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Parent's Spiritual Intelligence as Predictor of Adolescents Psychological Safety

Boshra A. Arnout , Ahed J. Alkhatib, Dina E. Abdel Rahman, Slavica Pavlovic
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2019, 7(1), 1-4. DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-7-1-1
Received June 28, 2019; Revised August 05, 2019; Accepted August 16, 2019

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the relationship between parents' spiritual intelligence and adolescents psychological safety, and to detect the differences in parents' spiritual intelligence and adolescents due to parents work or not work. A researcher selected a randomly sample consisted of 120 students (73 boys and 47 girls), their ages between 16-22 year, the mean age was 18.84 ± 2.16 years. And the sample of parents consisted of 68 fathers and 52 mothers which age range is between 40-55 year, and the mean age was 47.35 ± 4.38 years. Data were collected by spiritual intelligence scale which applied on the sample of parents and psychological safety questionnaire applied on adolescents sample. The results showed that parents' spiritual intelligence is powerful predictor of adolescents psychological safety accounted for 84.1% variance in their psychological safety. Also there were no significant statistical differences in parents' spiritual intelligence and adolescents psychological safety due to parents work or not work.

1. Introduction

Positive psychology based on a theory that stems from how the individual learns and how achieve a healthy, convincing, good and enjoyable life. The positive, and its commitment to care and development, leads to the understanding of the human being, the world and others around him, and even changes his negative thinking towards life as a whole. Positive psychology has defined as the scientific study of the strengths and virtues that empower individuals, institutions and societies to flourish 1, 2, 3, 4.

21st century witness sequential and rapid changes, in values system and of the family style, from joint to nuclear family in which adolescents are becoming more psychological alienation and lonely, that led to a change in the role of parents, and the ways they are raised for their children. Thus now there are many problems among adolescents and young adults such as violence, crimes, bullying, sexual problems, addiction of drugs and internet games etc., that excessed the stressors on persons, family and societies which decrease their sense of psychological safety.

Psychological safety is one of the basic demands of all people. The need for safety came second after satisfying the initial physiological needs of Maslow's hierarchical model in his theory of human needs in 1943. Underscoring the importance of satisfying the need for safety as a major requirement for the mental health of individuals. Therefore, positive psychology seeks to strengthen and support the sources of strength in the individuals such as self-confidence, gratitude, self-esteem, flexibility, emotional and spiritual intelligence, altruism, hope and forgiveness to increase the sense of individuals psychological safety in its relationship with others and achieve psychological stability and happiness.

Psychological safety is an individual's sense of stability, freedom from fear and anxiety to fulfill his / her requirements, help him to realize his abilities, and more adaptable. It can be said that psychological safety is a key determinant of the quality of life and mental health of the individual. psychological safety is a context in which safety and health of persons facilities and encourage positive and appropriate peer interactions and discourage unhealthy behaviors and confrontational social situations 5.

As Maslow 6 pointed out psychological safety is the result of parenting practices. Its roots extend in childhood, as the mother is an important source of the child's sense of safety, as well as the result of childhood experiences. In the first year of life children have begun to develop styles of interaction with others and thinking styles. Tus the parenting styles influenced the child’s mental health. Parents have primary role in children and youth' spiritual intelligence.

In the same, Young and Wilcox 7 noted that parents can have considerable effect over their children’s beliefs and behaviors, this including religiosity in childhood and adolescence. We can argued that effective parent help child to develop healthy and meaningful relationships with other, thus this leads to a sense of psychological safety among children and adolescents.

Zohar and Marshall 8 claimed that "human beings are essentially spiritual creatures because we are driven by a need to ask ‘fundamental’ or ‘ultimate’ questions… We are driven by a specifically human longing to find meaning and value in what we do and experience. We have a longing to see our lives in some larger, meaning-giving context. We have a longing for something towards which we can aspire, for something that takes us beyond ourselves in the present moment, for something that gives us and our actions a sense of worth".

Arnout and Alkhatib 9 mentioned that the concept of spiritual intelligence is related to human nature or what we call instinct. The nature of man is spirituality, religiosity and goodness, and therefore this nature must be preserved to organize human life. And commitment to worship as a way of life, and adherence to ethics that will sharpen the personality of man and strengthen the relationship between the servant and his Lord, and also between him and others, and increase the awareness of the person and the world and the whole universe, which leads to a balance in the life of the individual in the light of the standards and provisions.

Results of the study conducted by Brody, Stoneman and Flor 10 showed that parents’ religiosity relates to positive parenting practices, cognitive and social competence. While it negatively correlated with internalizing symptomatology among children. And the study of Mohammadyari 11 showed that level of the children’s mental health is different based of the parent’s spiritual intelligence and when parents have a higher spiritual intelligence, their children’s level of mental health is high than the children who have parents with lower spiritual intelligence.

Erikson 12 considered adolescence to be an extremely important period, as most adolescents face the identity crisis of not knowing themselves clearly - a sign of growth that can either lead to a sense of identity or a dispersion. As identity is the main backbone of psychosocial development in adolescence, it is inseparable from other psychosocial needs, including the need for emotional reassurance, which is a positive manifestation of mental health and its first indicator. Emotional insecurity is often threatened by the stress of rapid social, political and technological changes that threaten its identity. For this reason, it is necessary to identify the reasons that affect the psychological security of adolescents.

According to the above, is parent's spiritual intelligence can predict adolescents psychological safety?. In this study, we investigated the possibility of parents' spiritual intelligence to predict the psychological safety of adolescents. And to identify the differences in the parents' spiritual intelligence and psychological safety of adolescents due to the work of parents or not work

2. Methodology

2.1. Population and Sample

The statistical population of this study includes all students and their parents while fathers or mothers are residing in Zagazig city of Egypt in 2019. From this population, we choice a randomly sample consisted of 120 students (73 boys and 47 girls), their ages between 16-22 year, the mean age was 18.84 ± 2.16 years. And the sample of parents consisted of 68 fathers and 52 mothers which age range is between 40-55 year, and the mean age was 47.35 ± 4.38 years.

2.2. Tools

Spiritual intelligence Scale (SIS-20): The scale made by Arnout 13. This scale has 27 items and is self-evaluation completed. Scoring is based on Likert scale with four options (often = 4, sometimes = 3, little = 2, rarely = 1). It consist of 3 distinct dimensions: spiritual mindfulness, spiritual abilities, and spiritual presence. The scale has been reduced to 9 items per dimensions. The validity and stability of this scale was verified. The validity and reliability was calculated. An internal consistency coefficient index ranged between (0.850, 0.896), and alpha was (0.950).

Psychological Safety Questionnaire (PSQ-20): The psychological safety questionnaire self-report comprised 20-items, developed by researchers in this study, to assess individual's perceptions of psychological safety. PSQ 20-items are rated on a 3-point Likert scale from 1=completely disagree to 3=completely agree. PSQ total scores range from 20 to 60 and higher scores indicate high perceptions of psychological safety. The PSQ has good internal consistency Cronbach’s alpha co-efficient of 0.91, and the correlation coefficients between sentences and the total score of PSQ was ranged between 0.765 to 0.889.

2.3. Research Design

A descriptive design was used in this study to examine the relationship between parents spiritual intelligence and adolescents' psychological safety.

2.4 Data Analysis

The obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (statistics package for social sciences). Pearson's correlation and Regression coefficient were used, after testing of normality.

3. Results

The results presented in Tables (1, 2, 3,4,5,6) showed that parents' spiritual intelligence significantly can be considered as a predictor of adolescents psychological safety with total variations of 84.1% (r2= 0.841, p > 0.001).

From the above Table 1 - Table 6, it is possible to predict the psychological security of adolescents through the spiritual intelligence of parents. The following equation can be formulated: Psychological Security for Adolescents = 8.43 +.452 (parents' spiritual Intelligence).

The results of the differences in parents' spiritual intelligence and adolescents psychological safety among study simple due to parents work or not (work and non-work), presented in Table 7 showed that there were no a statistical significant differences between adolescents with working parents and adolescents with non-work parents in adolescents' psychological safety.

4. Discussion and Conclusion

The study examined the relation between parents' spiritual intelligence and adolescents psychological safety. Results show that the parents spiritual intelligence is a significant predictor of adolescents psychological safety. This result implies that the adolescents who their parents more spiritual intelligence, the high in sense of psychological safety. This result is aligned to the previous studies which emphasized the relationship between parents religiosity and children beliefs and behaviors (Brody, Stoneman and Flor 10; Young and Wilcox 7). This results also congruent with the study of Mohammadyari 11 which found a positive relationship between parents spiritual intelligence and children mental health.

As mentioned earlier, Zohar and Marshall 8 view, it can be said that the high spiritual intelligence of parents makes them more self-aware, kindly, forgiveness and generosity in their dealings with their children, thus they have the wisdom. When parents have spiritual intelligence skills they make family environment filled with love and psychological stability, which in turn allows the proper growth of their children, and therefore increase sense of well-being and ambition, creativity and positive orientation towards themselves, others and the world in order to allow them to freely express their emotions and non-suppression them. Parents' spiritual intelligence allows the positive and effectively intrapersonal interactions and emotions to fill the gap between self and their children and adolescents and increase their communication skills with them.

This results consistent with Amram & Dryer 14 said that the importance of spiritual intelligence lies in our ability to apply it to solve certain problems through specific abilities such as intuition, transcendence of rationality by synthesizing paradoxes, taking the perspective of comprehensive systems to solve problems globally, and applying spiritual intelligence at every moment of daily life for a greater experience, transcend the small selfish self to live in both interdependence and harmony with holiness to live in the grace of freedom, joy, beauty and gratitude; curiosity and openness to the truth.

As mentioned by Amram and Alto 15 that spiritual intelligence consists of altruism, openness, trust, presence of mind, relatedness, gratitude, beauty, discernment, commitment, enjoy, mindfulness, awareness consciousness. It can said that spiritual intelligence skills can led to positive parenting.

King 16 saw spiritual intelligence as a set of adaptive mental abilities that contribute to the awareness, integration, and adaptive application of non-physical aspects, leading to results such as profound existential contemplation, enhanced meaning, transcendent self-recognition.

Briefly, it can said that spiritual intelligence helps to bring about the integration of personality traits with mental processes associated with intelligence and information-processing skills as effectively. Perhaps one of the most important features of spiritual intelligence is to protect us from falling into the trap of what Frankel calls existential emptiness. Thus the parent spiritual intelligence role play in increase their satisfactions and quality of family life, which has an impact on the happiness and psychological well-being of their children and their sense of psychological safety.

About the differences adolescents with working parents and adolescents with non-work parents in adolescents' psychological safety, results showed that there were no statistical significant differences between adolescents who they parents work and the adolescents who they parents not work. This result may be due to the spiritual intelligence is related to personality as the study of Arnout 17 emphasized. Ahmed 18 as a set of innate characteristics characterized by the individual and supported by the environment of his childhood, gaining spiritual abilities to enable him to enter situations that help to focus and control the mental and physical processes to achieve the possibility of directing his social relationship and face psychological and emotional difficulties and increase his intuition.

These results emphasized the importance of development spiritual intelligence among parents, because of the decline of moral and standards ethics and loss of values and virtues among youth and adults now in every aspects of life, which occurred as result of globalization.

Conflict of Interest

All the authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

[1]  Arnout, B. (2008). Spiritual Intelligence and its Relationship to Quality of Life. Journal of the Modern Education Association, 2, May, 313-389.
In article      
 
[2]  Arnout, B. (2016 a). Spiritual intelligence and psychological counseling between theory and practice. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian Library.
In article      
 
[3]  Arnout, B. (2019). Applications of positive psychology in counseling and psychotherapy. LAMBERT for Academic Publishing, Germany.
In article      
 
[4]  Arnout, B. and Alkhatib, A. (2019). The Secret of Human Existence Homeostasis: Spiritual Intelligence is the Hope of all Humanity. Open Access Journal of Addiction and Psychology, 2(3), 1-9.
In article      
 
[5]  Mahoney, J., Cairns, B., and Farmer, T. (2005). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3-22.
In article      
 
[6]  Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Young, K. and Wilcox. W. (2014). Religious identity, religious attendance, and parental control. Review of Religious Research, 56, 555-80.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Zohar, D. and Marshall, I. (2000). Spiritual intelligence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
In article      
 
[9]  Arnout, B.; Latyshev, O. AND Alkhatib, A. (2019). The Relative Contribution of Spiritual Intelligence in the Adherence to Research Ethical Standards. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 18(5), 13917-13927.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Brody, G.; Stoneman Z. and Flor, D. (1996). Parental religiosity, family processes, and youth competence in rural two parents African American Families. Developmental Psychology, 32, 696-706.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Mohammadyari, G. (2012). Relationship between Parent’s Spiritual Intelligence, Level of Education and Children’s Mental Health. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 2114-2118.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Scheck, S. (2005). The stages of psychological development according to Erik H. Erikson. Germany: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
In article      
 
[13]  Arnout, B. (2016 b). Development of the scale of spiritual intelligence of the disabled and the special needs of adolescents and adults. Psychological Counseling Journal, Ain Shams University, 46, 155-198.
In article      
 
[14]  Amram, Y and Dryer, C. (2007). Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale: The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS), Working Paper presented to Institute of Transpersonal Psychology Palo Alto, CA, 30-7.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Amram, Y. and Alto, P. (2007). The seven dimension of spiritual intelligence: An ecumenical grounded theory. 115th The Annual Conference Of The American Psychological Association: San Francisco, August, 17-20.
In article      
 
[16]  King, B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, & measure. Unpublished master's thesis, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
In article      
 
[17]  Arnout, B. (2007). Spiritual intelligence and its relation to personality traits. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Banha University, 17 (72), 125-190.
In article      
 
[18]  Ahmed, M. (2006). Spiritual Intelligence. Alexandria: Modern University Office.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Boshra A. Arnout, Ahed J. Alkhatib, Dina E. Abdel Rahman and Slavica Pavlovic

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Boshra A. Arnout, Ahed J. Alkhatib, Dina E. Abdel Rahman, Slavica Pavlovic. Parent's Spiritual Intelligence as Predictor of Adolescents Psychological Safety. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp 1-4. http://pubs.sciepub.com/rpbs/7/1/1
MLA Style
Arnout, Boshra A., et al. "Parent's Spiritual Intelligence as Predictor of Adolescents Psychological Safety." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 7.1 (2019): 1-4.
APA Style
Arnout, B. A. , Alkhatib, A. J. , Rahman, D. E. A. , & Pavlovic, S. (2019). Parent's Spiritual Intelligence as Predictor of Adolescents Psychological Safety. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 1-4.
Chicago Style
Arnout, Boshra A., Ahed J. Alkhatib, Dina E. Abdel Rahman, and Slavica Pavlovic. "Parent's Spiritual Intelligence as Predictor of Adolescents Psychological Safety." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 7, no. 1 (2019): 1-4.
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  • Table 7. Differences between adolescents with working parents and adolescents with non-work parents in adolescents' psychological safety
[1]  Arnout, B. (2008). Spiritual Intelligence and its Relationship to Quality of Life. Journal of the Modern Education Association, 2, May, 313-389.
In article      
 
[2]  Arnout, B. (2016 a). Spiritual intelligence and psychological counseling between theory and practice. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian Library.
In article      
 
[3]  Arnout, B. (2019). Applications of positive psychology in counseling and psychotherapy. LAMBERT for Academic Publishing, Germany.
In article      
 
[4]  Arnout, B. and Alkhatib, A. (2019). The Secret of Human Existence Homeostasis: Spiritual Intelligence is the Hope of all Humanity. Open Access Journal of Addiction and Psychology, 2(3), 1-9.
In article      
 
[5]  Mahoney, J., Cairns, B., and Farmer, T. (2005). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3-22.
In article      
 
[6]  Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Young, K. and Wilcox. W. (2014). Religious identity, religious attendance, and parental control. Review of Religious Research, 56, 555-80.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Zohar, D. and Marshall, I. (2000). Spiritual intelligence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
In article      
 
[9]  Arnout, B.; Latyshev, O. AND Alkhatib, A. (2019). The Relative Contribution of Spiritual Intelligence in the Adherence to Research Ethical Standards. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 18(5), 13917-13927.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Brody, G.; Stoneman Z. and Flor, D. (1996). Parental religiosity, family processes, and youth competence in rural two parents African American Families. Developmental Psychology, 32, 696-706.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Mohammadyari, G. (2012). Relationship between Parent’s Spiritual Intelligence, Level of Education and Children’s Mental Health. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 2114-2118.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Scheck, S. (2005). The stages of psychological development according to Erik H. Erikson. Germany: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
In article      
 
[13]  Arnout, B. (2016 b). Development of the scale of spiritual intelligence of the disabled and the special needs of adolescents and adults. Psychological Counseling Journal, Ain Shams University, 46, 155-198.
In article      
 
[14]  Amram, Y and Dryer, C. (2007). Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale: The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS), Working Paper presented to Institute of Transpersonal Psychology Palo Alto, CA, 30-7.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Amram, Y. and Alto, P. (2007). The seven dimension of spiritual intelligence: An ecumenical grounded theory. 115th The Annual Conference Of The American Psychological Association: San Francisco, August, 17-20.
In article      
 
[16]  King, B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, & measure. Unpublished master's thesis, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
In article      
 
[17]  Arnout, B. (2007). Spiritual intelligence and its relation to personality traits. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Banha University, 17 (72), 125-190.
In article      
 
[18]  Ahmed, M. (2006). Spiritual Intelligence. Alexandria: Modern University Office.
In article