Open Access Peer-reviewed

Application of Eggshell Wastes as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Achanai Buasri1, 2,, Nattawut Chaiyut1, 2, Vorrada Loryuenyong1, 2, Chaiwat Wongweang1, Saranpong Khamsrisuk1

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

2National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Sustainable Energy. 2013, 1(2), 7-13. DOI: 10.12691/rse-1-2-1
Published online: August 25, 2017

Abstract

The duck and chicken eggshell wastes were applied as raw materials for the preparation of heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production. Prior to use, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content in the waste shell was converted to calcium oxide (CaO) by calcining at 600-900C for 4h. The physicochemical properties of the solid oxide catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The catalytic activity of the catalyst in transesterification of palm oil with methanol was evaluated, and the fuel properties of obtained biodiesel were measured. The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, and reusability of catalyst was also investigated. Eggshell waste is a bioresource for the production of heterogeneous base catalyst that can be successfully utilized for the synthesis of biodiesel with high purity.

Keywords:

biodiesel, eggshell wastes, heterogeneous catalyst, calcium oxide, transesterification
[1]  Viriya-empikul N., Krasae P., Nualpaeng W., Yoosuk B., Faungnawakij K., “Biodiesel production over Ca-based solid catalysts derived from industrial wastes”, Fuel, 92, 239-244, 2012.View Article
 
[2]  Suryaputra W., Winata I., Indraswati N., Ismadji S., “Waste capiz (Amusium cristatum) shell as a new heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production”, Renew. Energy, 50, 795-799, 2013.View Article
 
[3]  Birla A., Singh B., Upadhyay S.N., Sharma Y.C., “Kinetics studies of synthesis of biodiesel from waste frying oil using a heterogeneous catalyst derived from snail shell”, Bioresour. Technol., 106, 95-100, 2012.View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Sharma Y.C., Singh B., Upadhyay S.N., “Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: A review”, Fuel, 87, 2355-2373, 2008.View Article
 
[5]  Liu X., He H., Wang Y., Zhu S., Piao X., “Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst”, Fuel, 87, 216-221, 2008.View Article
 
[6]  Kouzu M., Kasuno T., Tajika M., Sugimoto Y., Yamanaka S., Hidaka J., “Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production”, Fuel, 87, 2798-2806, 2008.View Article
 
[7]  Oliveira D.A., Benelli P., Amante E.R., “A literature review on adding value to solid residues: Egg shells”, J. Cleaner Production, 46, 42-47, 2013.View Article
 
[8]  Viriya-empikul N., Krasae P., Puttasawat B., Yoosuk B., Chollacoop N., Faungnawakij K., “Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts”, Bioresour. Technol., 101, 3765-3767, 2010.View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Boro J., Deka D., Thakur A.J., “A review on solid oxide derived from waste shells as catalyst for biodiesel production”, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 16, 904-910, 2012.View Article
 
[10]  Sharma Y.C., Singh B., Korstad J., “Application of an efficient nonconventional heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from Pongamia pinnata oil”, Energy Fuels, 24, 3223-3231, 2010.View Article
 
[11]  Wei Z., Xu C., Li B., “Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production”, Bioresour. Technol., 100, 2883-2885, 2009.View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Khemthong P., Luadthong C., Nualpaeng W., Changsuwan P., Tongprem P., Viriya-empikul N., Faungnawakij K., “Industrial eggshell wastes as the heterogeneous catalysts for microwave-assisted biodiesel production”, Catal. Today, 190, 112-116, 2012.View Article
 
[13]  Alba-Rubio A.C., Vila F., Alonso D.M., Ojeda M., Mariscal R., Granados M.L., “Deactivation of organosulfonic acid functionalized silica catalysts during biodiesel synthesis”, Appl. Catal. Environ., 95, 279-287, 2010.View Article
 
[14]  Jiang S.T., Zhang F.J., Pan L.J., “Sodium phosphate as a solid catalyst for biodiesel preparation”, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 27, 137-144, 2010.View Article
 
[15]  Buasri A., Ksapabutr B., Panapoy M., Chaiyut N., “Process optimization for ethyl ester production in fixed bed reactor using calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC)”, Int. J. Renew. Energ. Develop., 1, 81-86, 2012.
 
[16]  Buasri A., Chaiyut N., Loryuenyong V., Rodklum C., Chaikwan T., Kumphan N., “Continuous process for biodiesel production in packed bed reactor from waste frying oil using potassium hydroxide supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell as solid catalyst”, Appl. Sci., 2, 641-653, 2012.View Article
 
[17]  Buasri A., Chaiyut N., Loryuenyong V., Rodklum C., Chaikwan T., Kumphan N., Jadee K., Klinklom P., Wittayarounayut W., “Transesterification of waste frying oil for synthesizing biodiesel by KOH supported on coconut shell activated carbon in packed bed reactor”, Sci. Asia, 38, 283-288, 2012.View Article
 
[18]  Santana A., Maçaira J., Larrayoz M.A., “Continuous production of biodiesel using supercritical fluids: A comparative study between methanol and ethanol”, Fuel Process. Technol., 102, 110-115, 2012.View Article
 
[19]  Lu P., Yuan Z., Li L., Wang Z., Luo W., “Biodiesel from different oil using fixed-bed and plug-flow reactors”, Renew. Energy, 35, 283-287, 2010.View Article
 
[20]  Hsieh L.S., Kumar U., Wu J.C.S., “Continuous production of biodiesel in a packed-bed reactor using shell-core structural Ca(C3H7O3)2/CaCO3 catalyst”, Chem. Eng. J., 158, 250-256, 2010.View Article
 
[21]  Lim B.P., Maniam G.P., Hamid S.A., “Biodiesel from adsorbed waste oil on spent bleaching clay using CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst”, Eur. J. Sci. Res., 33, 347-357, 2009.
 
[22]  Obadiah A., Swaroopa G.A., Kumar S.V., Jeganathan K.R., Ramasubbu A., “Biodiesel production from palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst”, Bioresour. Technol., 116, 512-516, 2012.View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  Buasri A., Ksapabutr B., Panapoy M., Chaiyut N., “Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor”, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 29, 1708-1712, 2012.View Article
 
[24]  Rezaei R., Mohadesi M., Moradi G.R., “Optimization of biodiesel production using waste mussel shell catalyst”, Fuel, 109, 534-541, 2013.View Article
 
[25]  Boro J., Thakur A.J., Deka D., “Solid oxide derived from waste shells of Turbonilla striatula as a renewable catalyst for biodiesel production”, Fuel Process. Technol., 92, 2061-2067, 2011.View Article
 
[26]  Boey P.L., Maniam G.P., Hamid S.A., Ali D.M.H., “Utilization of waste cockle shell (Anadara granosa) in biodiesel production from palm olein: Optimization using response surface methodology”, Fuel, 90, 2353-2358, 2011.View Article
 
[27]  Chongkhong S., Tongurai C., Chetpattananondh P., Bunyakan C., “Biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate”, Biomass Bioenerg., 31, 563-568, 2007.