Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials
The main objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate two new classes of generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials and Apostol-Euler polynomials . In particular, we obtain addition formula for the new class of the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials. We also give some recurrence relations and Raabe relations for these polynomials.
Keywords: Bernoulli polynomials and numbers, Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials, Apostol-Euler polynomials, Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials
Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory, 2013 1 (1),
Received November 28, 2013; Revised November 30, 2013; Accepted December 03, 2013Copyright: © 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Kurt, Burak. "Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials." Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory 1.1 (2013): 54-58.
- Kurt, B. (2013). Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials. Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory, 1(1), 54-58.
- Kurt, Burak. "Some Relationships between the Generalized Apostol-Bernoulli and Apostol-Euler Polynomials." Turkish Journal of Analysis and Number Theory 1, no. 1 (2013): 54-58.
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1. Introduction, Definitions
Bernoulli polynomials play an important role in various expansions and approximation formulas which are useful both in analytic theory of numbers and the classical and the numerical analysis. These polynomials can be defined by various methods depending on the applications. There are six approaches to the theory of Bernoulli polynomials. We prefer here the definition by generating functions given by Euler .
The classical Bernoulli polynomials and the classical Euler polynomials are defined respectively as
The corresponding Bernoulli numbers and Euler numbers are given by
From (1.1) and (1.2), we easily derive that
The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials order and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials order are defined respectively by the following generating functions
Recently, Srivastava et. al. in ([13, 14, 15]) have investigated some new classes of Apostol-Bernoulli, Apostol-Euler polynomials with parameters a, b, and c. They gave some recurrence relations and proved some theorems.
For one can obtain the classical polynomials (1.1) and (1.2). Other generalizations can be developed as well.
From (1.7) for we obtain the generating function of classical Bernoulli polynomials From (1.7) for we obtain the generalized Bernoulli numbers
Definition 2. [Kurt ] For the generalized Bernoulli polynomials of order are defined by means of the generating function
in suitable neigbourhood of
The case was first introduced by Natalini and Bernardini . For we obtain classical Bernoulli polynomials.
By the same motivation, the generalized Euler polynomials of order and generalized Euler numbers of order were defined by the author 
From (1.9) and (1.10) and for we obtain classical Euler polynomials and classical Euler numbers respectively:
By the same motivation, the generalized Genocchi polynomials of order and generalized Genocchi numbers of order can be defined as
2. New Classes of Generalized Apostol-Euler Polynomials and Apostol-Bernoulli Polynomials
The following definitions provide a natural generalization of the Apostol-Euler polynomials of order and the Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials of order where
Definition 3. We de.ne the generalized Bernoulli polynomials of order and the generalized Euler polynomials of order respectively by
For (2.1) reduces to (1.7).
For (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3) reduce to classical Bernoulli polynomial, classical Euler polynomial and classical Genocchi polynomial.
From (2.1), (2.2) and (2.3), we obtain
Theorem 1. Let Then the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials satisfy the following relations
Proof. Considering the generating function (2.1) and comparing the coefficients of in the both sides of the above equation, we arrive at (2.4). Proof of (2.5) and (2.6) are similar.
Theorem 2. The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials satisfy the following recurrence relation:
Proof. Considering the expression and using generating function (2.1), the proof follows.
Corollary 1. The generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials satisfy the following recurrence relation:
Theorem 3. There is the following relation between the generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials for and the generalized Apostol-Euler polynomials for
Proof. We take and instead of and respectively. We write as:
Comparing the coefficients of , we obtain (2.9).
Theorem 4. The generalized Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials satisfy the following recurrence relation:
Proof. From (2.1) for we write as
We put (2.12) in the right hand side of (2.11). Then
If we make necessary operations in the last equation and comparing the coefficients of we arrive (2.10).
Theorem 5. The following relations hold true:
Proof. From (2.1) for
Comparing the coefficients of we obtain (2.13).
For the proof of (2.14), we write
Comparing the coefficients of we arrived to result.
Corollary 2. The new generalized Bernoulli polynomials for and the new generalized Euler polynomials for satisfy the following Raabe relations:
Proof. We put in (2.1),
From the last equality, we have (2.15).
Second equation of this corollary can be obtained similarly, so we omit it.
This paper was supported by the Scientific Research Project Administration of Akdeniz University.
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