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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Prevelence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools: Ilorin Metropolis in Focus

Martins Olanrewaju Atunde , Temitope Tajudeen Aliyu
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2019, 3(3), 85-94. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-3-3-1
Received August 10, 2019; Revised September 12, 2019; Accepted September 27, 2019

Abstract

As at 1966, there was a high degree of harmony in Nigerian secondary schools, but as a result of the quality of discipline inherent in the school system. However, after the end of Nigerian civil war, all forms of gross indiscipline began and has eroded the peaceful terrain of the school community. The study therefore explored the prevalence, causes and management of indiscipline in public secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. The study adopted the descriptive research of a survey type of design. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of 306 research subjects from 18 sampled public secondary schools. Data was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation was used to analyse the data collected. Result showed that, the prevalent level of indiscipline among teachers and students in Ilorin metropolis was moderate (grand mean value 2.58 and 2.87 respectively). The study also discovered that enforcement of school rules and regulations that guide against immoral behavior (mean values 3.91) was the major strategy adopted for managing indiscipline amongst students, while enforcement of time-book for teachers; and ensuring regular attendance of lesson by teachers (mean values 3.61, and 3.52 respectively) were mostly used in managing indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. The study concluded that although, strategies were adopted for the management of indiscipline, indiscipline among teacher and students’ in public secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis was still prevalent and has the tendency to increase drastically. Thus the outcome of this study will serve as a baseline for education stakeholders (government, planners, administrators, counsellors, teachers etc) in formulating strategies, techniques and policies aimed at improving positive disciplinary behaviour among teachers and students that will eventually improve effective functioning of secondary schools.

1. Introduction

Indiscipline is a social quagmire disrupting the harmony and peaceful-coexistence in virtually all educational institutions, as it serves to promote disrespect for rules, regulations and constituted authorities among members of the school community (principals, teachers, students, parents etc); and in furtherance produces uncongenial school atmosphere, which are not conducive for effective teaching and learning. While the nature of indiscipline has been variously defined by reference to its form, prevalence and implications 1, management strategies are generally considered an antidote in ensuring effective discipline at all level of education in Nigeria, secondary education inclusive.

2. Background

In Nigeria, one highly developed education system has been in existence before the introduction of western education. However, the western system of education in Nigeria started in 1842 by the Christian missionaries. This early activity was concentrated within the Lagos area (Badagry and Abeokuta). By 1846, two schools; one for boys and the other for girls were founded by the Christian missionaries ( 2: 229). In 1853 the Southern Baptist Convention opened a school at Ijaye and another at Ogbomoso and Lagos in 1955. Between 1842 and 1964 various missionary bodies (Wesleyan Methodist Society, Baptist Mission, Roman Catholic Mission and Presbyterian Church of Scotland) have made their presence felt especially within the Lagos, Calabar and across the Niger areas. According to the National Open University of Nigeria ( 3:57), the main objective of the missionaries in the coast of Nigeria was to evangelise the people. Between 1919 and 1940 there was substantial growth in secondary education which was mostly influenced by the Phelps-Stokes Commission Report on Education in Africa. The commission was set up on the initiative of the American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society between 1920 - 1926 to make study of the needs and resources of West, South and Equatorial Africa with special reference to the quality of education provided.

Of importance to note was the different educational laws promulgated to manage these schools. The first education law known as Education Ordinance of 1882 was meant for the British West African territories of Nigeria and Gold Coast (now Ghana). The ordinance was an adaptation of the British Education Act of 1844 4. The 1882 Education Ordinance created an Education Board to manage education and laid down the following criteria: (a) The quality of organisation and discipline in the school; (b) Academic standard of the school; and (c) The percentage of pupils who pass the examinations especially in the critical subjects of English, Arithmetic and Religion ( 4: 83). Another education law within this period was the Education Ordinance of 1887 which was the first education law enacted specifically for Nigeria. Like the West African Education Ordinance of 1882, the 1887 ordinance provided for an Education Board. The Education Board was given the responsibility to open government schools in districts that had no mission schools. The Local Education Boards recommended where such new government schools should be sited ( 4: 84). Thus, government maintained control of standards in the education system through inspections and approval of grants-in-aid for good schools. This according to Emunemu and Ejieh 5, introduced some order and sanity into the educational activities of the missionaries who were opening schools indiscriminately in a keen competition to win converts to their religious denominations.

Apparently, as a result of manpower shortages such as interpreters, teachers, messengers, clerks, etc to facilitate the spread of the gospel, and assist in the running of colonial governments, the colonial government intervened in the proper running of the education system in the then Nigeria ( 3: 62). By this, the McPherson constitution of 1948 gave way to self autonomy of the three regions and an opportunity to take part in the provision of education to their people. This led to the introduction of Universal Primary Education by the Western Region under Chief Obafemi Awolowo in 1955, followed by Dr. Azikiwe in the East and Ahmadu Bello in the North. Further, Sir Eric Ashby Commission was set up on April 1959 “to conduct an investigation into Nigeria’s needs in the field of post-school certificate and higher education over the next twenty years” ( 6: 110). The Commission however recommended among other things: “Secondary education should also increase in the capacity of admission from 12,000 per annum in 1958 to more than 30,000 per annum in 1979 to spread across the country. Also, more secondary schools were to be built”. In this direction, Ogunyinka, Okeke and Adedoyin ( 7: 116) stressed that secondary education development since independence was influenced by a number of factors. First, the expansion in primary education led to greater demand for secondary education; Secondly, the decision of the government to implement the recommendation of the Ashby Commission and; Thirdly, Nigeria was implementing the decision of the African States at the Addis Ababa Conference 6.

Captioning this observation, Abiri and Jekayinfa ( 6: 111) noted that, the decade 1960 - 1970 witnessed a rapid expansion in secondary education in Nigeria due to the influence of the Ashby Commission Report in 1960 called “Investment in education”. During this period, 70 out of every 1,000 primary school pupils proceeded to secondary school in Northern Nigeria. Emphasis was laid on the quality of the teacher at the secondary level as well as quality of intake from the primary level. Whatever progress was achieved within this period, the military take-over of government in January 1966 which eventually culminated into civil war had untold negative impact on the development of education in the nation. Because as at 1966, there was a high degree of harmony in school, as principals, teachers and students demonstrated awareness of their moral and ethical responsibilities 8. They shared the same view of students’ good and desirable behaviours. In a nutshell, the quality of the school system at that time as regards to discipline was topnotch not until the end of Nigerian civil war 8 when all forms of gross indiscipline began, which has now become a norm in the school system.

Amongst the acts of indiscipline or poor disciplinary behaviours observed in most Nigerian secondary schools include: hooliganisms, vandalism, dishonesty, lack of respect and lack of consideration for elders and those in constituted authority, rudeness, selfishness, avarice, indolence, gambling, involvement in cultism, engagement in ritual activities, smoking of Indian hemp within the school premises, loitering during school hours, examination malpractices, illicit affair between teachers and students and among students, disloyalty and other unpatriotic acts, lack of public-spiritedness and consideration for others, drunkenness, indecent dressing to mention a few. Emunemu and Ejieh ( 5: 108) additionally highlighted other indisciplinary acts in schools to include: students’ and teachers absenteeism from school and classes without any genuine reason or permission, use of abusive or foul languages, teachers lackadaisical attitude to duties, persistent lateness to schools by both teachers and students, rioting, sexual harassment of female pupils by teachers, raping and gang raping, forging of certificates, impersonation, leaking of school official matters, aiding and abetting cheating in examinations, collection of illegal money from pupils and other maladjustive behaviours which trend to disrupt the harmony of the school system as a whole. All these cases of indiscipline are more pronounced among secondary school students and teachers.

In realization of this, the Government at the Federal and State level, Ministry of Education, Schools Boards and administrators have promulgated reasonable disciplinary policies and procedures. These rather broad policies are made more specific as rules and regulations at the individual School level. Notably, in 1977 the issue of indiscipline reached a critical point in this country, which made (General Olusegun Obasanjo) the then military government to post some military personnel to schools to maintain discipline. In 1984 the then military government (Buhari/Idiagbon) introduced the ‘War against Indiscipline – WAI’ to curtail this menace in schools and other sectors. It is saddening to note that, most of the managerial strategies like corporal punishment (punished with the birch, cane, paddle or strap if a student do something wrong), suspension, expulsion, writing erring students name in the school black book, shaving students hair or cutting students skirt to fit in school assembly or classroom in the name of grooming etc used in time past in controlling and molding students’ attitudes are no more with the argument that some of these management strategies are outdated and tends to violate the fundamental rights of the students as enshrined in Section 33 to Section 44 of Chapter IV of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 9.

To make matters worse, the Federal Government through its National Policy on Education ( 10: 66) compel educators to use discipline rather than proactive and constructive punishment. All this pave way for varying behavioural anomalies within the school system. On this basis, the researcher is often at a loss when some parents will come to schools with tugs and security personnel when their children are been punished. Likewise, some teachers hide under political God-fatherism. This scenario enhances the students and teachers the freedom and autonomy to do as they like while, principals and designated staff are trading with caution in administering appropriate form of discipline on these students and erring teachers. These days, most principals and teachers seem to lack the dedication to go beyond the call of duty and contribute to the all round development of the child. As a result, many students are staying away from school for a week or two after resumption on the excuse that no teaching and learning take place during this period. More so, long after classes are supposed to have started, many students are still seen roaming around the environment as others are still seen coming from their houses. These behaviours as noted by Gitome, Katola and Nyabwari 11 have militated against effective teaching and learning hence, it has significantly affected the production of useful, acceptable and responsible members of the society, which is the primary responsibility of secondary schools. In this light the researcher concern is to find out the prevalence, causes and strategies used for the management of indiscipline amongst secondary school students and teachers in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State because studies on education in Ilorin metropolis have apparently not touched this area of research.

3. Literature Review

Discipline is defined as, those behaviours, actions and inactions which conforms to the predetermined rules and regulations of the school 12. Nwankwo 13 also defined discipline as the ability of a person to conform to the laid down rules, norms and regulations and a complete obedience to orders within the environment where he lives or works. Ideally, discipline means more than adhering to rules and regulations and entails an individual’s ability to discern what is right or wrong. Thus, lack of discipline is called indiscipline. According to Omote, Thinguri and Moenga ( 14: 2) indiscipline can be seen as any action considered to be wrong and not generally accepted as proper in a set up or society. Agbowuro and Dakama 15 summarized indiscipline as, any form of misbehaviour which the student(s) and teacher(s) display within the school system. This misbehaviour include: general disobedient to constituted authority, destruction of school property, poor attitude to learning, abuse of seniority, indolence, immoral behaviour, drug abuse, stealing, lateness, truancy, dirtiness, use of abusive languages, gangstarism or cultism ( 14: 89). Onah 16 further stated that indiscipline can be said to be the unwillingness of teachers and students to respect the constituted authority, observe and obey school rules and regulations and to maintain high standard of behaviours conducive to teaching learning process and effective functioning of the school.

In addition, indiscipline is also defined according to Ampofo ( 17: 23) as an act of misconduct which not only physical act but could also be a thing of the mind. This definition presupposes that disciplinary behaviour is an act of wrong doing and which must not necessarily be seen from a student’s action but the mood of such individual could be interpreted as an act of indiscipline or misconduct. Haruna 18 in his own view portrayed indiscipline as, a disregard to lay down standards of behaviours, rules and regulations of a social system. One can therefore conclude from these assertions that, indiscipline is negligence of norms and cultures of a social system. In a nutshell indiscipline in the school setting is the unwillingness or inability of pupils and/or teachers to respect authorities, observe and obey school rules and regulations and maintain a high standard of behavoiur conducive to the teaching-learning process and essential to the smooth running of the school.

Numerous studies exist on indiscipline in schools. Notably, Ampofo 17 explored the causes and effects of students’ indiscipline in Gumani Junior High School, Tamale, Ghana. The study was a descriptive survey and the sampled size consisted of ten (10) teachers and sixty (60) students. The information for the study was elicited by the use of questionnaires. Data was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistic. The study established that, the use of vernacular and fighting among students were the most common disciplinary acts common among student, followed by absenteeism or truancy, disobedience to teachers or prefects, examination malpractices, class destruction and physical assault. Accordinglt, the study unravel that, the causes of indiscipline included parents or guardians, peer influence, unhealthy relationship between teachers and students, school size and students exposure to the media. The findings reveal that, indiscipline affect teaching and learning as most teachers spend instructional hours in controlling indiscipline students’ behaviors’.

Simba, Agak and Kabuka 19 determined the level of discipline and extent of impact of discipline on academic performance among 817 class eight pupils in 34 selected sub-county’s public primary schools in Muhoroni ub-County, Kenya. Results indicated that 46 (5.6%), 214 (26.2%), 413(50.6%) and 144 (17.6%) of the pupils had low, moderate, high, and very high discipline respectively. Also, discipline related positively with, and accounted for 23% of variance in the pupils’ academic performance (R = .480, β = .480, R2 = .230, p < .05). The study recommended enhancement of discipline among the pupils for improvement of their academic performance.

In a descriptive research, Mussa 20 examined the role of school discipline on students’ academic performance in five selected schools at Kinondoni district in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. Findings shows that best performing school has suitable school rules and regulation, use and implement different mechanism, apply fair and consistence punishment, also had suitable rules and regulations. On the other hand, the least performing schools do not utilise and execute variety of mechanisms, apply unfair and inconsistence punishment and had no supervision.

Findings from a cross-sectional survey 21 conducted among 100 stakeholders’ (teachers, students, parents and education government officials) on discipline management as a means to improve students’ academic performance in four ordinary level secondary schools in Bunda Distirct Schools, Tanzania revealed that, stakeholders held the view that discipline management should be used as a process to improve students’ academic performance that build strong societal and behavioural ethos.

In a Nigerian study, Haruna 18 surveyed the impact of indiscipline on the management of Secondary Schools in Kogi-East senatorial district. Survey design was adopted and a total of 450 respondents were used as sample and were selected using proportionate stratified random sampling. The findings of the study indicate that truancy, stealing, examination malpractice, sexual immorality and drug abuse have significant effects on the management of secondary schools. The study conducted by Onuigbo 22 dealt with the social factors that cause disciplinary problems in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study with total sample of 613 SSI students used. Findings revealed that parental failure to train their children, broken homes or polygamous homes, children deprived of parental care and supervision among others are the social factors that cause disciplinary problems in schools.

In another descriptive study conducted among 500 senior secondary students in Ondo State, Moye 23 found out that there is high prevalence of indiscipline among secondary schools students, which affected students’ interest in schooling and overall students’ academic performance in school. Moye 23 also observed that most school principals put-up lackadaisical attitude to indiscipline in their schools, while some even accommodate indiscipline through their actions and behaviour. The study concluded that unbiased appointment of capable and effective principals, and effective monitoring of schools will ensure discipline in the school system.

Onah 16 investigated the classroom management of disruptive behaviours among primary school pupils in Nsukka Central Educational Authority of Enugu state, Nigeria. The study was guided by four research questions and two null hypotheses. The sample of the study was 120 teachers. The major findings of the study showed that the prevalent disruptive behaviours exhibited by primary school pupils included laughing unnecessarily, cheating during tests, loud yawning in the classroom, fighting, joking while a lesson is going on amongst others. The findings also revealed that poor sitting arrangement, lack of interest in subject matter, overcrowding in the classroom, inconsistent parenting, hunger, health conditions, repeating the same class, lack of motivation from the teacher, and lack of recreational time were the causes of disruptive behaviours. Furthermore, the study identified sending the child out of the class, sending the child to do manual labour, flogging, referral to school disciplinary committee, kneeling and monitoring, as classroom management strategies used in managing disruptive behaviours by teachers.

Report from a quantitative survey 24 conducted among 1000 management staff, teaching and non-teaching staff in four public secondary schools in Jalingo Metropolis showed that truancy, absenteeism, fighting, stealing and drug addiction as typical forms of disciplinary problems experienced in schools. The study also revealed parental/home, political, social and economic, school environment, school curriculum and peer group influence among others as the causes of disciplinary problems. Finally, the study posits that disciplinary problems can be dealt with if school staffers develop a spirit of teamwork and there must be a well spelt out code of conduct for all staff and students to follow.

Observation from the empirical review indicates that, those previous studies were done in different locations, as little or lesser studies have been done in the area of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state, considering its incidences, menace and consequential effect on the school system. Therefore, the researcher embarks on this study to fill the gap identified in previous studies and thus, contribute to empirical and theoretical knowledge in the field of Education.

3.1. Objectives of the Study

Specifically, the study seeks to:

i. ascertain the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis;

ii. examine the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis;

iii. highlight the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students and teachers in Ilorin metropolis; and

iv. Determine the strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis secondary schools.

3.2. Research Questions

In addressing the problem of this study, the following research questions were raised:

1. What is the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis?

2. What is the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis?

3. What are the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students and teachers in Ilorin metropolis?

4. What are the strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis secondary schools?

3.3. Significance of the Study

The introduction of this research work would be incomplete without enumerating the importance of this study. This study comes at a time when the government is finding solution to the moral decayness bedeviling educational institutions in Nigeria. Strides to finding pathways for discovering its prevalence, prevailing factors and proffering possible solutions were a single issue occupying the researchers mind. Thus, the information provided by this research is important for the Ministry of Education, Teaching Service Commission, and other stakeholders who have an interest in improving the standard of education in Nigeria.

The finding of this study is expected to help the Government of Nigeria in solving the increasing problems of indiscipline among teachers and students’ in schools. Also the study will assist head of schools on how to manage school rules and regulations, not only in Ilorin metropolis but also in other secondary schools in Kwara State and Nigeria at large.

The outcome of this study will be useful to educational administrators and teachers as well as parents as it will suggest other strategies that can be used to reduce indiscipline among secondary school teachers and students. It will also contribute in establishing a baseline for formulating school discipline management strategies, techniques and school discipline policy which can be adhered to by secondary schools clientele.

The study is also significant because it will shed light on how to improve discipline management and how discipline management can improve the efficiency of secondary schools in their missions and visions to offer quality education and minimise disharmony in the school. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to future researchers as it would serve as a pointer from which other studies.

Lastly, the outcomes of this study may form the basis for future intervention programs which shall be aimed at improving positive disciplinary behaviour among teachers and students that will eventually improve effective functioning of secondary schools, which is an indicator of quality education in institutions of learning.

4. Methodology

The descriptive research of a survey type of design was adopted for the study. this design as affirmed by Olawepo 25 is concerned with collecting data on, and also describing in a systematic manner the characteristic features and facts about the opinions, feelings, and behaviours of people through observation and administration of questionnaire to a sampled population of interest to the researcher. The result of which can be applied to the target population.

The study was carried out among public secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. Ilorin metropolis covers three Local Government Areas viz; Ilorin South; Ilorin West; and Ilorin East. Records at the Ministry of Education and Human Capital Development (MEHCD), Kwara State, revealed that Ilorin Metropolis has 75 public senior secondary schools; 25 of these schools are in Ilorin South Local Government Area (LGA), 23 are in Ilorin West LGA, while 27 public secondary schools are in Ilorin East LGA. Thus, the study was targeted at 2,349 respondents comprising of 75 principals, 221 vice-principals, 446 heads of departments(HODs) and 1607 secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria (Source: Ministry of Education and Human Capital Development (MOEHCD), Ilorin, 2018). It is from this population that a representative sample of 306 was drawn through the stratified random sampling method. By this 18 out of the 75 public secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis were selected. Furthermore, the Principal, two Vice Principals, four HODs and 10 teachers were selected from each of the 18 public secondary schools sampled for this study. That is 18 principals, 36 vice principals, 72 HODs and 180 teachers. The choice of this sampling technique was because it gave the researcher an opportunity to select amongst schools in the three LGAs in Ilorin metropolis established by government directly or schools established by communities, individuals, organizations and faith-based but funded by governments.

Data were collected with the use of a validated and pre-tested four point Likert scale questionnaires (alpha values alpha value of 0.80) titled: “Prevalence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline Questionnaire” (PCMIQ). Data collected were statistically treated with descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation in order to answer the research questions raised. A cut off point of 2.50 was considered. This is because it represented the mean of the continuum of the scale i.e. 4, 3, 2, 1.

5. Results and Discussion

For case of analysis, out of the 306 questionnaire administered on the respondents, 298 questionnaires were returned and filled correctly. This implies a 97.4% response rate. Data for the study were analysed and presented based on research questions that guided the study.

5.1. Analysis of Research Questions

Research Question 1: What is the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis?

In analysing the prevalent level of indiscipline, mean and standard deviation was used and a cut-off point of 2.50 was considered. The individual and grand mean score was interpreted as follows: 3.25 – 4.00 were classified as Highly Prevalent (HP), 2.50 – 3.24, indicated Moderate Prevalent (MP), and mean values < 2.50 were classified as Not Prevalent (NP).

Table 1 presents the mean ratings of the respondents on the prevalent and level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. The table shows that, item 1 with mean value 3.34 was rated highly. This implies that lateness to lesson and school was a highly prevalent act(s) of indiscipline among second school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. Also, means vales 2.80, 2.71, 2.63, 2.60 and 2.59 on items 2, 3, 7, 8, and 4 were rated moderately. This implies that indiscipline act(s) like: irregularity in school; non-challant attitude to writing of lesson note; aiding and abetting cheating in examinations, collection of illegal money from students; and sexual harassment of female pupils, were prevalently moderate among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis.

Research Question 2: What is the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school students’ in Ilorin metropolis?

Findings from Table 2 show the agreement of the respondents to items 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22 and 23. Specifically, items 16, 22, 11, 15, and 12 with mean values .56, 3.51, 3.29, 3.17, 3.04, and 2.99 respectively were rated highly. This implies that: absenteeism or truancy, bullying between senior and junior, perpetual lateness to class and school among students, not doing home work, loitering around school during school hours and dodging class lessons were the most prevalent form of indiscipline exhibited among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. On the overall, the grand mean value of 2.87 implies that, the prevalent level of indiscipline exhibited among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis was moderate.

Research Question 3: What are the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students and teachers in Ilorin metropolis?

From the Table 3, it can be deduced that the respondents’ responses on items 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36 were above the acceptance level of 2.50. However, the table revealed that exposure to social media and pornographic films with mean value 3.89, was the major cause of indiscipline exhibited by secondary school student in Ilorin metropolis. Other major causes of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis include: overcrowded population of students in the classroom, lack of adequate parental care and guidance, peer-group influence i.e. students imitating the unruly behaviour of their colleagues, inadequate and lack of support services like guidance and counseling, abolition of corporal punishment in school by government and breakdown of cultural and moral values in the society with mean values 3.77, 3.65, 3.52, 3.50, 3.45 and 2.25 respectively. On the part of the teachers: irregular payment of salaries, arrears, benefits and allowances to teachers; stagnation and favourism in teachers promotion with mean values 3.66 and 3.54, were the major causes of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis found in Table 3.

Research Question 4: What are the strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis secondary schools?

Table 4 presents the mean ratings of the respondents with regard to the strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis secondary schools. Result from the table shows that: enforcement of school rules and regulations that guide against immoral behavior, teaching of moral and religious education to rekindle moral values in students, with mean scores of 3.91 and 3.84 respectively are the mostly adopted strategies for the management of indiscipline among secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. Other strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis as found in Table 4 include: suspension (from 1 day to 2 weeks) / temporary exclusion, manual work (light to hard work) with mean scores of 3.50 and 2.71 respectively.

5.2. Discussion

Findings from the first research question revealed that, lateness to lesson and school was the highly prevalent act(s) of indiscipline among second school teachers in Ilorin metropolis (with mean value 3.34). Other forms of indiscipline such as: irregularity in school; non-challant attitude to writing of lesson note; aiding and abetting cheating in examinations, collection of illegal money from students; and sexual harassment of female pupils (mean values 2.80, 2.71, 2.63, 2.60 and 2.59 respectively), were found to be moderately prevalent among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. This finding is rather surprisingly considering different strategies adopted by secondary school administrators for the management of indiscipline among teachers. This might be attributed to the level of morale, enthusiasm, attitude as well as the low level of commitment of teachers towards their job as a result of poor motivational factors such as irregular payment of salaries, arrears and entitlement, stagnation in areas of promotion and poor working conditions among teachers found in this study (see Table 3) and that also reported by Adekeye ( 26: 86).

Findings from the second research question revealed that absenteeism or truancy, bullying between senior and junior, perpetual lateness to class and school among students, not doing home work, loitering around school during school hours and dodging class lessons with mean values 3.56, 3.51, 3.29, 3.17, 3.04, and 2.99 respectively were the most prevalent form of indiscipline exhibited among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. This finding supported the studies of other researchers 12, 16, 24 who reported that truancy, absenteeism, loitering, fighting among students, class destruction and physical assault, stealing among others as typical examples of disciplinary problems experienced among secondary school students.

Findings also revealed that the prevalent level of indiscipline exhibited among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis was moderate (grand mean value 2.87). The findings corresponds with a Kenyan study ( 19: 164) which reported that 46 (5.6%), 214 (26.2%), 413(50.6%) and 144 (17.6%) of the students had low, moderate, high, and very high indiscipline respectively.

Findings from the third research question revealed that exposure to social media and pornographic films with mean value 3.89, was the major cause of indiscipline exhibited by secondary school student in Ilorin metropolis. The result is in agreement with that of Onah 16 who observed that unwholesome mass media has become a major contributor of students deviant behaviour. The mass media such as radio, television, newspaper and magazine, watching of internet films or pornographic materials which are characterized by violence movies are recently developed agency which perpetuates disruptive act among children.

Other major causes of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis include: overcrowded population of students in the classroom, lack of adequate parental care and guidance, peer-group influence i.e. students imitating the unruly behaviour of their colleagues, inadequate and lack of support services like guidance and counseling, abolition of corporal punishment in school by government and breakdown of cultural and moral values in the society with mean values 3.77, 3.65, 3.52, 3.50, 3.45 and 2.25 respectively. The findings of this present study corroborated that of Ugwu, Ugwueze, Nji and Ene ( 27: 1226) who discovered the causes of disciplinary problems among secondary schools in Enugu State as parental failure to train their children, children deprived of parental care and supervision among others are the social factors that cause disciplinary problems in schools. This findings also tallies with other local 12, 16, 21, 28 and international studies 17, 20. These studies independently reported that the causes of indiscipline included inconsistent parenting, uncaring parents, over-protective parents and peer influence. Additionally, the study by Jacob, Olawuyi and Jacob ( 29: 008) reported school size as a strong determinant of indiscipline among secondary school students.

On the part of the teachers: irregular payment of salaries, arrears, benefits and allowances to teachers; stagnation and favourism in teachers promotion with mean values 3.66 and 3.54, were the major causes of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis found in Table 3. The implication of this finding is that most of the teachers will sometimes feel bored and unmotivated, and this might even lower their morale and causes aggressive behaviours and other forms of indiscipline like extorting money from students. This is a bad omen to the effective secondary school administration, as quality teachers may leave. In fact, when teachers are denied their salaries, deprived of fringe benefits, stagnant on a position and are fed up with the general working conditions, they will view their jobs as dead ends and therefore have no pride in their work thereby exhibiting poor behavioural attitude to work which may have an adverse effect on institutional functioning and performance.

Result from the fourth research question shows that enforcement of school rules and regulations that guide against immoral behavior, teaching of moral and religious education to rekindle moral values in students, with mean scores of 3.91 and 3.84 respectively are the mostly adopted strategies for the management of indiscipline among secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. The above findings are corresponded with the postulations of Adam ( 1: 16) who stated that rules give students concrete direction to ensure that teachers’ expectation becomes a reality, when they become consistent in enforcing the rules and procedures made.

Other strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis as found in this study include: suspension (from 1 day to 2 weeks) / temporary exclusion, manual work (light to hard work) with mean scores of 3.50 and 2.71 respectively. The findings are in accordance with Machumu and Killugwe ( 21: 079) who asserted that that discipline without stress, punishments or rewards is designed to educate young people about the value of internal motivation. The intention according to the authors is to develop within youth (students) a desire to become responsible and self-disciplined and to put forth effort to learn 21.

In furtherance, the study discovered that: assessing, marking and correction of teachers’ lesson note by the principal/H.O.D on a weekly basis; enforcement of time-book for teachers; ensuring regular attendance of lesson by teachers; and enforcement of school rules and regulations that guide against in discipline behaviour, with mean values 3.80, 3.61, 3.52 and 3.36 respectively were the highly rated strategies utilised for managing indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. This finding ensue the functional role of secondary school administrators (principals) in discipline management, which is occasioned by the level of monitoring, supervision and directive by the government to ensure effective functioning of the school system.

6. Conclusion

Indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools is a multifaceted phenomenon that requires an understanding of individuals, family/home background, the schools and all the stakeholders and curriculum experts in taking appropriate measures that is most requisite in managing different forms of disciplinary problem in the school system to ensure a threat free society. From the results obtained from the analyzed data, it can be concluded that the prevalent level of indiscipline exhibited among secondary school teachers and students in Ilorin metropolis was moderate but have the tendency for increase if appropriate measures are not taken to curtail this menace. Though, the study revealed that: enforcement of school rules and regulations that guide against immoral behaviour; enforcement of time-book for teachers; and ensuring regular attendance of lesson by teachers, were the mostly adopted for the management of indiscipline among students and teachers, indiscipline among teacher and students’ in public secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis was still prevalent and has the tendency to increase drastically. However, the finding of the study may not be generalisable to private and federal unity schools in the state and other States in Nigeria because each school and or localities has its own peculiarities. In the light of this barrier/limitation, it was suggested that the same study should be replicated on a wider scale to cover all the Federal Unity Schools and Private secondary schools in Kwara State and other States of the federation. This should be done as special research as the problem of gross indiscipline is a social quagmire bedeviling the school system.

References

[1]  Adam, K.I., Disciplinary powers of educational institutions in Nigeria: An analysis of judicial attitude to students complaints. In Olubor, R.O., Abdulkareem, A.Y., Alabi, A.T. and Adeyanju, F. (eds.). Educational management: New perspectives. Amfitop Books, Lagos, 2017, 14-31.
In article      
 
[2]  Okemakinde, T., Adewuyi, J. O., and Alabi, C. O, “The place of teacher in national development in Nigeria”, European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19 (1). 225-233. May 2013
In article      
 
[3]  NOUN, Course material on history of education in Nigeria (EDU 714), National Open University of Nigeria Press, Abuja, 2014, 1-129.
In article      
 
[4]  Olubor, R.O. and Nwagwu, N.A. (eds.), Course material on legal aspects of educational administration (Revised), National Open University of Nigeria Press, Abuja, 2016, 1-337.
In article      
 
[5]  Emunemu, B. and Ejieh, M.U.C, Course material on administration of schools (EDA 808), National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja, 2015, 1-170.
In article      
 
[6]  Abiri, J.O.O. & Jekayinfa, A.A. (eds.), Perspectives on the history of education in Nigeria (Revised Ed.), Emolay-Jay Communications Inc, Ibadan, 2012, 21-130.
In article      
 
[7]  Ogunyinka, E.K, Okeke, T.I. and Adedoyin, R.C, “Teacher education and development in Nigeria: An analysis of reforms, challenges and prospects”, Education Journal, 4(3). 111-122. July 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Gift J. E, “Indiscipline in public secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area in Bayelsa State”, International Journal of Business and Management Review, 6 (5). 1-13. September 2018.
In article      
 
[9]  Federal Republic of Nigeria, The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Federal Government Press, Lagos, 1999.
In article      
 
[10]  Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Nigeria: NERDC Press.
In article      
 
[11]  Gitome, J.W., Katola, M.T. & Nyabwari, B.G. (2013). Correlation between students’ discipline and performance in the kenya certificate of secondary education. International Journal of Education and Research, 1 (8), 1-10.
In article      
 
[12]  Ali, A.A., Dada, I.T., Isiaka, G.A. & Salmon, S.A. (2014). Types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 8 (2), 254-287
In article      
 
[13]  Nwankwo, J. (2014). Management in education: Modern approaches in education management. Ibadan: Giraffe Books.
In article      
 
[14]  Omote, M. J., Thinguri, R.W., & Moenga, M. E. (2015). A critical analysis of acts of student indiscipline and management strategies employed by school authorities in public high schools in Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(12), 1-10.
In article      
 
[15]  Agbowuro, C. & Dakama, D. (2016). Dilemma of indiscipline in secondary schools: a case study of Toro Local Government Area Plateau State Nigeria, implications for corruption and terrorism. British Journal of Education, 4 (10), 85-99.
In article      
 
[16]  Onah, N.L. (2015). Managing classroom disruptive behaviours among primary school pupils in Nsukka Central Education Authority. M.ED thesis submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
In article      
 
[17]  Ampofo, A.J. (2016). Perceived causes and effects of students’ indiscipline in Gumani junior high school, Tamale. M.Ed thesis submitted to University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
In article      
 
[18]  Haruna, U. (2016). Impact of students’ indiscipline on the management of secondary schools in Kogi-East Senatorial District, Kogi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 4 (6), 35-46.
In article      
 
[19]  Simba, N.O., Agak, J.O. & Kabuka, E.K. (2016). Impact of Discipline on Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 7 (6), 164-173.
In article      
 
[20]  Mussa, L. (2015). The role of school discipline on students’ academic performance in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. Med thesis submitted to the Open University of Tanzania
In article      
 
[21]  Machumu, H.J, & Killugwe, Z.K. (2013). Stakeholders’ perceptions on discipline management as a means to improve students’ academic performance emerging experiences from Bunda Distirct Schools, Tanzania. Journal of Education Research and Behavioral Sciences, 2(6), pp. 076-089. Available online at http://www.apexjournal.org/JERBS.
In article      
 
[22]  Onuigbo, R.A. (2016). Social factors that cause disciplinary problem in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. M.Ed thesis submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
In article      
 
[23]  Moye G.P. (2015). Students’ Indiscipline and Principal Attitude in Ondo State Secondary Schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 6 (16), 80-85.
In article      
 
[24]  Olaitan, T., Mohammed, A.N. & Ajibola A. L. (2013). Management of Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools: Jalingo Metropolis in Focus. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics & Education, 13 (14), 6-19.
In article      
 
[25]  Olawepo, J.A. (eds) (2010). Practical guides for writing students’ research project reports. Ilorin: Sharon-K Graphic Prints.
In article      
 
[26]  Adekeye, B. (2016). School climate and work motivation of secondary school teachers in Kwara State. An Unpublished M.Ed Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Education, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.
In article      
 
[27]  Ugwu, C.U., Ugwueze, F.C., Nji, GC. & Ene, O.C. (2016). Perception of health and physical education teachers on students indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 4 (17), 1223-1230.
In article      
 
[28]  Ada, M.J. (2016). Combating indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools. Niger Delta Journal of Education, 3 (1), 527-533.
In article      
 
[29]  Jacob, O.A., Olawuyi B. O. and Jacob, A.J. (2016). Relationship between class size and discipline of secondary school students in Yagba West of Kogi State, Nigeria. Sky Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 008-013.
In article      
 

APPENDIX I

LIST OF SAMPLED SECONDARY SCHOOLS

1. G.S.S, Ilorin

2. Okelele Secondary school, Ilorin

3. Cherubim and Seraphim College, Ilorin

4. Mount Camel Secondary School, Oloje

5. G.D.S.S, Otte

6. G.D.S.S, Karumo, Ilorin

7. Community Secondary School, Oke-Oyi

8. G.D.S.S, Amule, Ilorin

9. G.D.S.S, Kulende, Ilorin

10. G.D.S.S, Tanke, Ilorin

11. St. Anthony's Secondary School, Ilorin

12. Ilorin Grammar School

13. Queen Elizabeth School, Ilorin

14. G.D.S.S, Alore, Ilorin

15. G.D.S.S Odokun, Ilorin

16. G.D.S.S, Adeta, Ilorin

17. G.D.S.S, Airport, Ilorin

18. Kwara State Polytechnic Secondary School, Ilorin

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Martins Olanrewaju Atunde and Temitope Tajudeen Aliyu

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Martins Olanrewaju Atunde, Temitope Tajudeen Aliyu. Prevelence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools: Ilorin Metropolis in Focus. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2019, pp 85-94. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/3/3/1
MLA Style
Atunde, Martins Olanrewaju, and Temitope Tajudeen Aliyu. "Prevelence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools: Ilorin Metropolis in Focus." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3.3 (2019): 85-94.
APA Style
Atunde, M. O. , & Aliyu, T. T. (2019). Prevelence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools: Ilorin Metropolis in Focus. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(3), 85-94.
Chicago Style
Atunde, Martins Olanrewaju, and Temitope Tajudeen Aliyu. "Prevelence, Causes and Management of Indiscipline in Public Secondary Schools: Ilorin Metropolis in Focus." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3, no. 3 (2019): 85-94.
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  • Table 1. Mean scores of the respondents on the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis
  • Table 2. Mean scores of the respondents on the prevalent level of indiscipline among secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis
  • Table 3. Mean scores of the respondents on the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students and teachers in Ilorin metropolis
  • Table 4. Mean scores on the strategies adopted for the management of indiscipline in Ilorin metropolis secondary school
[1]  Adam, K.I., Disciplinary powers of educational institutions in Nigeria: An analysis of judicial attitude to students complaints. In Olubor, R.O., Abdulkareem, A.Y., Alabi, A.T. and Adeyanju, F. (eds.). Educational management: New perspectives. Amfitop Books, Lagos, 2017, 14-31.
In article      
 
[2]  Okemakinde, T., Adewuyi, J. O., and Alabi, C. O, “The place of teacher in national development in Nigeria”, European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19 (1). 225-233. May 2013
In article      
 
[3]  NOUN, Course material on history of education in Nigeria (EDU 714), National Open University of Nigeria Press, Abuja, 2014, 1-129.
In article      
 
[4]  Olubor, R.O. and Nwagwu, N.A. (eds.), Course material on legal aspects of educational administration (Revised), National Open University of Nigeria Press, Abuja, 2016, 1-337.
In article      
 
[5]  Emunemu, B. and Ejieh, M.U.C, Course material on administration of schools (EDA 808), National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja, 2015, 1-170.
In article      
 
[6]  Abiri, J.O.O. & Jekayinfa, A.A. (eds.), Perspectives on the history of education in Nigeria (Revised Ed.), Emolay-Jay Communications Inc, Ibadan, 2012, 21-130.
In article      
 
[7]  Ogunyinka, E.K, Okeke, T.I. and Adedoyin, R.C, “Teacher education and development in Nigeria: An analysis of reforms, challenges and prospects”, Education Journal, 4(3). 111-122. July 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Gift J. E, “Indiscipline in public secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area in Bayelsa State”, International Journal of Business and Management Review, 6 (5). 1-13. September 2018.
In article      
 
[9]  Federal Republic of Nigeria, The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Federal Government Press, Lagos, 1999.
In article      
 
[10]  Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Nigeria: NERDC Press.
In article      
 
[11]  Gitome, J.W., Katola, M.T. & Nyabwari, B.G. (2013). Correlation between students’ discipline and performance in the kenya certificate of secondary education. International Journal of Education and Research, 1 (8), 1-10.
In article      
 
[12]  Ali, A.A., Dada, I.T., Isiaka, G.A. & Salmon, S.A. (2014). Types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 8 (2), 254-287
In article      
 
[13]  Nwankwo, J. (2014). Management in education: Modern approaches in education management. Ibadan: Giraffe Books.
In article      
 
[14]  Omote, M. J., Thinguri, R.W., & Moenga, M. E. (2015). A critical analysis of acts of student indiscipline and management strategies employed by school authorities in public high schools in Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(12), 1-10.
In article      
 
[15]  Agbowuro, C. & Dakama, D. (2016). Dilemma of indiscipline in secondary schools: a case study of Toro Local Government Area Plateau State Nigeria, implications for corruption and terrorism. British Journal of Education, 4 (10), 85-99.
In article      
 
[16]  Onah, N.L. (2015). Managing classroom disruptive behaviours among primary school pupils in Nsukka Central Education Authority. M.ED thesis submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
In article      
 
[17]  Ampofo, A.J. (2016). Perceived causes and effects of students’ indiscipline in Gumani junior high school, Tamale. M.Ed thesis submitted to University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.
In article      
 
[18]  Haruna, U. (2016). Impact of students’ indiscipline on the management of secondary schools in Kogi-East Senatorial District, Kogi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 4 (6), 35-46.
In article      
 
[19]  Simba, N.O., Agak, J.O. & Kabuka, E.K. (2016). Impact of Discipline on Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 7 (6), 164-173.
In article      
 
[20]  Mussa, L. (2015). The role of school discipline on students’ academic performance in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. Med thesis submitted to the Open University of Tanzania
In article      
 
[21]  Machumu, H.J, & Killugwe, Z.K. (2013). Stakeholders’ perceptions on discipline management as a means to improve students’ academic performance emerging experiences from Bunda Distirct Schools, Tanzania. Journal of Education Research and Behavioral Sciences, 2(6), pp. 076-089. Available online at http://www.apexjournal.org/JERBS.
In article      
 
[22]  Onuigbo, R.A. (2016). Social factors that cause disciplinary problem in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. M.Ed thesis submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
In article      
 
[23]  Moye G.P. (2015). Students’ Indiscipline and Principal Attitude in Ondo State Secondary Schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 6 (16), 80-85.
In article      
 
[24]  Olaitan, T., Mohammed, A.N. & Ajibola A. L. (2013). Management of Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools: Jalingo Metropolis in Focus. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics & Education, 13 (14), 6-19.
In article      
 
[25]  Olawepo, J.A. (eds) (2010). Practical guides for writing students’ research project reports. Ilorin: Sharon-K Graphic Prints.
In article      
 
[26]  Adekeye, B. (2016). School climate and work motivation of secondary school teachers in Kwara State. An Unpublished M.Ed Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Education, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.
In article      
 
[27]  Ugwu, C.U., Ugwueze, F.C., Nji, GC. & Ene, O.C. (2016). Perception of health and physical education teachers on students indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 4 (17), 1223-1230.
In article      
 
[28]  Ada, M.J. (2016). Combating indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools. Niger Delta Journal of Education, 3 (1), 527-533.
In article      
 
[29]  Jacob, O.A., Olawuyi B. O. and Jacob, A.J. (2016). Relationship between class size and discipline of secondary school students in Yagba West of Kogi State, Nigeria. Sky Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 008-013.
In article