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Societal Dynamics of Early Marriages in Pushtoon Society; Evidences from Field Survey of District Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Muhammad Israr , Muhammad Kashif, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Muhammad Aamir, Munawar Jan
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2020, 4(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-4-1-1
Received February 11, 2020; Revised March 28, 2020; Accepted April 09, 2020

Abstract

Early marriage is not new as it has been in practice from early life and still continued. To contribute to the existed literature on the aforementioned debate this study aims to identify the current prevalence of early marriages and its effects in Union Council Daftaru of district Mardan. Primary data were collected from randomly selected 80 male and female respondents by questionnaire through face to face method and analyzed by using frequency distribution and percentages in SPSS. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents were male, married and having different level of education and employment status, living in extended and joint family. Majority of the respondents know early marriages and having the perceptions that it causes mortality, suffer human life, leads to over population, stop future development, destroy individual freedom, leads to early tension and adversely effect on health of both couple. The effect of early marriages were the incidence of different disease arising from early pregnancy, females may tend to suicide, divorce, relation problems, sexual mal-adjustment, destroys individual freedom, human rights violation, causes poverty, negative effects on the offspring, childhood death especially in delivery, school dropout, women powerlessness, gender-based violence, autonomy and decision-making ability problems, domestic violence, crimes, engage in early economic activities, custom and form of slavery. The causes of early marriages were the rural cultural, become burden on family, broken family, marriage couple lost job opportunities, economic burden on family, increase young girl’s risks of HIV and AIDS, flourish hidden crisis and the couple have no mutual understanding.

1. Introduction

Throughout the world in different countries and regions the phenomenon of early marriage is not new as it has been in practice from early life and young girls married when they are still children and hence they are forced to go through the difficulties and consequences of early pregnancies and other heavy responsibilities fixed by the society and culture. Almost all nations of the world and particularly the south Asian countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and India. This process effect the young females not only but have to make compromises on their maturity, reproductive health and also counts for the consequences of early pregnancy and social seclusion. Beside these consequences these young girls are put under pressure of heavy domestic chores, reduced life choices, withdrawal from education and many others 1.

Early marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls’ health individuals increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas 2. Most societies have norms that set a minimum age for marriage. But in many communities this age requirement is too low especially for girls and does not take their psychological or physiological readiness for marriage into consideration 3. Parents engaging their young daughters in marriage while they are still children are of hope that marriage will profit them economically and it is taken as a ‘protection’ for their daughters.

Marriages do not exist in a vacuum and research has found that in early marriage, couples are intricately tied to their family members and are influenced by important connections, social interactions, and socialization processes within those family networks 4. An estimated fourteen million girls also become pregnant each year. Ninety percent are married. Seven percent die by pregnancy. Pregnancy is the main cause of death for girls over fifteen. Girls aged ten to fourteen are five times more likely to die by pregnancy than pregnant women aged twenty to twenty-four. The children of mothers who are girls have over a fifty percent higher chance of dying within a month of birth than the children of mothers who are women. The problem of child marriage is growing. According to estimates by the United Nations population fund there will be over fifteen million newly married girls each year 5.

Early marriage has been associated with earlier age at first birth, higher total fertility, lower utilization of maternal healthcare, and lower female education. However, rigorously identifying a relationship between early marriage and other adult outcomes as causal is difficult due to the presence of other omitted factors which likely affect both marriage timing and other adult outcomes. Such factors could include parent socio-economic status, or gender views 6. Early marriages include children from poor families or backgrounds, those living in rural areas, those not attending school, pregnant girls and their boyfriends, orphans and step children, difficult or hard to manage children, and children without adequate supervision or support (7). Age of puberty for females is 13.5 years and for males is 15.0 years in Pakistan. The mean age of marriage among women in Pakistan has significantly increased from 13.3 years during 1950-59 to 23.1 years during 2006-07 with steady gains over time (16.8 years during 1960-69; 17.8 years during 1970-79; 18.6 years during 1980-89; 21.7 years during 1990-91), but the overall age at marriage is still much lower as compared to industrialized countries. Women residing in rural areas tend to marry much earlier than those living in urban areas 8. Less is known about how early marriages affect the life of married couples, given the limited availability of longitudinal studies following couples over long periods of time. Couples relations are involuntary ties, which are created through marriage, and some spouses never feel truly comfortable while having in this relation due to the early marriages. Taking this problem in hand this study was designed with the following objectives.

2. Objectives of the Study

1. To identify the current prevalence of early marriages in Union Council Daftaru District Mardan.

2. To investigate effects on marriage stability and its effects on the lives of both couples.

3. Review of Literature

Aspects of early marriages were studied by different scientist differently in different parts of the world. The findings of 9 stated that Pakistan in general and Pashtun society in particular has a strong cultural heritage and distinct customs and traditions which mostly favor early marriage. Early marriages are practiced here at a higher ratio as compared to other parts of the country on the basis of economic instability, lack of awareness and strong cultural trend encourages such a custom. In addition, the sentimental local nationalism, unawareness and ignorance further pave the way for early marriages among Pashtun of Pakistan. Most of the Pashtun families are lower class families and are very keen to marry their children at early ages in accordance to decrease the financial burden, similarly, a rents marry their male children at a lower age because of economic burden over them and for this reason they want to subject their male children to premature responsibilities. Also 6 reported that early marriage has been associated with earlier age at first birth, higher total fertility, lower utilization of maternal healthcare, and lower female education. However, rigorously identifying a relationship between early marriage and other adult outcomes as causal is difficult due to the presence of other omitted factors which likely affect both marriage timing and other adult outcomes. Such factors could include parent socio-economic status, or gender views. We employ an instrumental variables technique in order to identify a causal effect. While this earlier study focused on the impact of early marriage on educational attainment of women in Bangladesh, we examine a broader range of outcomes in the context of rural western Kenya. 10 stated that the young girls in these marriages were very poor. They did not own or control any asset; the families had no land and were dependent on their parents, neighbors or friends; the houses were in a pathetic state (roofed using banana fibers, grass or old tins and were leaking); and others were sharing the same house with their parents. Agricultural production was limited and only enough for the household. On the other hand, the husbands to these girls had resorted to alcoholism and had shied away from productive work. A few had taken on motorcycle riding or were absentee husbands working on distant farms. Although most countries have passed laws declaring 18 as the minimum legal age for marriage, too often the laws are not enforced and social, economic, and cultural realities perpetuate the practice. 7 pointed that more likely to marry include children from poor families or backgrounds, those living in rural areas, those not attending school, pregnant girls and their boyfriends, orphans and step children, difficult or hard to manage children, and children without adequate supervision or support. While both globally and in Zambia, girls appear to be statistically at greater risk than boys of marriage, this study found significant numbers of boy husbands and fathers. The factors that help delay or prevent child marriage for both boys and girls include the education level of parents, access to quality education, strong community leadership, involvement in income-generating activities, opportunities for personal development and access to safe recreational activities, and the presence of positive and negative role models. 11 reported that the United States spends more than $450 million each year on development programs that are consistently undermined by child marriage. Research shows that young married girls are least likely to benefit from educational and economic policies and programs. These include primary and secondary school enrollment and expanded opportunities for credit or participation in the paid workforce. As noted above, their isolation and powerlessness means that many of the basic resources and services available to other segments of the population – such as basic health care or skills training also are beyond the reach of young married girls. 8 stated that the age of puberty for females is 13.5 years and for males is 15.0 years in Pakistan. The mean age of marriage among women in Pakistan has significantly increased from 13.3 years during 1950-59 to 23.1 years during 2006-07 with steady gains over time (16.8 years during 1960-69; 17.8 years during 1970-79; 18.6 years during 1980-89; 21.7 years during 1990-91), but the overall age at marriage is still much lower as compared to industrialized countries. Women residing in rural areas tend to marry much earlier than those living in urban areas. 12 reported the main problem for estimating the impact of child marriage on education attainment is that the decision by a girl to marry early is likely to be itself a function of the girl’s education potential. Girls with lower education prospects for example because they are weaker academically, face smaller expected losses in future earnings and thereby have lower incentives to continue to study than girls who are academically stronger. These girls may be more willing to marry early or their parents may be more inclined to let them marry early. Similarly, girls less interested in pursuing their education independently of their academic abilities may also decide to marry early, and they might have dropped out anyway even in the absence of marriage. Said differently, education and marriage decisions are jointly made. It is thus necessary to find instrumental variables that explain the decision to marry, but not education outcomes conditional on the decision to marry, which is not always easy.

4. Material and Methods

Union Council Daftaru of Tehsil and district Mardan of central Pakhtunkhwa was the research area for this internship report. Purposive sampling technique was used for collection of primary data. For sample size a total number of 80 respondents (both male and female) were selected and these respondents were interviewed through face to face interview methods with the help of pre-design structure questionnaire. The interview schedule was used as a tool for the direct investigation from the respondents. A comprehensive and well thought interview schedule was designed for the primary data and all the aspects of the variables. For analyzing the data, the collected information was code and entered in SPSS (Version-19) software and was analyzed by using percentage distribution.

5. Results and Discussion

5.1. Respondents Sex

The tabulated data in Table 1, present the findings about the sex of the respondent. The data shows that majority (76.25%) of the respondents were male, while 23.75% of the respondents were females. This shows that this study used both male and females for analysis regarding the early marriages consequences and its effects on their lives and society. The findings of the study generate participative results based on the perceptions of both the stockholders in the married life.

5.2. Respondent’s Marital Status

The frequency distribution of data regarding the marital status presented in Table 2, shows the finding about the marital status of the respondent. The data shows that majority (62.5%) of the respondents were married, while 37.5% of the respondents were unmarried. Thus the effects were viewed in the perceptions of married and unmarried respondents.

5.3. Respondents Age

The data in Table 3, present findings about the age of the respondent. The data shows that 39.1% of the respondents having age of 15-19 years, while 46.9% of the respondents were 20-24 years of age. The data further shows that 14.1% of the respondents were of age 25-29 years. This shows that this study used individuals from age 15-29 years for analysis regarding the early marriages consequences and its effects on their lives and society.

5.4. Literacy Status and Education Level

The data in Table 4. Presents information about the education status and level of the respondent. The data shows that 7.8% of the respondents were illiterate, while 39.1% of the respondents were of primary education, while 23.4% respondents were from secondary. Also 15.5% respondents having matric level of education followed by 14.1% of the respondents having master level of education. This shows that this study used both male and female’s education system for analysis regarding the early marriages consequences and its effects on their lives and society.

5.5. Family Types

Distribution of respondents on the basis of their family type showed in Table 5. The data in the table pointed that 23.4% of the respondents living in joint family system, while 54.7% of respondents living in nuclear family system. The data also shows that 21.9% respondents belongs to extended family system. This implies that most of the respondents were living in the nuclear and joint family system.

5.6. Employment Status

The data in Table 6, pointed the findings about the employment status of the respondent. The data in the table shows that majority (66.4%) of the individuals were employed, while 11.4% of the respondents were self-employed, while 15.6% were un-employed, while 6.2% the respondents were daily workers. Thus the study includes diverse respondents for the getting the perceptions on the early marriages.

5.7. Monthly Income

The data in Table 7 presents the distribution of respondents regarding their monthly income. The tabulated data show that the majority (66.5%) of the respondents were dependent while 15.6% of the respondents having monthly income up to Rs.10000. Also 11.6% having monthly income between 10000-20000, while 6.2% of respondents having monthly income above Rs. 20000.

5.8. Perceptions on Different Aspects of Early Marriages

The data in Table 8 indicates the perception about the early marriage which include nine statement as dependent variables related to the different aspects of early marriages. Data show that large majority (91.4%) were aware about the term early marriage, while 2.3% were not understand the term early marriage and 6.2% were don’t know about the early marriage. Further the data indicates that 30.5% of the respondent stated that early marriage is cause of mortality well knower to while 47.7% respondent being were against the statement and 21.9% respondent have no idea for this statement. Furthermore, examine the perception of the respondents 44.5% they are think that early marriage suffered human life so the response was in the favor of this statement while 41.4% respondent’s response consist on negative and 14.1% have no idea. Similarly, table shows that the early marriage leads to over population 77.3% of respondents said.

Furthermore 15.6% respondents rejected the above statement and 7.0% were do not know the above statement. Moreover, table shows that the 74.2% of respondents views that early marriage stop intellectual development furthermore 19.5% respondents rejected the above statement and 6.2% have no information. The row shows that marriages destroy individual freedom 73.4% respondent were in favor of this statement while 21.9% reject this statement and 4.7% have no knowledge for above statement. Similarly, the table indicating that early marriage is a positive step the majority 19.5% respondent being were in the favor but 57.0% of the respondents were not in the favor of that statement and 23.4% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The table also shows that 68.0% of the respondent agreed that early marriage leads to early tension while 21.9% respondents negated the statement and 10.2% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Also 68.0% of the respondents stated that early marriage adversely effects on health of both couple furthermore 12.5% respondents rejected the above statement, and 19.5% were do not know about the above statement.

5.9. Effects of Early Marriage

The data in Table 9, presents the different statements on the effects of early marriage. The data shows that 78.1% of the respondent being were viewed that early marriage improves childhood death especially in delivery cases the same statement supported by 2 that pregnancy poses many challenges for young girls. Because pregnancy suppresses the immune system pregnant girls are at increased risk of acquiring diseases like malaria. Malaria kills 1 million people each year, 90% of them in Africa. Approximately 25 million pregnant women are exposed to malaria per year, and pregnant women are among the most severely affected by malaria. About 10.5 million become infected during their second or third trimester, and among these, the mortality rate is 50%. While respondent being 19.5 were oppose the above statement, while 13.3 respondents negated the statement and 8.6 of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The table further shows that 15.6 were of the opinion that due to early marriage females may tend to suicide while 62.5 of the respondent were against the above statement and 21.9 of the respondents have no idea about the statement.

Similarly, that 11.7 of the respondents said that early marriage is followed by divorce however 66.4 of the respondents were against the above statement while 21.9 respondents have no idea about this statement. Furthermore, that 46.9 respondents being were of the opinion that a majority of the people think that due to early marriage the spouse faces many difficulties including financial hardship, however 23.4 of the respondent were against the above statement, while 29.7 of the respondents have no idea about this statement. The table also show that 43.0% of the respondents said that early marriage leads to relation problems. While 35.2% respondents negated the statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

Furthermore, the row indicating that early marriage leads to sexual mal-adjustment further the of 36.7% respondent being were viewed that early marriage leads to sexual mal-adjustment. While 41.4% respondents negated the statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Table moreover shows that early marriage destroys individual freedom further the 72.7% respondent being were viewed that early marriage destroys individual freedom. While 7.8% respondents negated the statement and 19.5% of the respondent have no information about the statement. Similarly, 49.2% of the respondents said that the early marriage is the human rights violation. While 27.3% respondents negated the statement and 23.4% of the respondent have no idea about the statement. Moreover, indicating that early marriage negative effects on the offspring. Further the 64.8 respondent being viewed that early marriage negative effect on the offspring. While 15.6% respondents negated the statement and 19.5% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The row indicating that early marriage improves childhood death especially in delivery cases. Further the majority of 53% respondents being 66.4% were viewed that early marriage improves childhood death especially in delivery cases, while 14.1% of the respondents have no idea about this statement

Similarly, the table indicating that early marriage is the main reason for school dropout. The same statement supported by 3 that 78% percent of never married girls under the age of 24% were attending school, as compared to 8.9% percent among the currently married girls. Among those out of school, 28% cited marriage and 19% cited child bearing as the main reason for not attending school. Further the majority of 33.6% respondent being were viewed that early marriages is the main reason for school dropout. While 11.7% respondents negated the statement and 2.3% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

Moreover, the row indicating early marriage leads to women powerlessness, further the 33.6% respondent being were viewed that early marriage leads to women powerlessness While 33.6% respondents negated the statement and 32.6% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Similarly, the row shows that 64.8% of the respondent said that early marriage leads to gender-based violence 13.3% respondents negated the statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The data in the Table 9 also shows that 52.3% of the respondent agreed that early marriage reduce autonomy and decision-making ability. While 25.8% respondents negated the statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Similarly, table data shows that 73.4% of the respondent agreed that early marriage leads to domestic violence. While 12.5% respondents negated the statement and 14.1% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Moreover, indicating that early marriage leads to crimes. The majority 28.9% respondent being were viewed that early marriage leads to crimes while 23.3% respondents negated the statement and 39.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

The data in the table shows that early marriage is to engage in early economic activities 83.6 respondent being were viewed that early marriage is to engage in early economic activities. While 7.8% of the respondent were against the above statement and 8.6% of the respondents have no idea about the statement. Similarly, row indicating that early marriage is the custom and tradition of illiterates. Further the majority 93.8% respondent being were viewed that early marriage is the custom and tradition of illiterates. Furthermore 4.7% of the respondents were not favor the statement and 1.6% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

Moreover, table shows that early marriage is a form of slavery. Further majority 35.2% respondent being were viewed that early marriage is a form of slavery the same statement supported that it is vital to emphasis the effects of child marriage. But it is also important to remember the very nature of the relationship itself: The United Nations General Assembly’s Human Rights Council has produced a report on servile marriage as a contemporary form of slavery. Anti-Slavery International’s report highlights how child marriage can often operate as a shield behind which slavery and slavery-like practices occur with apparent impunity.” Of particular interest in their report are discussions of both the issue of consent, and the nature of the marital relationship itself. Furthermore 35.2% of the respondents were not favor the statement and 29.2% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

Statement shows that early marriage is the culture of rural areas the same statement supported by 8 that 70.6% respondent were agreed that early marriage is the culture of rural areas. Further majority 93.8% respondent being were viewed that early marriage is the culture of rural areas furthermore 1.6% of the respondents were not favor the statement and 4.7% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Table indicating that early marriage become burden on family. Further the 72.7% respondent being were viewed that early marriage become burden on family. While 21.9% respondents negated the statement and 5.5% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The next table shows that 60.9% of the respondent agreed that broken family is a cause of early marriage while 23.4% respondents negated the statement and 15.6% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. The views of the respondents show that 49.2% of the respondent agreed that due to early marriage couple lost job opportunities while 28.9% respondents negated the statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Moreover, table shows that 59.4% of the respondent agreed girls are largely viewed as an economic burden on family. While 21.9% respondents negated the statement and 18.8% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement.

Similarly, the table indicating early marriage can increase young girl’s risks of HIV and AIDS. The 7.8% respondents being were viewed that early marriage can increase young girl’s risks of HIV and AIDS. The same statement supported by 10 that child marriage is sometimes believed to be a protective mechanism, the truth is that early marriage can increase young girls’ risks of HIV and AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Husbands of married girls are often much older than their young wives, with multiple sex partners prior to marriage, making them more likely to be HIV-positive. These married girls have frequent, unprotected sex with little ability to persuade their husbands to abstain or use a condom. While 78.1% of the respondents were not favor in the above statement and 21.9% of the respondent have no knowledge about the statement. Furthermore, 65.6% respondents being were of the opinion that a majority of the people think that early marriage flourish hidden crisis, however 40.6% of the respondent were against the above statement, while 21.9% of the respondents have no idea about this statement. Finally, respondents indicating 65.6% that in early marriage couple have no mutual understanding, however 18.8% of the respondent were against the above statement, while 15.6% of the respondents have no idea about this statement.

6. Conclusions

The study concludes that early marriages were understand by all the respondents and having the perceptions that it causes mortality, suffer human life, leads to over population, stop development, destroy individual freedom, leads to early tension and adversely effect health of both couple. Early marriage effects were early pregnancy disease arising, suicide, divorce, relation problems, sexual mal-adjustment, destroys individual freedom, human rights violation, causes poverty, negative effects on the offspring, childhood death especially in delivery, school dropout, women powerlessness, gender-based violence, autonomy and decision-making ability problems, domestic violence, crimes, early economic activities, custom, form of slavery. The causes were the rural cultural, burden on family, broken family, job lost, economic burden, hidden crisis etc. The study as a whole concludes that this social evil is existed in the society since long and needs immediate attentions at all levels. The following recommendation are forwarded on the basis of study findings.

1. Effort should be made to eradicate this evil from the society by taking all the stockholders in confidence and making extra ordinary measures in the society for its minimization.

2. Education will improve the situation and hence the phenomena should be reduced, so importing quality education and population control are the best strategies.

3. Parents and children must be make aware about the consequences of this society evil.

4. Dependency should be reduced coupled by positive changes in the culture for its eradication.

References

[1]  Ahmed, S., Khan, A., Khan, S. Naushad. S., 2014. Early marriage; A root of current physiological and psychosocial health burdens. Inter j. endorsing health Sic. res. 2(1): 50-51.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Nour, N. M. 2006. Health consequences of child. Emerging infectious diseases, Pathfinder international journal 12:1644.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Ababa, A., 2016. Report on causes and consequences of early marriage in Amhara region.
In article      
 
[4]  Sullivan, K., and Davila, J. 2010. Support processes in intimate relationships. New York: Oxford University Press.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Milazzo, A. (2014). Why are adult women missing? Son preference and maternal survival in India. The World Bank.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Dworsky, A., & Courtney, M. E. (2010). The risk of teenage pregnancy among transitioning foster youth: Implications for extending state care beyond age 18. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1351-1356.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Malhotra, A. 2010. The causes, consequences and solutions to forced child marriage in developing world. International center for research on women.
In article      
 
[8]  Nasrallah, M. 2015. Child marriage and its impact on maternal and child health in Pakistan. Department of public health medicine school of public health & who collaborating center for child and adolescent health promotion Bielefeld university, Bielefeld, Germany.
In article      
 
[9]  Daraz, U. Naz, A. Khan, W. 2014. Early marriage: a developmental challenge to women in pakhtun society. Fwu. J. Social. Science. 8(1): 92.
In article      
 
[10]  Roth, H. L. (2012). The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo (Vol. 2). BoD–Books on Demand.
In article      
 
[11]  Gillian Mann. 2005. Qualitative study of child marriage in six districts of Zambia.
In article      
 
[12]  Nguyen, M. C. Wodon, Q. 2014. Impact of child marriage on literacy and education attainment in Africa. Background paper for fixing the broken promise of education for all.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Muhammad Israr, Muhammad Kashif, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Muhammad Aamir and Munawar Jan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Muhammad Israr, Muhammad Kashif, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Muhammad Aamir, Munawar Jan. Societal Dynamics of Early Marriages in Pushtoon Society; Evidences from Field Survey of District Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp 1-7. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/4/1/1
MLA Style
Israr, Muhammad, et al. "Societal Dynamics of Early Marriages in Pushtoon Society; Evidences from Field Survey of District Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 4.1 (2020): 1-7.
APA Style
Israr, M. , Kashif, M. , Khan, H. , Ahmad, N. , Aamir, M. , & Jan, M. (2020). Societal Dynamics of Early Marriages in Pushtoon Society; Evidences from Field Survey of District Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(1), 1-7.
Chicago Style
Israr, Muhammad, Muhammad Kashif, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Muhammad Aamir, and Munawar Jan. "Societal Dynamics of Early Marriages in Pushtoon Society; Evidences from Field Survey of District Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 4, no. 1 (2020): 1-7.
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[1]  Ahmed, S., Khan, A., Khan, S. Naushad. S., 2014. Early marriage; A root of current physiological and psychosocial health burdens. Inter j. endorsing health Sic. res. 2(1): 50-51.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Nour, N. M. 2006. Health consequences of child. Emerging infectious diseases, Pathfinder international journal 12:1644.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Ababa, A., 2016. Report on causes and consequences of early marriage in Amhara region.
In article      
 
[4]  Sullivan, K., and Davila, J. 2010. Support processes in intimate relationships. New York: Oxford University Press.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Milazzo, A. (2014). Why are adult women missing? Son preference and maternal survival in India. The World Bank.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Dworsky, A., & Courtney, M. E. (2010). The risk of teenage pregnancy among transitioning foster youth: Implications for extending state care beyond age 18. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1351-1356.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Malhotra, A. 2010. The causes, consequences and solutions to forced child marriage in developing world. International center for research on women.
In article      
 
[8]  Nasrallah, M. 2015. Child marriage and its impact on maternal and child health in Pakistan. Department of public health medicine school of public health & who collaborating center for child and adolescent health promotion Bielefeld university, Bielefeld, Germany.
In article      
 
[9]  Daraz, U. Naz, A. Khan, W. 2014. Early marriage: a developmental challenge to women in pakhtun society. Fwu. J. Social. Science. 8(1): 92.
In article      
 
[10]  Roth, H. L. (2012). The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo (Vol. 2). BoD–Books on Demand.
In article      
 
[11]  Gillian Mann. 2005. Qualitative study of child marriage in six districts of Zambia.
In article      
 
[12]  Nguyen, M. C. Wodon, Q. 2014. Impact of child marriage on literacy and education attainment in Africa. Background paper for fixing the broken promise of education for all.
In article