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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Some Impact Assessement of Migration in Wenchi Municipality

Khalid Muaz
Language Education Forum. 2019, 1(1), 22-34. DOI: 10.12691/lef-1-1-4
Received December 22, 2018; Revised January 25, 2019; Accepted April 10, 2019

Abstract

Migration is one of the aspects of human phenomenon that is keen to the designing of policies and programmes of development of any given country. The main aim of the study was to examine the causes of in-migration in the Wenchi municipality, the socio-economic conditions of migrants, benefits and side effects of migration in Wenchi and to bring out suggestions and recommendation on the management of migration in the municipality. In order to attain a reliable research, both the qualitative and the quantitative research methods were employed. The qualitative method was used to survey the entire municipality to determine the possible causes of migration and migrants’ livelihood. The quantitative method was used to collect in-depth information about the problems at hand. The data was from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source entailed self-administered questionnaires, while the secondary source was from articles, publications and projects in relation to the research topic. The study revealed that, most migrants come into Wenchi for educational purposes. It also brought out that most migrants have good access to some basic facilities such as access to portable drinking water and a good access to electricity. In order to ensure that natives get access to good work doing, the stake holders of the town should try to introduce some youth empowerment programmes in the town so as to bridge the gap between natives and migrants.

1. Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

Population mobility is probably the statistics of human population process that has received the most attention within the field of environment that studies human population in recent times. It is a fact that anything that exists in our world has its point of origin. Therefore it is an incontestable fact that no society can escape its past. The past either willingly or unwillingly is part of the future. So in order to ensure a promising future for the development of Wenchi there is the need to assess the impact of migration development in the town in order to situate it in the current dispensation of population movement.

Migration is most at times defined as a kind of spatial movements comprising the replacement of familiar residential area within a defined geographical location. For instance, migration is a vital determinant in population change by influencing birth rates through altering the proportions of women in childbearing ages in the population. In the same vein, migration can also affect the characteristics of the labour force of the areas of origin and destination.

The composite budget of the Wenchi municipal assembly 2012, gives details to the position of the municipality. It pointed out the location of the place as situated in the Western part of the Brong Ahafo Region. “It is bordered to the South by the Sunyani Municipal Assembly and to the North by Kintampo South District Assembly. It also shares a common boundary with Tain District Assembly and the Techiman Municipal Assembly to the West”. The study area lies within the latitudes 7°27N and 8°30N and the longitudes 1°30N and 2°36W. The Wenchi Municipality occupies an area of 7,619.7 square kilometers and a population density of 5-20 persons per square kilometer as said by Wonongnaa 1.

The study is going to look at the dispensation of migration in the Wenchi municipality. It will also look at the location of the town and how its geographical situation can either aid or inhibit population movement. It will seek to know the type of people engaged in migration, the sex of most migrants, age, reasons for the migration, and the effects of the act on the socio-economic lifestyle of the people of Wenchi.

It will also look at whether these migrants migrate temporarily or permanently, and also the condition that may prevail especially if the migrant was or is having a responsibility in the family before leaving. Even though the population of the town keeps rising yearly, migration also is not on the break. The data below shows the trend of population in the municipality.

With the support of the Ghana Statistical Service, the Municipal Assembly estimated a population of 102,175 for the year 2010. Table 1 shows the projected population figures of Wenchi Municipal Assembly from 2010– 2013, given an intercensal growth rate of 2.5 percent.

The total surface area of the town is about 16 square kilometers. The major routes into the town are Wa – Bamboi Road from the North, Kumasi – Techiman Road from the south, Ofuman Road from the East and the Nsawkaw – Badu Road from the West.

1.2. Problem Statement

Migration has been a cultural activity of humans since time immemorial. People have been moving from their residence to other destinations with several reasons.

In Ghana, several hundreds of migrants are always observed which include both internal and international migrants. A recent Human Development Report estimated that the total estimated number of internal migrants is about four times the total number of international migrants. Migration has become very rampant phenomenon throughout the districts and municipalities of Ghana of which Wenchi is not an exception. In the olden days, it hosted the only Ghana Commercial Bank in the region where workers throughout the region converge to cash out their salaries. This made Wenchi to be the heart of the region.

Notwithstanding the developmental infrastructure that still exist; the town has become a silent one due to migration. Siddiqui 2 stated that, “for poor people, especially when pre-existing social networks are strong, or when incomes are higher compared to those in the areas of origin, people are likely to move”. Katseli, Lucas, & Xenogiani 3 explains that Migration is not determined solely by inequality of income between the source and destination but on the contrary, it is appreciated by geographical closeness and historical joints such as sharing of common language.

Most people have been migrating to several nearby places of Wenchi such as Techiman, Kumasi, and Sunyani and to the capital city, Accra. This process has brought the town down in terms of development. This critical review of the existing evidence leads to a discussion of interlinkages between movement of people and other “policy domains” including trade, investment and development assistance and addresses policy challenges to better manage migration and maximise the net gains for both sending and receiving countries Katseli, Lucas, & Xenogiani 3. The municipal Population and Demographic Characteristics report in 2004, in an attempt to distinguish sex distribution in the town, states that in 1984, males were around 51.5%. It also brought that, the male population has now reduced to 49.36%. The statistics further explained that the reduction in the male population may be explained by higher migration and also high male mortality in the municipality. The statistics also indicated that it is only Wenchi that is an urban community in the municipality, but with time, there is the likelihood that other areas such as Tromeso, Subinso No. 2 and Nchira may be urbanized by the end of the year 2015. But the implications are that there is much pressure on the infrastructure services in Wenchi town.

This can bring about imbalance in the sense that, while most males engage in migration, many female are left to put pressure on the existing amenities in the town. Even though the population is a youthful one, the labour force, which comprises many males, is reduced due to migration and this can slow down development. Geest 4 stated that, within the immediate term migrating out of a place helps to food and livelihood security in the home area, but in the long run it seems to hinder a transformation to be able to adequately sustain land use, issues of livelihoods and a destruction to rural development. If so, then Wenchi has been suffering from underdevelopment for a long period of time since the fall of its active workforce as a result of migration.

This is an evidence to show that the population of Wenchi is declining due to migration. On the contrary, Vander Geest 4 found that, the town has actually had the largest proportion of Dagara migrants according to the population census in 2000.

This can be a dicey situation in the sense that, whilst people are said to be migrating from the town, many are recorded to be migrating to the town.

1.3. Research Question

1. Why are people migrating into the Wenchi Municipality?

2. Why are people going out of Wenchi Municipality?

3. What recommendations should be made for policies and actions on the management of migration in the Wenchi Municipality?

1.4. Measurable Objectives

The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of migration in the Wenchi Municipality. Specifically, the research will seek to:

1. Identify the causes of in-migration in the Wenchi municipality.

2. Examine the conditions of migrants in Wenchi

3. Describe the benefits and side effects of migration in Wenchi.

4. Make recommendations for policies and actions on the management of migration in the Wenchi Municipality.

1.5. Propositions

Unemployment constitutes a major cause of migration in the Wenchi municipality.

1.6. Rationale for the Study

The study hopes to find out if unemployment is the actual factor causing population movement in the Wenchi municipality and to propose vital suggestions as to how to ensure its effectiveness without causing harm to both the source and the destination area.

The study will also look at some of the setbacks the people of Wenchi are facing due to migration.

The study will provide information to local, regional and national policy makers as to the need to establish adequate measures in dealing with issues resulting from migration.

It will again broaden or increase the knowledge base of both the readers and the researchers about the importance of assessing migration in their respective localities.

Lastly the study will also serve as a source of referencing material when needed and also serve as a good material for further studies.

1.7. Organisation of the Study

The study has been organized in five chapters. The first chapter outlines the general information of the study. This includes introduction of the study, problem statement, research question, objectives, rational for the study and organization of the study. The second chapter contains the background of the research area and the methodology, which shows how the study is going to be conducted. The third and fourth chapters will contain results of the research and discussions also tackled on thematic headings and sub-headings which are aimed at adequately answering research questions and objectives. The fifth chapter will entail the conclusion to the study, summary and recommendations for the study, and also followed by references and appendices.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

This chapter talks about some literatures that are useful when it comes to assessment of migration. The main purpose is to highlight the concerns useful to the successful completion of this research. This chapter defines some terms such as migration, impact assessment, and some types of migration.

2.2. Definition of Migration

National Geographic Society describes migration as the process where by people move from one place to another to stay either on permanent or temporal basis. It also emphasized on the condition at which the people may move with - voluntarily (voluntary migration) or involuntary - (forced migration). It also indicated that the first human groups to have migrated were from the eastern part of Africa. It was also explained into detail by Sidibe & Becker 5 as the geographic or spatial movement comprising a relatively permanent transformational exchange in original place of stay between clearly defined space and time. Migration is therefore the willing or unwilling movement of people from their place of residence to a clearly defined political, statistical or geographical area within space and time.

2.3. Migrants

People who move from their places of residence to another are termed as migrants. Migrants on the other hand put to use several exploitations in the destination region so as to achieve their goal for migration because the little income they may not allow them to plan for another migration.


2.3.1. In-migration

People coming into an area from another place within a nation (internal migration).


2.3.2. Out-migration

People moving out of one place to another place within a nation (internal migration).


2.3.3. Gross Migration

This is the total number of in-migrants and out-migrants (internal migration).


2.3.4. Net Internal Migration

This is the difference between in-migration and out-migration.


2.3.5. Net Migration

The difference between net internal migration and movers from abroad.


2.3.6. Return Migration

The Human Migration Guide (2005) defines return migration as the movement of people to their areas of origin in a voluntary manner. According to Muniz 6, it is also known as “circular migration”

2.4. Definition of Impact

The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2003) defines impact as the influence an object has on something. Migration therefore has got several impacts on migrants, the source and the destination. When people move from place to place they make adjustments in their personal and sociocultural lives. It is difficult to ascertain the true social or economic benefits of their mobility. Several elements affect the breakdown of merits and costs involved when people migrate from a place to another location 7.

2.5. Definition of Assessment

It is the process in which a judgment is made about a person or a situation.


2.5.1. Migration Assessment

Several people engage themselves in migration from one form to another in the world. According to Muniz 6, if all migrants were to be grouped at one particular place, they would have formed the “sixth largest country” on earth. This shows that migration is at the increase day in day out. Migration assessment would therefore aid us know much about why the increase in migration and prediction could be probably given; whether it should be encouraged or not.

2.6. Overview of Migration

Migration occurs in different forms. The National Geographic Society, under the Human Migration Guide (6-8) (2005) brought different types of migration. It cited migration to be a process that happens in a heterogeneous form. It therefore outlined the types as: intercontinental- movement of people between continents, intracontinental- movement of people to different countries within the same continent, and interregional- thus movement of people from a town to another in the same countries. It furthermore emphasized on another pattern of migration termed as ‘rural to urban migration’- which is the migration of people from the village to a city in a country.

Ÿ Emigration is the going out of people from their towns of birth to other places. This place of their birth is popularly called the source region (origin).

Ÿ Immigration is where people come into a place which is not their place of birth. This place is mostly known as the destination.

In a clear looking, migration can be approached from several different angles. Since it is a process that involves human activities, several conditions can easily affect or prompt its occurrence such as forced migration which is involuntary. Voluntary migration is seen to be somehow much effective since the migrant him/herself has the consent to go either for educational, employment or business among other purposes. With this migration type, the migrant may comfortably return to his/her source if conditions at the destination are not favourable. This is contrary to involuntary migration, where a person might have escaped from an outmoded cultural practice and may not wish to return.

Migration is therefore the willing or unwilling movement of people from their place of residence to a clearly defined political, statistical or geographical area within space and time.

Diagram 1 shows the clear picture and distinction between the two terms.

Siddiqui 8 contended on the movement of internal migrants which he classified as rural to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban, as well as urban to rural flows. The period of migration can both be short and long term.

Ÿ Rural to Urban migration: Gimba & Kumshe 9 defined Rural-Urban migration as the movement of people from villages to cities.

Ÿ Urban to Rural migration: This is the direct opposite of rural - urban migration. It is whereby people move from cities to villages to stay either permanently or temporary.

Ÿ Urban to Urban migration: This is the situation where people move from one urban center (city) to another city.

Ÿ Rural to Rural migration: This is also the movement of people from one village (rural area) to another village to stay permanently or temporary.

It may surprise someone why these forms of migration especially ‘rural to rural migration’ which seems to have no direct impact on the individual, exists. On the contrary, each form of migration has got its own impacts on both the source and the destination. For example, Gimba & Kumshe 9 found in their studies that the major driving force of rural-urban migration constitutes employment and the desire for better schooling. These may be termed as the pull factors-factors that encourages people to come to a place, whilst the push factors- factors that drives people away from the town, which constitute hunger, inadequate money, absence of work, and insufficient provision of social amenities, are some of the strong factors of migration.

2.7. Population Movement

Population movement cannot just occur without any reason behind. Gimba & Kumshe 9 in an attempt to throw lights on the HT model emphasized that, migration is recognized as the adjustment mechanism by which labour finds itself within markets which may either be located in the rural or the urban area. This part is going to deal with some of the remote causes of migration. It will further enlighten us on why a person may choose to move from one rural area to another, while others may on the contrary prefer moving from a rural setting to an urban area.

“The major causes of rural-urban migration are identified as; search for better wages, education, political and social stability, better technologies, employment and business opportunities. Others are poverty, unemployment, crop failures and famine, inadequate social amenities and facilities in the rural areas such as pipe borne water, electricity, good roads, hospitals, schools, vocational centres” 9.

2.8. History of Migration

Population movement has been a phenomenon that most people throughout the world engage in. There existed a form of migration since from the era of the hunters and gatherers.

Migration as said by Siddiqui has become a central part in the discussion of the economy and that both internal and international migration can have major development and poverty implications for individuals and their families, for origin and destination areas, as well as for national economies 8.

Migration and History, an article by the International Organization for Migration explains the view of migration historians in their agreement to have come into consensus that the flow of migration has been in the continuous and a vital vector of social, economic and Cultural Revolution.

Migration may be seen to be a single phenomenon since its beginning. It is never the truth. It has evolved in the world, from town to town, village to village through space and time in a very different form as suggested by the International Organization for Migration (IMO, 2004). It also stated that “… it would be a mistake to assume that migration as it is practiced or experienced today is the same as it has been in the past’. In its explanation of the prehistoric migration, it stated that there is wide agreement among historians and anthropologists that one of the major causes of migration flow was due to shift in climate”. It categorically stated that “why we do not know exactly how prehistoric populations moved over the earth’s surface, in Europe, for instance, there would have been movement southward to escape the spread of ice sheets during periods of glaciation, and reverse migration northward after the glaciers melted”. No nation can claim to have remained unchanged, or even to have always lived in the same place 10. Migration as it stands cannot be attributed to be fully negative or positive as several people embark and later come back with success while others may even lose their lives in the course. Katseli, Lucas, & Xenogiani 11 noted that the review of the scientific facts brings about several situations where migration has had positive effects on development by way of creating employment and flow of wages. Geest 4 commented on migration in Ghana where he figured Ghana during the 2000 population census that 26.4 per cent of Ghanaians was a domestic migrant. He also predicted that 9.9 per cent of Ghanaians migrated within their birth place, while 16.5 per cent was on interregional migration.

The map below shows the main inter-regional migration flows in Ghana and the net migration rates per region.

3. Research Methodology

3.1. Introduction

The act of making use of the survey method in both the quantitative and qualitative researches is vitally established in academia as an approach worthy of being depended on. This method gives way for reliable information concerning a specific phenomenon to be collected within its encompassing circumstances.

3.2. Research Design

Geography encompasses a broader area of research. Among these broader areas include the human, regional and the physical aspect. Migration as a process includes the humans’ aspect of geography. There exist several different forms of migration. Some of which are internal, external, rural to urban, urban to rural, rural to rural and urban to urban. Even though all these forms need to be studied, but all in a collective manner contribute to bring about some impacts in the human society. Therefore, these impacts must be categorically assessed so as to know the trend of migration in our communities and subsequently to be able to bring out policies and plans in the management of migration in the country.

As this research is based on some impact assessment of migration, the research questions raised and the stated objectives of the research will be best achieved through the issue of questionnaires and interview. This procedure gives way for the one conducting the research to make a casual connection with the instruments that are involved in the area being studied, while the semi-structured questions facilitate the sourcing of additional information during the course of interview. All these were used under the qualitative method. I adopted the qualitative method because it involves person-to-person discussion which will provide an insight into people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior on important issues with the aim of finding appropriate explanation to the reasons underlying a given problem in a target group.

3.3. Population of the Study Area

The population for this research comprised of all the Electoral Areas in the Wenchi Municipality. These areas were selected for easy accessibility of information. The study area according to Wonongnaa et al 2013lies between latitudes 7°27N and 8°30N and longitudes 1°30N and 2°36W. According to (Wonongnaa et al 2013:20), the Wenchi Municipality occupies an area of “7,619.7 square kilometers and a population density of 5-20 persons per square kilometer”. The Electoral Areas include Kokroko, Boadan, Kejetia, Masalachi, Manhyia, Ntoase, Akonkontiwa, Ahenfie and Kaamu Electoral Areas.

3.4. Sample and Sampling Techniques

The study adopted two sampling technique which are random and purposive sampling techniques for this research. Random sampling ensures that every individual of the study area gets the same possibility of being chosen; to the magnitude that the option of any one in the population will not affect another member at all 12. Purposive sampling was also adopted due to the inclusion of some opinion leaders in an attempt to solicit vital information.

3.5. Instruments for Data Collection

Appropriate data collection tools were used to collect information from both migrants and Opinion leaders in the Municipality. During the process, the researcher asked for permission from the respondent before proceeding with the research work.

The following tools were employed in the research: Structured and semi-structured interview, observation or walk through and questionnaire.

Structured interview ensured that each interviewee was presented with exactly the same questions in the same order which ensured that answers were reliably aggregated. Semi-structured interview was used to collect much information through one-on-one interview. The walk through or the observation was also used to critically access the condition in which migrations are found in the Municipality.


3.5.1. Procedure for Administration of Instruments

Opinion Leaders, Migrants and other offices in the Municipality were contacted as respondents. The Opinion Leaders contacted include elected Assembly Members and some offices in the Municipal Assembly which were the Statistical and Immigration Offices. Data collection took four weeks for the entire data to be gathered. Since the researcher is a native of the same town who understands the language and knows all corners of the town, research Assistant was not employed. The period of contact of the migrants was in the evening around 17:00 GMT while the various offices were contacted within the working hours. Assembly members were also contacted during the early hours of the morning or in the evening around 19:00 GMT due to their busy schedules. The Opinion Leaders responded to questions which were centered on the movements of people to and from the town, causes of such movements, merits and demerits of the movements to Wenchi, factors sending or bringing people to the town, possible destinations of people out of Wenchi, etc.

Migrants on the other hand responded to their sources, reasons for migrating, why chosen Wenchi as destination, previous and current jobs, issues of better life compared to the source, plans to go back home or not, etc.

3.6. Data Analysis

This takes a look at how the data collected from the field will be analyzed. Data analysis involves complying and editing of field data to extract important information. Also both quantitative and qualitative tools will be used in the analysis of the data where necessary as well as the use of graphic presentations such as tables, and graphs all under excel sheets. Actually, with the help of Microsoft excel, bar charts will be used in assessing the level of impact of migration to the people of Wenchi.

Data analysis procedures will help us to arrive at a vivid conclusion. The use of such procedures put the research project in perspective and assists in testing the objectives which have been stated in the research. In view of this, data analysis procedures will help to convert data into information and knowledge.

4. Data Analysis and Presentation

4.1. Introduction

This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of the data collected from the survey. The main objective of the survey was to assess the impact of migration in the Wenchi municipality, examining the importance of assessing migration in the Wenchi municipality, bringing out the benefits, effects and the causes of migration, as well as the conditions of migrants in Wenchi.

Questionnaires were used to get the needed information from the respondents of migrants, opinion leaders, statistics and immigration offices.

4.2. Distribution of Respondents According to Background Characteristics

Most of the respondents’ ages range from 18 and above, with few of them below. The table gives a detailed insight into that.

Notwithstanding, the survey included both sexes- males and females, but majority of the migrants captured were males, which shows the dominance of males as migrants in Wenchi than females. The data below clearly shows their percentages.

In an attempt to inquire from the levels of education for the various respondents, the following table was obtained.

Furthermore, many migrants have been staying in the town for quite number of years. Some have even stayed for more than forty (40) years. The least among the respondents were those who stayed for less than a year.

After staying for a longer period, others still have the opinion of going back to their destinations. The table below has grouped them according to their genders, who have responded to yes or no when they were asked whether they had a plan of going back home.


4.2.1. Migration Processes

As shown in Figure 1 most migrants’ routes are basically from the Upper East region, followed by the Brong Ahafo, the region of Wenchi. Volta and Western are the regions that receive the least number of migrants in the municipality.

It is clearly seen that regions such as Central, Greater Accra and Eastern have not been captured which may be as a result of their low number, if any, in the town.

The data above shows15 people (25%) originating from the Upper West, 10 people (17%) from the Northern region, 11 people (18%) from the Brong Ahafo, 7 people (12%) from the Ashanti , 4 people ( 7%) from the Western, and 8 people (13%) from the Upper East region.

4.3. Migrants Duration of Stay

The chart below shows that most migrants have been staying between the ages of 20 and 40.

This is an indication that most migrants do not normally go back home.

The data shows 28% of migrants staying between 20 to 40 years, 25% staying between 1 to 5 years, 17% staying between 5 to 10 years, 13% staying between 10 to 20 years, 12% staying between 41 years and above, and 5% staying below 1 year.


4.3.1. Migrants’ Source Region

The findings present that, most people migrating to Wenchi are mostly from the Upper West Region, which accounts for about 25% of the migrants in the town. This is followed by the Brong Ahafo, Northern, Upper East, Ashanti, Volta and Western regions.

The data above points out migrants from regions such as Central, Greater Accra and Eastern, do not fancy Wenchi as a vital destination


4.3.2. Pull Factors

These are factors that draw migrants to a named destination. Among the factors that pull (draw) people from their homes to Wenchi include the quest for education, work and religious practices. Others are also seen in the town as a result of occupational transfers, and those who have escaped from volatile situations from neighboring countries – countries prone to wars and insecurity such as Nigeria. These people have described the town, Wenchi as a place with peaceful co-existence between and among all religious bodies and thus conducive for their stay. This is seen as quite contrary to the notion that the salient pull factors of national migration in Ghana comprises financial gain, work and other chances for self-endowment and growth 13.

Form the data gathered, more than half of the migrants (55%) come to seek for education, of which most of them are found in the Senior High School level. Small of them are found at the basic school and at the tertiary, Methodist University College of Ghana, Wenchi campus.

Most migrants in Wenchi who work are teachers, with few engaging in mechanics and the sales of food, and electronic repairs. Due to the insecurity nature of Nigeria, most of the citizens there have fled away which has aided Wenchi in getting some portion of these migrants. Most of these migrants have resorted into temporal works as they have the desire of getting back to their home country when peace regains it seat.


4.3.3. Migrants Current job

Migrants in Wenchi have been predominantly students (32%), followed by those in the teaching field (18.3%), civil servants (13%), petty traders (12%), farmers (7%) and food sellers (7%).

Notwithstanding, about 11% of the migrants are jobless, with those who cannot find a job due to governments embargo on recruitment, and those who have lost their jobs due to redundancy.

4.4. Amount Earned Monthly

Most migrants in Wenchi can be described somehow to be in a good condition since closer to half of them earn between Gh 400 and Gh 1000 monthly. About 28% of them also earn between Gh100 and Gh400. From the data, very few of them, around 13% earn between Gh50 and Gh100, while about 13% also earn more than Gh1000 monthly.

Averagely, the monthly income of the migrants ranges around Gh381.00. The data below illustrates clearly the income earnings of migrants in the town.


4.4.1. Monthly Savings

Even though most migrants earn between Gh400and Gh1000, their saving ability is very low, as most migrants save between Gh20 and Gh50, representing 48% of the total migrants. This is followed by those who could save between Gh50 and Gh100, representing 33% of the migrants. Savings between Gh100 and Gh300 recorded only 10% of the migrants who save within that range.

Notwithstanding, the least among the migrants (8%), save up to Gh300 and above. This indicates that, the saving capabilities of most migrants in Wenchi is somewhat not encouraging.


4.4.2. Access to Electricity

The study shows majority of the migrants have been connected on the National Electricity Grid.85% of the migrants are fully connected to the National grid while only 15% of them are not. They have resorted to the use of kerosene fueled lanterns, as well as rechargeable and solar lamps. Most of these people reside at the outskirts of the town, where electrification has not yet reached.


4.4.3. Access to Water at Home

The data below explains the access of water to migrants in Wenchi. In general, the sources of water for domestic use for the people of Wenchi are mostly obtained from the nearby rivers, hand-dug wells, mechanised boreholes and pipe-borne water.

Most of the migrants having access to water at home are obtained either from pipe-borne water or from hand-dug well.

Those not having access to water at home sort to the services of mechanised boreholes within the vicinities.


4.4.4. Purpose of Sending Money at Home

Generally, the migrants send money at home for three basic purposes. More than half of them (57%) send money for housekeeping and maintenance purposes. About 30% of the money sent at home is used on the educational needs of closely related family members of a said migrant, while 13% of the money is sent for the purpose of building.

5. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1. Introduction

The absence of a detailed assessment of migration in any locality has the tendency of generating the occurrence of problems from different spectrums. This ascendancy is because there have been poor realizations in the situation of migrants in the towns in terms of their condition – both societal, economic and financial, as well as access to some basic social amenities.

To investigate the above in the Wenchi Municipality, the following research questions were used in the form of a guide: “Why have you migrated from your home town?”, “What job are you currently doing?”, “Is your life better off now?”

For better understanding to these questions, the under listed objectives were formulated; thus the study seeks to find out the following:

Below highlights the findings and conclusions deduced from the data collected.

5.2. Summary of the Findings

The following are worthy of note;


5.2.1. Conditions of Migrants in Wenchi

From the data collected, it is clearly seen that most of the migrants’ wellbeing is much improved, with just a few that has remained the same. This tells us that, lives of migrants in Wenchi does not deteriorate, rather improves, as compared to their lives back at home. When we go back to the research findings, we could find out that, migrants do not have much problems of electricity supply. It is also clearly seen that, migrants do not have problems with access to portable water supply for their domestic uses. This can go a long way to increase many migrants in the town in the subsequent years. This is because, most of the migrants being in the education field, would comfortably desire an environment with such facilities for effective teaching and learning.


5.2.2. Factors Improving Wellbeing

Several factors account for the improvement of the wellbeing of migrants in the Wenchi Municipality. Among these factors include educational enlightenment, access to good water and sanitation, as well as easy access to health care. Quest for good education has been a major priority for any individual. Education is gradually becoming the backbone of the town, not for offering to natives alone, but people from others parts of the country. This has made education top among the reasons why people come into the town. Despite the population of the town being around 102,175 people by the Ghana Statistical Service through the Population and Houses Census, 2010, the town can boast of five (5) strong Senior High School-Wenchi Secondary School, Istiqaama S.H.S, Our Lady of Fatima Business and Vocational, Koase S.H. Tech and Nchira S.H.S. It also has several basic schools as well as tertiary institutions which include the Methodist University College of Ghana –Faculty of Allied Sciences as well as its College of Nursing.

5.3. Conclusions

In an attempt to answer the research questions, it is vividly seen that the wellbeing of migrants in Wenchi is very good. Also, migrants have a very good access to social amenities. Migrants have good access to water as well as good access to electricity. Savings is also common among migrants as most of them save between GH15 and above GH300. This shows that the works most migrants come to do in Wenchi to some extend favour them, which has resulted in them being able to save up to GH300 a month. Many people have also indicated that their wellbeing has been improved compared to their livelihood activities at their destinations.

Conversely, unpleasant trade - apathy towards work especially among natives, as well as job scarcity are the main push factors of the people of Wenchi. The town itself is not a busy economic center, but the migrants who come to the town come there with their own works or professions they have learnt from other places. All these account for the concentration of migrants in the town.

5.4. Recommendations

The following recommendations were made with the aim of bringing into existence the need to deliberate on the affairs of migrants periodically so as to come out with a very good strategy that will help solve some basic problems facing migrants, if any.

There should be expansion of educational facilities in the town by the government by the way of Ghana Education Trust Fund, since most of the migrants who are under age 25 are mostly education seekers.

Technical and vocational institutions should also be established to equip the youth with such skills. This will be an avenue for the youth to easily create their own jobs since there is job scarcity in the town. This can be done by the Municipal Chief Executive with the collaboration of the Member of Parliament in the Wenchi constituency.

Further, natives of the town should be given priorities in allocating jobs to people in the town to avoid migrants taking all.

People in the town, especially migrants should be encouraged to go into small scale industrialization which has a low capital for startup, with the aid of a body such as the National Board for Small Scale Industries. This can be achieved through the effort of the Municipal Chief Executive, the Member of Parliament and the Traditional Council, in the form of seeking governments favour for the introduction of the Youth Empowerment Strategy (YES) – a strategy by the government of Ghana to empower the youth through small scale industrialisation.

Declaration

I declare that, with the exception of quotations and references contained in published works which have been duly acknowledged, this dissertation is entirely my original work and I have undertaken the study reported herein under supervision”. It is being submitted for the first degree of Bachelor of Arts (BA.) in Geography and Resource Development at the University of Ghana, Legon.

Acknowledgements

My deepest appreciation goes to the Almighty God for His protection, wisdom, knowledge, understanding and strength throughout my years of study and particularly for this work.

Secondly, my utmost gratitude goes to my supervisor, Dr. Joseph K. Teye (Lecturer at the Department of Geography and Resource Development and Coordinator of Postgraduate Studies, Centre for Migration Studies ), University of Ghana for his wonderful assistance, objective criticism and direction in producing this work. He was an inspiration to me in producing this work.

My appreciation also goes to all the Lecturers of the Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, for their guidance and knowledge imparted into me during my stay on campus.

Finally, I wish to extend my thanks to my uncle, all friends and course mates whose constant support in different ways had immensely helped me to come this far with my project work.

References

[1]  Wonongnaa et al 2013. Profitability of cashew production in Ghana Bots. J. Agric. Appl. Sci (2013) 9 (Issue 1) 19-28. Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone.
In article      
 
[2]  Tasneem Siddiqui (2012) Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU) Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium Working Paper 2.
In article      
 
[3]  OECD Development Centre: Effects Of Migration Sending Countries: What Do We Know:Louka, T. Katseli, et al (2006). Migration, environment and development in Ghana: The Dagara farmer at home and away.
In article      
 
[4]  Kees van der Geest 2011. The Dagara Farmer at Home and Away: Migration, Environment and Development in Ghana, Leiden:African Studies Centre. African Studies Collection, vol. 33.
In article      
 
[5]  Johns Hopkins University, Stan Becker (2008): school of public health, Nafissatou Sidibe.
In article      
 
[6]  Why we should care about migration, Jeronimo O. Muniz, 2005, pg. 2.
In article      
 
[7]  Impact of Migration: Causes and A Sociological Study of Emigration From Kandebash, Baglung, Gautam, Nepal (2006).
In article      
 
[8]  Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU): Impact of migration poverty and development, migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium Working Paper 2 September 2012 Tasneem Siddiqui.
In article      
 
[9]  Zainab Gimba and Mustapha G. Kumshe, 2011. Causes and effects of rural-urban migration in borno state: a case study of Maiduguri metropolis. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences ISSN: 2047-2528 Vol. 1 No. 1 [168-172].
In article      
 
[10]  International Organization for Migration 2004: Migration and history.
In article      
 
[11]  Louka T. Katseli, Robert E.B. Lucas and Theodora Xenogiani, June, 2006. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What do We Know? OECD Development Centre. Research Programme on:Economic and Social Effects of Migration on Sending Countries, Working Paper No. 250.
In article      
 
[12]  Abdulwahab O. Issa, (2011). “Practical guides to Project writing For Students in polytechnics, colleges and universities”. Department of library and information science, the federal polytechnic, offa, Kwara state. Nigeria.
In article      
 
[13]  M. Awumbila, G. Owusu & J. Teye (2014). Can Rural-Urban Migration into Slums Reduce Poverty? Evidence from Ghana. Migration out of Poverty, Research Programme Consortium Working paper 13.
In article      
 
[14]  Adamo, S. 2008. Addressing Environmentally Induced Population Displacement: A Delicate Task. Background Paper for the Population-Environment Research Network Cyberseminar on “Environmentally Induced Population Displacements” 18-29 August 2008. www.populationenvironmentresearch.org.
In article      
 
[15]  Ghana Statistical Service. September 2008. Ghana living standards survey Report of the fifth round (glss 5).
In article      
 
[16]  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP 2009). Human Development Report.
In article      
 
[17]  National Geographic: MarcopoloXpedition (2005), Human migration guide (6-8).
In article      
 
[18]  Amanor, K. S. 1993. Wenchi Farmers Training Project: Social/Environmental Baseline Study. ODA Assignment.
In article      
 
[19]  Lateef, O.A., Khmidi,M.F. and Idrus, A. (2010). “Building maintenance management in a Malaysian University campus: A case study.”Australian Journal of Construction Economics.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Abu & Samuel (2012) Regional Institute for Population Studies University of Ghana, Legon.
In article      
 
[21]  Alan Bryman, (2001). Introduction to Qualitative Research, p.3.
In article      
 
[22]  DimiterPhilipovand Julia Schuster (2011). Effect of Migration on Population Size and Age Composition in Europe.
In article      
 
[23]  Ghana census 2000/ 03/26.Ghana - City Population - Cities, Towns & Provinces - Statistics & Map.htm 27th July 2007. www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions.
In article      
 
[24]  Ghana Population and Housing Census Report, 2000.
In article      
 
[25]  Pearson Education Limited (2003): Longman, dictionary of contemporary English, New ed. Pg. 812.
In article      
 
[26]  Sara Hammond (2006). African Transit Migration Through Libya To Europe: The Human Cost. The American University in Cairo p.15.
In article      
 
[27]  Wonongnaa et al 2013. Profitability of cashew production in Ghana Bots. J. Agric. Appl. Sci (2013) 9 (Issue 1) 19-28.
In article      
 
[28]  Zainab, Gimba and Mustapha, G. Kumshe 2011, Causes and Effects of Rural-urban migration in Borno State: A Case Study of Maiduguri Metropolis, vol. 1 no. 1 [168-172].
In article      
 

QUESTIONNAIRE ON INPACT ASSESSEMENT OF MIGRATION IN WENCHI(QUESTIONAIRE FOR MIGRANTS)

I am a student of the University of Ghana, Legon offering B.A in Geography and Resource Development. The purpose of this survey is to gather data for my long essay as part of the programs’ requirement for graduation. I would therefore seek your permission to ask you some few questions relating to the topic. Your co-operation will be very much appreciated. All the responses collected would be kept confidential and would only be used purely for academic research purposes.

INSTRUCTIONS

Where alternatives have been provided, circle the code number only. For other questions, write your answer in the spaces provided.


PART A: BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS

1. Age: ……………………………….

2. Sex : A. Male B. Female

3. Marital status:A. Married B. Not married C. Widowed D. Divorced

4. Education: A. No formal education B. Non formal C. Basic D. Secondary E. Above Secondary

5. How long have you stayed in Wenchi? …………… years …… months.


PART B: BASIC INFORMATIONFROM MIGRANTS

6. Where is your home town? ………………………………………………………………

7. Why have you migrated from your home town?

(a) Due to political instability

(b) Due to lack of employment

(c) Due to cruel cultural practices

(d) Inadequate access to good education

………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Why have you chosen Wenchi as your destination?

(a) Because of fertile agricultural land

(b) Due to access to employment opportunities

(c) To have good atmosphere for religious practice

(d) Due to good social relations among the people of Wenchi

9. What job were you doing at where you came from? ……………………………………

10. What job are you currently doing? ……………………………………………………

11. How much do you ear per month? GH …….

12. How much do you save every month? GH ………..

13. Do you have access to electricity at home? A. Yes B. No

14. Do you have access to water at home? A. Yes B. No

15. Do you send money at home? A. Yes B. No

16. If yes, to whom do you send the money? …………………………………………….

17. For what purpose do you send the money? …………………………………………

18. How much do you normally send home every month? GH …………

19. How do you describe your wellbeing better than when you were in your place of origin.

Much improved B. Remained the same C. Deteriorated

20. If your wellbeing has improved, what factors caused this…………………………

21. Do you plan going back? A. Yes B. No

Please briefly explain why “yes or no” …………………………………………………

Please briefly explain why “yes or no”…………………………………………………

QUESTIONNAIRE ON INPACT ASSESSEMENT OF MIGRATION IN WENCHI (QUESTIONAIRE FOR OPINION LEADERS)

I am a student of the University of Ghana, Legon offering B.A in Geography and Resource Development. The purpose of this survey is to gather data for my long essay as part of the programs’ requirement for graduation. I would therefore seek your permission to ask you some few questions relating to the topic. Your co-operation will be very much appreciated. All the responses collected would be kept confidential and would only be used purely for academic research purposes.

INSTRUCTIONS

Where alternatives have been provided, circle the code number only. For other questions, write your answer in the spaces provided.


PART A: BACKGROUND OF RESPONDANTS

22. Age: A. 10-18 B. 19-25 C. 26-35 D. 36-45 E. 46 and above

23. Sex : A. Male B. Female

24. Education: A. Never B. Non formal C. Basic D. Secondary E. Tertiary

25. How long have you stayed in Wenchi? …………… years …… months.


PART B: BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON MIGRATION

26. How have you seen the movement of people in the town?

(A) Many people move to the town

(B) Many people go out of the town

(C) The number of people going out is the same as those coming into the town

(D) I do not know much about that

27. What do you suggest is the cause of your answer in question? (you can circle more than one option if possible)

(A) Due to political reasons

(B) Due to economic factors

(C) Due to religious factors

(D) Due to tribal affiliation

(E) Due to access to good education

(F) Due to agricultural factors

(G) Other, please specify: ………………………………………………………

28. Briefly explain why you selected those options in the above question.

……………………………………………………………………………………

29. Do you know of anything that brings people to stay in the town (such as football, education, religion, tribal affiliation, economic, peaceful, agricultural factors etc.)?

(A) Yes (B) No

If yes, state them: …………………………………………………………………

30. Does Wenchi benefit from the people who come to settle in the town?

(A) Yes (B) No

Explain your answer (whether Yes or No) ………………………………….. .

31. Do you know of any factor t(s) that drive(s) people from the town? (A) yes (B) No

If yes, what are they? ………………………………………………………………

32. When people migrate, does it bring any benefit to the people or the town at large?

(A) Yes (B) No

If yes, how: ………………………………………………………………………

33. What towns and or countries are the main destinations for migrants of Wenchi?

……………………………………………………………………………………

34. Do Wenchi and its people encounter any adverse effect as a result of people migrating out?

(A) Yes (B) No

If yes, how: ………………………………………………………………………

PART C. ASSESSEMENT OF MIGRATION

35. In your own view, what do you suggest as the main cause of migration in the municipality?

……………………………………………………………………………………

36. Does migration decline development? (A) Yes (B) No

Why Yes or No: …………………………………………………………………

37. Do migrants of Wenchi come back after travelling for a while?

Yes (B) No

38. For how long do they stay at the destination before coming?

……………………………………………………………………………………

39. Is there any sign of success in them as a result of their travelling?

Yes (B) No

Why Yes or No: …………………………………………………………………

40. What do you suggest if the government of Ghana wishes to embark on migration control and its management? …………………………………………………………………

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Khalid Muaz

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Khalid Muaz. Some Impact Assessement of Migration in Wenchi Municipality. Language Education Forum. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2019, pp 22-34. http://pubs.sciepub.com/lef/1/1/4
MLA Style
Muaz, Khalid. "Some Impact Assessement of Migration in Wenchi Municipality." Language Education Forum 1.1 (2019): 22-34.
APA Style
Muaz, K. (2019). Some Impact Assessement of Migration in Wenchi Municipality. Language Education Forum, 1(1), 22-34.
Chicago Style
Muaz, Khalid. "Some Impact Assessement of Migration in Wenchi Municipality." Language Education Forum 1, no. 1 (2019): 22-34.
Share
[1]  Wonongnaa et al 2013. Profitability of cashew production in Ghana Bots. J. Agric. Appl. Sci (2013) 9 (Issue 1) 19-28. Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone.
In article      
 
[2]  Tasneem Siddiqui (2012) Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU) Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium Working Paper 2.
In article      
 
[3]  OECD Development Centre: Effects Of Migration Sending Countries: What Do We Know:Louka, T. Katseli, et al (2006). Migration, environment and development in Ghana: The Dagara farmer at home and away.
In article      
 
[4]  Kees van der Geest 2011. The Dagara Farmer at Home and Away: Migration, Environment and Development in Ghana, Leiden:African Studies Centre. African Studies Collection, vol. 33.
In article      
 
[5]  Johns Hopkins University, Stan Becker (2008): school of public health, Nafissatou Sidibe.
In article      
 
[6]  Why we should care about migration, Jeronimo O. Muniz, 2005, pg. 2.
In article      
 
[7]  Impact of Migration: Causes and A Sociological Study of Emigration From Kandebash, Baglung, Gautam, Nepal (2006).
In article      
 
[8]  Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit (RMMRU): Impact of migration poverty and development, migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium Working Paper 2 September 2012 Tasneem Siddiqui.
In article      
 
[9]  Zainab Gimba and Mustapha G. Kumshe, 2011. Causes and effects of rural-urban migration in borno state: a case study of Maiduguri metropolis. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences ISSN: 2047-2528 Vol. 1 No. 1 [168-172].
In article      
 
[10]  International Organization for Migration 2004: Migration and history.
In article      
 
[11]  Louka T. Katseli, Robert E.B. Lucas and Theodora Xenogiani, June, 2006. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What do We Know? OECD Development Centre. Research Programme on:Economic and Social Effects of Migration on Sending Countries, Working Paper No. 250.
In article      
 
[12]  Abdulwahab O. Issa, (2011). “Practical guides to Project writing For Students in polytechnics, colleges and universities”. Department of library and information science, the federal polytechnic, offa, Kwara state. Nigeria.
In article      
 
[13]  M. Awumbila, G. Owusu & J. Teye (2014). Can Rural-Urban Migration into Slums Reduce Poverty? Evidence from Ghana. Migration out of Poverty, Research Programme Consortium Working paper 13.
In article      
 
[14]  Adamo, S. 2008. Addressing Environmentally Induced Population Displacement: A Delicate Task. Background Paper for the Population-Environment Research Network Cyberseminar on “Environmentally Induced Population Displacements” 18-29 August 2008. www.populationenvironmentresearch.org.
In article      
 
[15]  Ghana Statistical Service. September 2008. Ghana living standards survey Report of the fifth round (glss 5).
In article      
 
[16]  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP 2009). Human Development Report.
In article      
 
[17]  National Geographic: MarcopoloXpedition (2005), Human migration guide (6-8).
In article      
 
[18]  Amanor, K. S. 1993. Wenchi Farmers Training Project: Social/Environmental Baseline Study. ODA Assignment.
In article      
 
[19]  Lateef, O.A., Khmidi,M.F. and Idrus, A. (2010). “Building maintenance management in a Malaysian University campus: A case study.”Australian Journal of Construction Economics.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Abu & Samuel (2012) Regional Institute for Population Studies University of Ghana, Legon.
In article      
 
[21]  Alan Bryman, (2001). Introduction to Qualitative Research, p.3.
In article      
 
[22]  DimiterPhilipovand Julia Schuster (2011). Effect of Migration on Population Size and Age Composition in Europe.
In article      
 
[23]  Ghana census 2000/ 03/26.Ghana - City Population - Cities, Towns & Provinces - Statistics & Map.htm 27th July 2007. www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions.
In article      
 
[24]  Ghana Population and Housing Census Report, 2000.
In article      
 
[25]  Pearson Education Limited (2003): Longman, dictionary of contemporary English, New ed. Pg. 812.
In article      
 
[26]  Sara Hammond (2006). African Transit Migration Through Libya To Europe: The Human Cost. The American University in Cairo p.15.
In article      
 
[27]  Wonongnaa et al 2013. Profitability of cashew production in Ghana Bots. J. Agric. Appl. Sci (2013) 9 (Issue 1) 19-28.
In article      
 
[28]  Zainab, Gimba and Mustapha, G. Kumshe 2011, Causes and Effects of Rural-urban migration in Borno State: A Case Study of Maiduguri Metropolis, vol. 1 no. 1 [168-172].
In article