalized Euler polynomials** ** **for** ** **satisfy the following** **Raabe relations:*

(2.15) |

*and*

(2.16) |

*Proof. *We put in (2.1),

From the last equality, we have (2.15).

Second equation of this corollary can be obtained similarly, so we omit it.

### Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by the *Scienti**fi**c** **Research Project Administration of Akdeniz** **University*.

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