A Psychological Appraisal of Manifest Needs as Predictors of Job Involvement among Selected Workers in Lagos State
1Department of Behavioural Studies, Redeemer’s University, Redemption City, Ogun State, Nigeria
This work presents the findings of a study into manifest needs as predictors of Job Involvement among some selected workers in Lagos state, Nigeria. The random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) participants in Lagos state for this study, which constituted one hundred (100) workers in public organizations and one hundred (100) workers in private organizations (that is 50 male and 50 female workers in each group). The study used a survey research design and data were collected with a battery of psychological tests, namely: Job Involvement Scale (JIS) and Manifest Needs Questionnaire (MNQ). The data obtained were further analyzed using the Independent t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson Correlation and Regression Analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences between male and female, public and private organizations, old and young employees, and between the various levels of the components of Manifest Needs on Job Involvement. However, manifest needs components jointly contributed a 4% variance in Job involvement of employees. The implications of the findings of this study in terms of motivating workers for optimal job involvement were discussed and recommendations were made accordingly for both private and public organizations.
Keywords: manifest needs, personality, job involvement, workers
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2013 1 (5),
Received January 21, 2013; Revised May 29, 2013; Accepted May 30, 2013Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Arogundade, Odunayo, and Abiola Olunubi. "A Psychological Appraisal of Manifest Needs as Predictors of Job Involvement among Selected Workers in Lagos State." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 1.5 (2013): 61-66.
- Arogundade, O. , & Olunubi, A. (2013). A Psychological Appraisal of Manifest Needs as Predictors of Job Involvement among Selected Workers in Lagos State. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 1(5), 61-66.
- Arogundade, Odunayo, and Abiola Olunubi. "A Psychological Appraisal of Manifest Needs as Predictors of Job Involvement among Selected Workers in Lagos State." Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences 1, no. 5 (2013): 61-66.
|Import into BibTeX||Import into EndNote||Import into RefMan||Import into RefWorks|
Human resource is one of the most essential ingredients in all organizations, be they business, education, government, or Non Governmental Organizations. Organizations look for suitable individuals who can fit the criteria for the vacant positions available, for the purpose of positive impact in the organization. Each and every individual employed, irrespective of gender, brings to the organization different varieties of skills, knowledge, tactical depth, and ideas on the organization obtaining its goal. However, the degree to which employees are involved in these various organizations, would largely determine whether the organization would achieve her objectives .
The concept of Job Involvement is generally viewed as managing discretionary efforts, in which employees have choices in contributing or withholding their Knowledge, Skills and Abilities to the success of the organization . Individuals who display high involvement in their jobs consider their work to be a very important part of their lives and whether or not they feel good about themselves is closely related to how they perform on their jobs . In other words highly involved individuals perform quite well on their job and this contributes significantly to their self esteem.
Research studies over the past two decades, which have explored the construct of job involvement, have approached it from two different perspectives [4, 5]. First when viewed as an individual difference variable, job involvement is believed to occur when the possession of certain needs, values or personal characteristics predispose individuals to become more or less involved in their jobs. For instance McShane & Von Glinow  review of literature on job involvement found that individual characteristics such as age, education, sex, tenure, need strength, level of control and values were linked to job involvement. The second perspective views job involvement as a response to specific work situation characteristics. In other words certain types of jobs or characteristics of the work situation influence the degree to which an individual becomes involved in his / her job. For example research has demonstrated that job involvement has been related to job characteristics such as task autonomy, task significance, task identity, skill variety and feedback and supervisory behaviors such as leader consideration, participative decision making and amount of communication .
Fostering job involvement is an important organizational objective because many researchers consider it to be a primary determinant of organizational effectiveness  and individual motivation . These links stem from the theoretical notion that being immersed in one’s work increases motivational processes which in turn influence job performance and other relevant outcomes like turnover and absenteeism .
Furthermore, researchers have tried to find out those things that give employees satisfaction and job involvement. This is because a satisfied and involved employee is what organizations and institutions need to achieve their goals and objectives [6, 9]. Although job involvement is considered to be a key factor influencing important individual and organizational outcomes , research finding showing a significant impact of this construct on performance has met limited success . The general perception is that people with high levels of job involvement are likely to put more effort into their jobs and therefore tend to display higher levels of in-role performance [6, Organizational behaviour and human performance, vol. 16, pp. 250-79.">7, 9]. Also, the job involvement of the individual seems to be fundamental to the satisfaction of certain salient psychological needs that could lead to positive organizational implications . Psychological needs are found to be of varying degrees in all workers and managers , and this mix of motivational needs characterizes a worker's or manager's style and behaviour, both in terms of being motivated and in the management and motivation of others . Manifest Needs Theory states that behaviour is driven by the desire to satisfy manifest (easily perceived or most current) needs. These needs include; need for achievement, affiliation, autonomy and dominance.
Need for Achievement: The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment.
Need for Affiliation: The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation, the need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players.
Need for Autonomy: An individual with this need would desire to establish and maintain warm, close, and intimate relationships with other people. The individual enjoys being with friends and people in general; accepts people readily, makes efforts to win friendships and maintain associations with people.
Need for Dominance: This person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige.
These needs assume that there is no hierarchy, needs are learned, they are not instinctive and needs are never completely satisfied. Factors that affect work motivation include individual differences, job characteristics, and organizational practices. Individual differences are the personal needs, values and attitudes, interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs. Job characteristics are the aspects of the position that determine its limitations and challenges. Organizational practices are the rules, human resource policies, managerial practices, and rewards systems.
The research questions that arise from this study therefore are:
1) Are employees in private organizations more involved in their jobs than employees in public organizations?
2) Is job involvement gender specific?
3) Is there a significant relationship between Manifest Needs and Job Involvement?
4) What kind of predictive value does manifest needs have on workers’ perception of employees’ job involvement?
5) Do age differences significantly influence Job Involvement?
2. Theoretical Framework
Job Involvement can be explained from the perspective of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Theory . This theory is based on the simple premise that human beings have needs which are hierarchically ranked . There are some needs that are basic to all human beings, and in their absence, nothing else matters. As we satisfy these basic needs, we start looking to satisfy higher-order needs. Once a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator .
This hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employees may have at any given point and explains different reactions they may have to similar treatment. An employee who is trying to satisfy her esteem needs may feel gratified when her supervisor praises her. However, another employee who is trying to satisfy his social needs may resent being praised by upper management in front of peers if the praise sets him apart from the rest of the group.
So organizations satisfy their employees’ various needs by leveraging the various facets of the planning-organizing-leading-controlling (P-O-L-C) functions. In the long run, physiological needs may be satisfied by the person’s pay check, but it is important to remember that pay may satisfy other needs such as safety and esteem as well. Providing generous benefits, including health insurance and company-sponsored retirement plans, as well as offering a measure of job security, will help satisfy safety needs. Social needs may be satisfied by having a friendly environment, providing a workplace conducive to collaboration and communication with others. Company picnics and other social get-togethers may also be helpful if the majority of employees are motivated primarily by social needs (but may cause resentment if they are not and if they have to sacrifice a Sunday afternoon for a company picnic). Providing promotion opportunities at work, recognizing a person’s accomplishments verbally or through more formal reward systems, job titles that communicate to the employee that one has achieved high status within the organization are among the ways of satisfying esteem needs. Finally, self-actualization needs may be satisfied by providing development and growth opportunities on or off the job, as well as by assigning interesting and challenging work. By making the effort to satisfy the different needs each employee may have at a given time, organizations may ensure a more highly motivated workforce.
However, not all people are driven by the same needs, at any particular time because; different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. It is important to understand the needs being pursued by each employee. To motivate an employee, the manager must be able to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating, and use those needs as levers of motivation.
Furthermore, Norwood,  proposed that Maslow's hierarchy can be used to describe the kinds of information individual's seek at different levels of development. For example, individuals at the lowest level seek coping information in order to meet their basic needs. Information that is not directly connected to helping a person meet his or her needs in a very short time span is simply left unattended. Individuals at the safety level need helping information. They seek to be assisted in seeing how they can be safe and secure. Enlightening information is sought by individuals seeking to meet their belongingness needs. Empowering information is sought by people at the esteem level. They look for information on how their egos can be developed. Finally, people in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization seek edifying information. Though Norwood does not specifically address the level of transcendence, it is safe to say that individuals at this stage would seek information on how to connect to something beyond them or how others could be edified.
In view of the above, the following hypotheses are tested:
1) Male employees will be more involved in their jobs than female employees.
2) Employees in public organizations will be more involved than employees in private organizations.
3) Employees in the age bracket of (30 years and below) will be more involved in their jobs, than their counterparts in other age brackets.
4) There will be a positive correlation amongst the various manifest needs and job involvement.
5) Participants classified as having a high need for affiliation will be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for affiliation.
6) Participants classified as having a high need for dominance will be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for dominance.
7) Manifest needs would strongly predict job involvement.
The research design adopted for this study was a descriptive survey research design, which involves the use of questionnaires. The independent variables are Manifest needs, Gender, and Age, while the dependent variable is Job Involvement. A total number of 200 participants took part in this study; 100 males and 100 females. All participants are full-time employees in different organizations.
A Battery of psychological tests were used for data collection; they are Job Involvement (JI) and Manifest Needs Scale (MNQ).
1) Job Involvement Questionnaire (JI): It was developed by Lodahl and Kejner,  to measure job involvement. This 20-item inventory is designed to measure what the authors described as “the extent to which a person’s work performance affects his/her self-esteem.” Job Involvement is also the extent to which a person is attached and engrossed in his/her general employment circumstances and the concept is distinct from the concepts of job satisfaction and job motivation.
2) Manifest Needs Questionnaire (MNQ): It was developed Steers & Braunstein,  to measure the needs of workers, to screen workers into categories according to their needs, and to make job placement according to individual needs in work setting. The 20-item inventory is designed to assess job-related needs of workers. A need consists of those physical, material, and psychological conditions, aspects, and circumstances which a worker prefers to have in a work setting and which serve as an impetus for enhancing job motivation and job satisfaction. The four needs assessed by this inventory are; Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation, Need for Autonomy, and Need for Dominance.
The data collected were analyzed with the independent t-test and multiple regression analysis techniques. While the Independent t-test was used to find the difference between mean scores; multiple regression used to predict the influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable.
Test of Hypothesis
H1: Male employees will be more involved in their jobs than female employees.
The result from the table above showed that there was no significant difference in job involvement of male employees and female employees with [t (198) = 0.18, P > 0.05]. The mean job involvement score for male and female employees were 44.60 and 44.27 respectively. The hypothesis one was rejected accordingly.
H2: Employees in public organizations will be more involved in their jobs than employees in private organizations.
The result from the table above showed that employees in public organizations will not be more involved in their job than employees in private organizations with [t (198) = 0.89, P > 0.05]. The mean scores on job involvement for the employees in private and public employees were 45.24 and 43.63 respectively. The hypothesis two was rejected according.
H3: Employees in the age bracket of 30years and below will be more involved in their job than those in 30-45years and 46years and above.
Although the mean job involvement score for employees within 30 years and below was higher (41.82) than those within 31-45 (38.94) and 40 and above (39.26), it was statistically insignificant with [f 197 = 1.37, P > 0.05]. The hypothesis was therefore rejected.
H4: There will be a positive correlation between the various manifest needs and job involvement.
The result from the table above revealed that there was no significant correlation between various manifest needs and job involvement.
H5: Participants classified as having a high need for affiliation will be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for affiliation
The result from the table showed that participants classified as having a high need for affiliation will not be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for affiliation. The mean scores were 44.80 for employees with low affiliation needs and 44.18 for employees with high affiliation needs. The hypothesis was therefore accepted
H6: Participants classified as having a high need for dominance will be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for dominance.
The result above showed that participants classified as having a high need for dominance would not be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for dominance. With the mean scores of low dominance need employees as 45.06 and that of those with high dominance need as 43.87. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected.
H7: Manifest needs will strongly predict job involvement.
In view of the table above, it was observed that the different types of manifests needs (achievement, affiliation, autonomy and dominance needs) jointly predicted a four percent (4%) variance.
5. Discussion of Findings
Hypothesis One which stated that male employees will be more involved in their jobs than female employees, was not supported. Thus, the hypothesis was rejected. This result is not in agreement with the findings of Elcimeral, , where 160 managers (male and female) were matched: he found that females who perceive their organization offering flexible working hours reported higher levels of satisfaction and organization commitment than workers who did not see a difference in their working hours. From my personal empirical observation, males are not as privileged as females, in the area of work. They have more competition to face and are not given any preferential treatment, as the females. Female employees in the public sector have more freedom such as sales of wears in the office, leaving the office early to attend to family matters, establishing more rapport with their superiors etc makes them satisfied with their job but does not make their satisfaction greater than those female employees in the private sector. This is because female workers in the private sector are given better treatment such as training and development, seminars, provision of comfortable office and transportation means. They are also given greater opportunity for self evaluation and autonomy. They participate in team work as well as organizational decision making. This makes them responsible in their working place and consequently lead to them been involved in their jobs. For instance some private companies go as far as giving their female employees maternity leave abroad as well as other attractive benefits such as giving scholarship to the worker’s children.
Hypothesis Two which stated that employees in public organizations will be more involved than employees in private organizations was not supported. Thus, the hypothesis was rejected. The result disagrees with Brown & Leigh  who asserted that the quality of one’s entire life can be greatly affected by one’s degree of involvement or alienation from the job. Environmental situations, personal beliefs and individual efforts may be reasons for an employee’s adherence to his or her job. It may necessarily be due to the organizational conditions or settings. The result also negates the findings of Diefendorff . He concluded that job involvement is higher in private sector workers who fail to give the right information in order to favour their work place as well as making people feel that they are comfortable with their jobs. It could also mean that the scramble for job makes people adhere closely with what they have and thereby, put their best in their jobs to make a living which makes them more involved. The economic situation is such that unemployment is at an increase, the few jobs available are maintained by incumbent workers and their best is done in order not to lose the job. The few alternatives therefore leave them with no choice but to be involved.
Hypothesis three which stated that employees in the age bracket of 30 years and below will be more involved in their job than those in 30 years and above, was not supported Thus, the hypothesis was rejected. From my personal observation, individuals in this age bracket i.e. 30 and below, being young, have a lot of employment opportunities before them, compared to their older counterparts. Some of these ‘young ones’ have degrees they are pursuing or interested in pursuing. Some are more employees in various organizations, just to make ends meet and ‘fulfill all righteousness’ of going to work. The fact that they fall into the ‘unmarried age category’ gives them more room to be unconcerned about their jobs. If for instance they have a family to cater for, there is a probability that they would be very involved in their jobs. All these and more, based on personal goals and decision, may contribute to the lack or presence of job involvement in these individuals
Hypothesis four which stated that there will be a positive correlation between the various manifest needs and job involvement was not supported. Although, there was a significant inverse relationship between need for achievement and job involvement, which implies that as the need for achievement increases; the level of job involvement decreases. This can be explained from the findings of McShane & Von Glinow  who reported that individual characteristics such as age, education, sex, tenure, need strength, level of control and values were linked to job involvement, thus if an individual believes that he or she has attained his or her goal on the job, such an individual may be less involved in the job.
Hypothesis five which stated that participants classified as having a high need for affiliation will be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for affiliation was not supported. The hypothesis was rejected. It agrees with Rabinowitz, & Hall,  assumption that, people generally with high needs for affiliation were not concerned with task performances unless they were instrumental in building relations between individuals. Employees who have a high need for affiliation would not be involved in jobs that do not enable them to interact and have close contact with people. As opposed to individuals who have a low need for affiliation.
Hypothesis six which stated that participants classified as having a high need for dominance would be more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for dominance was not supported The hypothesis was therefore rejected. In organizations where the act of been dominant in anyway, is not encouraged, individuals with a high need for dominance would not function well. This is because, an individual with this need likes to control his human environment or direct the behaviour of others by suggestion, seduction, persuasion, or command. He tries to dissuade, restrain, or prohibit others. He expresses his opinion forcefully, and enjoys the role of a leader and may assume it spontaneously. It then becomes very dissimulating for the individual, if these tendencies in him are not allowed to reign freely .
Hypothesis seven which stated that Manifest needs would strongly predict job involvement was not supported. It was observed that the different types of manifests needs (achievement, affiliation, autonomy and dominance needs) jointly predicted a four percent (4%) variance in job involvement. It was however observed that only achievement need independently predicted job involvement of the workers]. Thus, the hypothesis was rejected. Manifest needs may not be able to jointly predict a significant difference in job involvement; this is due to the fact that there are other variable beyond manifest needs, that can make an individual become more or less involved in the job, some of these variables include: safety needs, esteem needs, and physiological needs .
The study was carried out in order to find if manifest needs would effectively influence Job Involvement. None of the hypotheses was confirmed. However, this research has been able to provide answers to the research questions and fulfill the research objectives by testing the hypothesis stated in the study. From the findings of this study, it may be concluded that:
1. There was no significant difference in job involvement of male employees and female employees.
2. Employees in public organizations are not more involved than employees in private organizations.
3. Employees in the age bracket of 30 years and below are not more involved in their job than those in 30 years and above.
4. There was no positive correlation between the all the various aspects of manifest needs and job involvement.
5. Participants classified as having a high need for affiliation are not more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for affiliation.
6. Participants classified as having a high need for dominance are not more involved in their jobs than their counterparts classified as having a low need for dominance.
7. Manifest needs could not significantly predict job involvement.
The findings of this research work have been able to supplement the existing knowledge issues of employee’s involvement in both public and private sectors. Employees should be properly cared for both physically and psychologically. The findings of the present study have implications for both private and public sector workers on what can be done to improve their job involvements. If a worker is satisfied with his job, he tends to be more productive and committed to such a job. This means that, there will be increase in his or her productivity; reduction in absenteeism and turnover which will in turn leads to national development. Management should therefore endeavour to identify workers needs and actually satisfy such needs in both sectors. They should also encourage team work, less supervision, self evaluation and autonomy and also, in all aspects, improve the working conditions of all the employees. From a psychological stand point, if workers are not satisfied with their jobs, they would be less friendly with their co-workers, more unhappy with their family members and would feel disenchanted from their job.
|||McShane, S.L & Von Glinow, M.A(2000). Organizational behavior. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.|
|||Brown Steven .P & Leigh Thomas .W (1996): A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to jobinvolvement, effort, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology [JAP], pages 358-368|
|||Cohen, A. (1995). An examination of the relationships between work commitment and non-work domains Relations, 48, 239. 263.|
|||Saal, F.E. (1978). Job involvement: A multivariate approach. Journal of Applied psychology|
|||Mudrack, P. E. (2004). Job involvement, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, and workaholic behavioural tendencies. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 490. 508.|
|||Rabinowitz, S., & Hall, D.T. (1977). Organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 265-288.|
|||Hackman J. R., & Oldham, G. R., 1976, "Motivation through design of work", Organizational behaviour and human performance, vol. 16, pp. 250-79.|
|||Chay, Y-W, & Aryee, S. (1999). Potential moderating influence of career growth opportunities on careerist Orientation and work attitudes: Evidence of the protean career era in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 613. 623.|
|||Dorjan V.R and Hogg T.C. (1966) “Job satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Aspirations Journal of Asian and African studies, 1 Oct., 261-278.|
|||Rotenberry, P.F., & Moberg, P.J. (2007). Assessing the impact of job involvement on performance. Management Research News, 30, 203-215 Psychology, 63, 53-61.|
|||Diefendorff J. M (2002): Examining the roles of job involvement and work centrality in predicting organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. Journal of organizational behaviour, volume 23, Issue 1, pages 93-108|
|||Daniels, M. (2001). Maslow’s concept of self-actualization. Retrieved February 2004, from http://www.mdani.demon.co.uk/archive/MDMaslow.htm.|
|||Franken, R. (2001). Human motivation (5th ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.|
|||Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Retrieved June 2012.|
|||Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.|
|||Norwood, G. (1999). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. The Truth Vectors (Part I). Retrieved May 2002.|
|||Lodahl, T. and Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 24-33.|
|In article||CrossRef PubMed|
|||Steers, R. M. and Braunstein, D. N (1976). A behavioural-based measure of manifest needs in work setting Journal of Vocational behaviour, 9, 251-266.|
|||Elcimeral, E. A (2007). Effect of manifest needs religiosity and selected demographics on hard working: an empirical investigation in turkey. Journal of International Business Research, 2,233-247.|