Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Me...

A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman, Moriom Jamila

Research in Plant Sciences

Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants

A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman1,, Moriom Jamila1

1Plant Taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Botany, Faculty of Life & Earth Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Abstract

Angiosperm diversity in the Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh has been studied. A total of 151 species belonging to 131 genera under 64 families were recorded. Habit analysis shows that herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees are represented by 59, 29, 18 and 45 species, respectively. Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. The present investigation deals with forty seven (47) medicinally important angiosperm plant species grown at Jamtala of Chapai Nawabganj district for treatment of different ailments such as asthma, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, heart disease, itches, skin disease, paralysis, wound etc. This study provides immense scope for biochemical analysis and screening of the active principle of the medicinal plants present at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj district for futuristic growth in the field of drug development.

Cite this article:

  • A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman, Moriom Jamila. Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants. Research in Plant Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp 1-9. http://pubs.sciepub.com/plant/4/1/1
  • Rahman, A.H.M. Mahbubur, and Moriom Jamila. "Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants." Research in Plant Sciences 4.1 (2016): 1-9.
  • Rahman, A. M. , & Jamila, M. (2016). Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants. Research in Plant Sciences, 4(1), 1-9.
  • Rahman, A.H.M. Mahbubur, and Moriom Jamila. "Angiosperm Diversity at Jamtala Village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh with Emphasis on Medicinal Plants." Research in Plant Sciences 4, no. 1 (2016): 1-9.

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1. Introduction

Angiosperms are as important to humans as they are to other animals. Angiosperms serve as the major source of food-either directly or indirectly through consumption by herbivores-and, as mentioned above, they are a primary source of consumer goods, such as building materials, textile fibers, spices, herbs, and pharmaceuticals. Among the most important food plants on a global scale are cereals from the grass family (Poaceae); potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, and red or chili peppers from the potato family (Solanaceae); legumes or beans (Fabaceae); pumpkins, melons, and gourds from the squash family (Cucurbitaceae); broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, and other vegetables from the mustard family (Brassicaceae, or Cruciferae); and almonds, apples, apricots, cherries, loquats, peaches, pears, raspberries, and strawberries from the rose family (Rosaceae). Members of many angiosperm families are used for food on a local level, such as ullucu (Ullucus tuberosus) in the Andes and cassava (Manihot esculenta) throughout the tropics. Tropical angiosperm trees are an important source of timber in the tropics and throughout the world [60, 61].

The importance of studying local floristic diversity and medicinal uses has been realized and carried out in Bangladesh by [8-12][8], [19], [25], [28, 29], [40], [45-53][45]. Moreover, the area supports a large number of angiosperm species including herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees. Like other parts of the country, the floristic elements of this area is in risk because of various anthropogenic activities including irrigation and modern agriculture, population settlements and firewood collection and also habit degradation. The present paper was focused an inventory of angiosperm diversity in the Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj district and to document the medicinal uses of plant species by the Santal people.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

Jamtala is a village under Nawabganj Sadar upazila of Chapai Nawabganj in the Division of Rajshahi Bangladesh. Nawabganj upazila area is 451.78 km2 located in between 24°36′N 88°16′E Coordinates: 24°36′N 88°16′E. It is bounded by Gomastapur upazila on the north, on the north-east Nachole, on the west Shibganj and on the south-east Rajshahi Zila. Population: Total 530592; male 254629, female 275963; Muslim 507483, Hindu 20644, Buddhist 3, Christian 1239 and others 1223. Literacy rate: Average literacy 46.3 %; male 44.8 %, female 47.7%. Main sources of income: Agriculture 40 %, non-agricultural labourer 2.86%, Rice mils 62% and others mils 208%, commerce 16.87%, transport and communication 2.14%, service 26.26%, construction 5.80%, and others 12.65%. Ownership of agricultural land: Landowner 60.36%, landless 40.64%; agricultural landowner: urban 47.12% and rural 60.64%.Main Crops: Paddy, jute, sugarcane, wheat, betel leaf, oil seeds, pulses. Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, litchi, black berry, palm, coconut, watermelon and boroi. Water bodies Main River: Mohanonda. Manufacturing Industries: Silk mill, textile mill, cold storage and aluminium factory are different types of manufacturing industries are present. Main exports Mango, Sugar, jute hessian, banana, pineapple, onion, garlic, vegetables [4].

2.2. Survey of Medicinal Information

In the present survey, a total of 47 plant species under 45 genera and 36 families were collected and recorded for their use in various ailments. A total of 150 Santal people having an age range 20-84 years were interviewed using semi-structured interviewed method. Professionally they were peasant, day labor, farmer, betel leaf cultivators, house wives, medicine men, small shop keepers etc. Among them 70 were female and rest 80 were male. Regular field studies were made in the study area during the period. The information about the plants used for various diseases was gathered through interviews and discussion with the elderly people, medicine men and traditional medical practitioners were also consulted. Plant specimens with flowers and fruits were collected and processed using standard herbarium techniques. Herbal plants referred by these people were authentically identified with the help of [1, 2, 3], [5, 6, 7], [13, 14, 15], [16, 17], [20, 21, 22, 23, 24], [26, 27], [30-43][30] and [44]. The voucher specimens are stored at The Herbarium, Department of Botany, and University of Rajshahi for future reference.

3. Results and Discussion

Angiosperm diversity in the village Jamtala of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh conducted during December 2013 to June 2015. A total of 151 species belonging to 131 genera under 64 families were recorded. Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledones) is represented by 51 families, 105 genera and 123 species, whereas Liliopsida (Monocotyledones) by 13 families, 26 genera and 28 species. These comprise of 59 herbs, 45 trees, 29 shrubs, 18 climbers belong to 64 families. Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae andMoraceae are the largest family in Magnoliopsida represented by 8species in each and Liliopsida, Areaceae, Poaceae is the largest family with 5species (Table 1). Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae are the dominant families with high species diversity. For each species botanical name, local name, habit, voucher number and family were provided of 151 species recorded here, herbs are represented by 59 (39.07%), trees by 45 (29.80%), shrubs by 29 (19.05%), climber by 18 (11.92%) (Figure 1).

Table 1. Angiosperm Diversity in the Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh

Based on this study, a preliminary list of angiosperm flora in Jamtala Village under Sadar Upazila of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh was made that includes 151 angiosperm species under 131 genera and 64 families (Table 1). The collected information is comparable with the result of other studies in Bangladesh. A total of 243 species belonging to 195 genera under 95 families were recorded in Khagrachhari district [8]. A total of 535 species belonged to 370 genera and 103 families are documented in Tekhnaf Wildlife Sanctuary [58]. A total of 425 species belonging to 321 genera 108 families are recorded in Rajshahi district [18]. A total of 302 species belonging to 243 genera 84 families are recorded in Bangladesh Police Academy, Rajshahi [40]. Distribution of angiosperm species in the families shows variation. The family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae is represented by 8 species in each. Solanaceae is represented by 6 species. Each of Amaranthaceae, Casalpinaceae, Arraceae and Poaceae is represented by 5 species. Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae, and Lamiaceae are represented by 4 species. A single species in each was recorded by 34 families while two to six species in each was recorded by 26 families (Table 1).

The important medicinal plant species at Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj district were highlighted. A total of 47 medicinal plant species belonging to 45 genera and 36 families were collected and recorded for their use in various ailments. Most of the local people in the study area are poor are illiterate. In one hand, these people are out of the reach of modern medicines and on other hand, the market price of most available medicines are very expensive. As a result, these medicinal plants are used by them to cure following the diseases, especially for asthma, cough, cold, small pox, dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, eczema, fever, and itches, paralysis, piles, skin diseases, snake-bite, dog-bite, toothache, wound and others (Table 2). The collected medicinal information comparable with the result of other studies in Bangladesh [17, 26, 27, 42] and [48-53][48]. The most frequently used species for the treatment of different diseases are Aegle marmelos (L.)Correa, Aloe vera (L) Burm.f., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Annanas sativus Schult.f., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Bombax ceiba L., Carica papaya L.,Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Ficus racemosa L., Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Lawsonia inermis L., Mimosa pudica L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Musa sapientum Linn., Ocimum sanctum L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeel., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Vitex negundo L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Among the medicinal use of plants, the survey reported a good number of new uses those were not mentioned in the previous literatures [17, 26, 27, 42] and [48-53][48].

Figure 1. Analysis of data based on habit showed the Angiosperm Flora in Pie Chart

Table 2. Medicinal plant species are used by the Santal tribe in the Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh

Figure 2. Photographs of important angiosperm plant species in the study area

4. Conclusion

The present findings are probably the new record of ethno-medicinal knowledge for the study area using standard research protocols. The present study may be a preliminary contribution to the ethno-medicine of this area using standard research methods, focusing on medicinal plants and their local uses for the healthcare. This healthcare knowledge transmitted orally from one generation to generation. The study also suggested that the present information on medicinal use of plants by local and ethnic community may be used for botanical and pharmacological research in future for the discovery of new sources of drugs.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the local people of Jamtala village of Chapai Nawabganj district for their co-operation and help during the research work.

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