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Socio-Ecology of Textile Industry in Bangladesh

Md. Redwanur Rahman , Md. Razib Ahsan, Modan Mohan Dey, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Md. Azibar Rahman
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2018, 2(2), 69-76. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-2-2-5
Received August 17, 2018; Revised September 28, 2018; Accepted October 07, 2018

Abstract

The garment sector represents the 80% of the national export and counts USD 19 billion revenues; these numbers describe the sector as the most important manufacturing industry in Bangladesh. The social contribution by some selected sample mills was 0.813% of total net profit. It is also found that social responsibilities of sample mills regarding the payment of wages were not satisfactory. 53.33% of total sample mills pay minimum wages of Tk. 3000 to 3500 and none pays above Tk. 4000 per month during the study period for their workers. The minimum wages were not sufficient for the workers to maintain standard of livings as per market price and cost of living. This fosters labor unrest and unpleasant social, ecological and economic condition. It is also observed that 82% of the total workers regarded cotton and fabric dust as the principal reasons behind major health problems. 44.66% of them claimed the huge sound menace, 29.33% of them defined dyeing effluent as major causes of health problems, 19.33% of total respondents claimed the lack of pure drinking water and 19.33% of them claimed the inadequate number of latrines as the principal reasons of occupational health hazards. According to the stakeholder’s opinion about sample mills’ responsibility toward consumers, it is found that 42% of total stakeholders opined that textile business discharged minimum responsibility and 20% of them told that they did not perform any responsibility to the consumers in Bangladesh. The present study was also observed the level of occupational stress, mental health as well as associated factors in the textile industries.

1. Introduction

Bangladesh is world’s second-biggest apparel exporter after China. Garments including knit wear and hosiery account for 80% of exports revenue; others include: jute goods, home textile, footwear and frozen shrimps and fish. The textile industry in Bangladesh, now the sixth largest exporter of apparel in the world after a decade of spectacular economic growth, has positioned itself to benefit from the current global economic crisis 1. Production of ready-made garments and knitwear is at an all-time high. Many challenges remain, but the overall outlook for this nation’s industry remains bright. Textile sector being a major provider of employment, a pioneer in poverty alleviation and a base for economic emancipation can logically be treated as engine of growth for our economy 2. This industry is an important segment of Bangladesh’s manufacturing industry, playing a critical role in her economic development 3. Exports in Bangladesh increased to 243.39 BDT Billion in May from 230.71 BDT Billion in April of 2018. Exports in Bangladesh averaged 43.66 BDT Billion from 1972 until 2018, reaching an all-time high of 243.39 BDT Billion in May of 2018 and a record low of 0.05 BDT Billion in February of 1972 2.

As the Bangladeshi textile sector keeps expanding, the country’s weak infrastructure may potentially threaten continued growth. The industry has set a target of US$25 billion in garment exports by 2013, which would create an additional 1.4 million job opportunities within the sector and subsequently open up opportunities across different occupations 4. The textile industry in Bangladesh may provide market alternatives to those looking for growth opportunities in the midst of the current global recession.

Textile and apparel is the fast growing sector of Bangladesh economy. The sector’s outstanding contribution to the national economy is praiseworthy. But multidimensional problems have become paramount and created obstacles in the way of growth and success of this vital sector. Sustainability strategy or long term strategy is essential in order to mitigate the multifarious problematic areas of this sector. Otherwise sustainable development of this sector cannot be achieved and the activities of the industry will create unpleasant socio-economic condition and environmental degradation. So, the government and concerned authority should resolve the existing problems surrounding the minimum wages of the workers and other related issues and should extend all cooperation to the management and the workers to work in complete harmony to achieve maximum growth in the area of exports of textile products in the greater interest of our national income.

5 analyzes the structure of this industry in the global context and examines areas of the textile and apparel industry such as labor conditions, human and workers’ rights, mental stress and environmental issues, each of which is especially sensitive in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions. On the basis of those social and environmental aspects, there have been recognized barriers and challenges of CSR.

Social, ecological, economical and mental health responsibility is defined as the obligation of decision makers to pursue actions which protect and improve the welfare of the society as a whole, rather than only their own interests. Since business firms have to depend on society for their capital, consumers, employees and infra structural supports, so, business organizations have had manifold responsibilities toward various components of society such as employees, consumers, community, environment, government, shareholders and other stakeholders. Society expects business to help solve a number of general social problems and to show much more concern for social effects, which arise directly from performance of business’s economic functions 6. Society, on the other hand, depends mostly on business organizations for the supply of necessary goods and services, employment and revenues. So business and society interact in a system framework. These mutual interactions and responsibilities are the fundamental needs for the smooth functioning of both business and society. If business and society get stuck on the legalisms of social responsibility, they will drift into inaction 6. This is why social responsibility of business is the precondition of socioeconomic development because the activities of business organization create unpleasant socio-economic condition and environmental degradation in many ways. But if the firms do their operations fairly and contribute to the society reasonably within their ability, then it would not create unsustainable socio-economic condition for the society 6. However, the textile business as a business organization has got manifold responsibilities toward its stakeholders. Some of these are legal obligatory and some of these are voluntary in nature. The contribution of business to the social programs develops socio-economic conditions of its stakeholders which assist production and consumption of its goods and services. The textile industry’ contribution to the employees will thus increase their productivity and efficiency, their contribution to consumers will create goodwill and increase market share and their contribution to government, environment, ecology and community will create healthy society which is fundamental for healthy business. Thus the social responsibilities of business are beneficial to both business and society. So, it is necessary to investigate and evaluate the social responsibility strategies of this industry. In the present study has attempted to evaluate the present scenario of managing social, ecological and economical responsibility of sample mills toward the various components including mental health in work place of society or toward its stakeholders.

2. Methodology

The researcher personally has visited each textile inustry for several times in order to collect the primary and secondary data. The researcher has contacted the persons dealing with relevant records after obtaining due permission from project head, explained the nature of data required, made appointment of time convenient to the concerned individuals and collected relevant data, accounting records etc. of each sample industry. Collected data were both qualitative and quantitative and all the data were collected in the light of the objectives of the study.

Primary data were collected from the selected some textile mills through interview method with the help of structured questionnaire and these were open ended and closed ended questionnaire. There were eight sets of questionnaire for different departmental executives and workers of the textile mills. These questionnaires were framed in the light of research objectives and presented before embarking on interviews with the general managers, deputy general managers, or managers of administration, production, sales, human resource and finance and accounts, workers, MIS (Management Information System) department of sample industries. The researcher also conducted interviews with the executives of BTMA (Bangladesh Textile Mills Association). Stakeholders in this respect indicate consumers, communities (beneficiaries directly or indirectly by textile mills) and Scholars. There are several established interview instruments to assess psychologically adverse working conditions that are assumed to contribute to the construction of mental health in work place. One of the most widely used instruments is the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. The ERI questionnaire is based on the theoretical model of social reciprocity assuming that failure of reciprocity of “efforts” and “rewards” in work life exerts detrimental effects on the health of workers.

Each respondent was contacted personally and data were collected after making them convinced about the objectives and importance of the study.

3. Result and Discussion

3.1. Sample Mills’ Responsibility toward Their Employees

The textile industry can be divided into three main categories: public sector, handloom sector, and the organized private sector in Bangladesh. The private sector is the fastest growing sector in the country.

Employees are the most important interest groups of the business firms 7. Employees are dependent on the business firms for their employment and income. Business firms are also dependent on the productivity and efficiency of employees 8. This interdependent relation between business firms and employees creates some responsibilities to each other. Harmonious relationship between employers and employees is a fundamental factor of economic growth of the business firms and the economic progress of the society 9. Mutual understanding and responsibility are essential for the common interest of both business firms and employees and also for socio-economic development of society 10.

Hostile relations between employers and employees create industrial conflict, business failure, jobless situation, strike and violence that fosters unstable socio-economic environment 11. So, both business firms and employees have responsibilities to maintain peace and co-operative relations between them.

Textile industry as a business firm also have social responsibilities to the employees to pay fair wages, salaries, and allowances, to provide training, to ensure job security and welfare, and to provide sound working environment for keeping strong mental health in work place.

12 worked on safety and welfare measures provided to the employees in textile Industry in Tirupur District, India. He found that the study shows that 81% of the respondents are belong to female. researcher reveals that 45% of the respondents’ educational qualification is Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC). Its reveals that 50% of the respondents are from 2 to 4 years of experience. He also found shows that 58% of the respondents are satisfied with their adequate safety training program which were conducted. He shows that 62% of the respondents have attended safety training program. He also analyses that 65% of the respondents’ opinion is that the management provides safety awareness. The study shows that 57% of the respondents say that they always make use of the safety measures provided to them. The study shows that 62% of the respondents believe that the layout of the workplace is designed to avoid accidents. The study shows that 67% of the respondents say that safety measures are taken to reduce accidents. The study shows that 52% of the respondents feel that always immediate actions are taken to investigate accidents. The study shows that 50% of the respondents are strongly agreed that in case of accidents, the management would take good care of them. The study shows that 60% of the respondents feel that the safety measures make them feel more secure while working. The study shows that 55% of the respondents are satisfied with the existing welfare measures. There is no significant difference in the level of satisfaction of existing safety measures among the different category of workers. There is a significant association between the fact that the employees have attended safety training program and their level of satisfaction regarding the existing safety measures. There is a significant association between the perception of risk factor and the level of satisfaction of employees regarding the existing safety measures.

There is a significant association between the level of satisfaction of welfare measures among the various category of employees. There is a significant association between the level of satisfaction of transport facilities and the overall level of satisfaction of welfare measures.

In recent years, however, the sub-standard, even dangerous, work conditions and low pay found in Bangladeshi garment factories have come under severe criticism from voices both within Bangladesh and in the west. Still, women garment workers face many daunting challenges, including low pay (despite recent gains), threats and sexual harassment from male bosses and factory owners, and persistently dangerous conditions in many facilities. "The workers have been demanding better wages since inflation has been so high recently.


3.1.1. Analysis of Responsibility of Sample Mills toward Employees according to the Contribution to Employee Welfare and to the Payment of Allowances

Allowances and welfare programs are the financial or non-financial payments given to employees for specific purpose. This program helps achieve long-term interest of the company. Textile firms like other business firms have also responsibilities to take welfare programs. The contribution of sample mills regarding employee welfare is shown in Table 1.

The Table 1 shows that 40% of the sample mills contributed to Provident Fund and 60% of the sample companies did not contribute to Provident Fund. The Table indicates that no sample mill provided any retirement benefit to the employees and there was no pension provision in the observed companies. Only 7 companies contributed in house rent which was 46.66 % of the total observed companies. Five companies contributed in recreation and refreshment allowances which was 33.33% of the total observed companies and only four companies provided insurance facility among fifteen sample mills. A closer look into the table indicates that some of the mills granted maternity leave facility but no one paid any financial support in this regard. Here it is to note that sample companies are those that are large and leading mills in the textile industry of Bangladesh. If this scenario is witnessed for this type of leading companies, then it is commonly anticipated about the present position of the other small and medium sized textile mills of Bangladesh.

Labor law passed allows employees in Bangladesh to form labor unions without the approval of factory owners (there are now more than 120 registered garment trade unions, up from only three in 2012-2013). Laborers also saw their minimum wage jump from the equivalent of $38 per month to $73 (although that figure remains below the average wages of textile workers in other Asian nations).


3.1.2. Analysis of Social Responsibility of Sample Mills in accordance with the Facilities of Physical Working Environment

After more than a century of industrial experience and development of national regulation and international conventions, workers in Bangladesh continue to lose their health and lives while contributing in the national enrichment. The scenario becomes worse when it comes to women workers. The female workers are exposed to different occupational health hazards such as work environment hazards, physical hazards and mental hazards. The work environment hazards include long working hours, absence of leave facilities, congested and overcrowded working conditions, absence of health facilities and safety measures, absence of staff amenities, lack of safe drinking water. On the other hand, the physical hazards include exposures to toxic agents, awkward postures and repetitive motion. Exposure to sexual, verbal and psychological harassment and violence at their work places are the some of the common mental health hazards. These hazards not only affect the female workers’ mental and physical being but also the quality of work and productivity of workforce nationwide 13.

In this section, attention has been given to physical working conditions and work place safety. Absence of effective governmental interventions means the industry characteristically involves long work hours, cramped quarters, poor ventilation, absence of appropriate toilet facilities and clear drinking water, fire hazard, poor wages and lack of protection from harassment, assault and rape in travel to and from factories 14. Textiles managers must have some strategies with regard to improving quality of work life not only for their efficiency gain but also for minimizing long term health problems. An attempt has been made in this section to evaluate the work place facility adequacy among 150 textile workers of some sample mills in Bangladesh which is shown in Table 2.

It is observed from Table 2 that most of the workers perceive seating arrangement and inadequate space for movement as their primary problems; this is followed by inadequacy of pure drinking water (38%), common room (41.33%), duty physician (44%), children care area (40%) emergency exit (36%), window and ventilation (56.66%) and fire extinguisher (34%). According to the Factories Act of 1965 and 1979, latrines and urinals must be provided in sufficient numbers i.e. one latrine for every 25 workers for both men and women workers. But only 6.66% of total 150 workers have informed about the sufficiency of such facilities in the sample mills.


3.1.3. Analysis of Health Implications of Physical Working Environment Condition of Sample Mills

In this research, attention was given to health implications of specific working conditions, work place safety and industry compliance with wage guidelines. Occupational health hazards are a companion of the textile workforce. Unhygienic work place, factory and fabric and cotton dust, huge sound menace, washing and dyeing effluent, waste disposal system and others generate pollution and create health hazards for workers. The following Table 3 (d1) shows perception of principal reasons for occupational health problems among 150 textile workers of 15 sample companies in Bangladesh.

It is observed from the Table 3 that 82% of total respondents think that cotton and fabric dust can be said to be the principal reasons behind the major health problems. 44.66% say that noise pollution by huge sound from machine operation is the principal reason for occupational health problems for the workers but others don’t think. So, 34% claimed the washing and dyeing effluent, 28.66% told the seating management congestion, 29.33% identified the waste disposal system as principal reason; 26% mentioned the suffocation closed window as principal reason for occupational health hazards.

In fine, the textile workers expressed two types of health problems: short term, temporary ailment, and long term health problems. Temporary health problems such as headache, fatigue and drowsiness, dizziness, allergic reactions, nausea, and depression, are attributed to the conditions related to closed doors and windows, frequent electricity failure, high humidity, inadequate number of fans, dust carried in on sandals, airborne cotton thread particles, and fabric dust, washing and dyeing chemicals, waste disposal, huge sound, waste water, are mainly responsible for long term health problems. Long term health problems include tuberculosis, asthma, repetitive intestinal tract infection, ulcers etc. The following Table 3 shows the rank ordered health problems suffered by 150 workers of 15 sample companies in Bangladesh.

The textile industry consists of a number of units engaged in spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, finishing and a number of other processes that are required to convert fiber into a finished fabric or garment. There are several safety and health issues associated with the textile industry. This article aims at studying each of these issues in relation to the US and Indian textile industries in detail, along with the possible solutions for these problems.

The major safety and health issues in the textile industry can be stated as: i) exposure to cotton dust, ii) exposure to chemicals, iii) exposure to noise, iv) ergonomic issues. The workers engaged in the processing and spinning of cotton are exposed to significant amounts of cotton dust. They are also exposed to particles of pesticides and soil. Exposure to cotton dust and other particles leads to respiratory disorders among the textile workers. The fatal disease of byssinosis, commonly known as brown lung, is caused among people working in the textile industry on account of excessive exposure to cotton dust. The symptoms of this disease include tightening of the chest, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.

It is revealed from the Table 4 that 64% the textile workers have been suffering from fatigue as short-term health problem and the rest of the workers have not suffered from this problem. It was followed by 60.66% as headache, 44% as skin irritation, 26.66% as diarrhea, and 14.66% by nausea diseases. On the other hand, 54% of total respondents have been suffering from Asthma and lung diseases as long term health problems and the rest of the workers do not suffer from these diseases.

It was followed by 34.66% from diabetes, 30% from low blood pressure, 14% from loss of sexual desire, 14.66% as menstrual irregularities and 14.66% as mental health problems that respondents associate with work in the textile industry including depression, sudden insanity etc. 18.66% of total respondents succumb to depression and 13.39% to sudden insanity. If the textile managers showed responsible behavior to the workers by providing hygienic work environment, then the health hazards could be minimized to a great extent.

The sustainability issues differ from one sector to another. The issues might differ between work processes in a sector. Normally, the issues are of social, economic, and environmental sustainability. There are many ways to analyze the sustainability issues within a sector. It depends on market and suppliers, product demands, geographic location, technology and labor force demographics, and their skills.


3.1.4. Analysis of Responsibility of Sample Mills regarding the Social, Occupational and Residential Insecurity of Workers

The researcher interviewed textile workers who expressed three types of insecurities; occupational, social, and residential. Some occupational insecurity lead to social insecurities for the workers. Occupational and social insecurity of workers are two entwined realities among them. Sudden closure of factories and dismissals compel workers to default on their living space rent, to turn to informal money lenders who lend at high interest rates, and to withdraw children from day care centers and schools. They become more vulnerable to sexual harassment and breakdown of conjugal relationships 7. Occupational insecurities include dismissal from job, fire hazard, sudden closure of factories, loss of skills, conflict with management people, uncertainty of future occupation, occupational health problems, and beating and physical abuse in factory etc. These insecurities appear as major causes of tensions for textile workers. Fire hazard and consequent stampede is a serious problem in textile and garment factories. Major social insecurities are drug addiction, fear of breakdown in marital relationships, trafficking, and entrapment: drug bearing, using, selling; fear of unwanted pregnant, rape, killing, and unavailability of day care center for children etc. Residential and social insecurities foster frustration among workers from despair. Residential insecurities are slum eviction, isolation from neighborhood people and theft, burglary at residence while absent etc. However, the following Table shows the perceptions of textile workers regarding social, occupational, and residential insecurity in Bangladesh.

It is revealed from the Table 5 that social, occupational and residential insecurities have waggled the whole textile mills’ workers with a great menacing to crumple the normal cycle of their life. About 61.33% (92 respondents) of total 150 workers opined that they have been suffering from the uncertainty of future occupation but 38.66% (i.e. 58) did not at one with them. 60% of the total respondents have been suffering from disappointment caused by insecurity concerning occupational health but 40% of them did not coincide with them. It was followed by 58% in fire hazard, 54.66% in dismissal from jobs, 33.33% in sudden closure of factory, 26% in loss of skills, and 19.33% in conflict with management people. It is also seen from this table that most of the workers have been worrying for social insecurity. About 52% of them felt insecurity from the fear of breakdown in marital relationships and 48% of them did not agree with them. This was followed by 43.33% in unavailability of day care center for children, 40.66% in hatred by neighborhood people, 39.33% in drug addiction, 38% in unwanted pregnancy, 37.33% in trafficking, 27.33% in rape and killing. It is also observed that 48% of the total workers (150) feel upset for the isolation from neighborhood people, and 48% of total workers felt insecurity from theft and burglary while absent from residence but rest of the workers (52%) did not comply with them. Among the total workers (150), 44.66% felt insecurity from slum eviction.


3.1.5. Analysis of Stakeholders’ Opinion about Sample Mills’ Responsibility toward Employees.

The opinion of fifty stakeholders regarding the level of satisfaction about social responsibility of sample mills toward employees is shown in Table 6.

It is shown in the Table 6 that 14% (07 respondents) out of total stakeholders (50) think that social responsibility of textile companies to the employees is satisfactory in Bangladesh, 26% stakeholders say that textile industry moderately discharge their social responsibility to the employees. 48% stakeholders opine that Textile business discharges minimum responsibility to the employees and 12% stakeholders say that textile businesses in Bangladesh have not performed its responsibility toward employees.

From the above discussion, it is revealed that textile business is not properly discharging its responsibility to the community in Bangladesh.


3.1.6. Assessment of Mental Health of Psychologically Adverse Working Conditions in Textile Industry

Rates of agreement with the individual work stress items were found in this observation. Physical demands, time pressure, and worries about mistakes were each reported by about 55% of the participants. Rates of agreement with statements regarding adequate support, recognition, and trust in either the management staff or workers were very high (88% or higher). Forty percent reported exposure to abusive language during the last six months.

Work-related demands included, in addition to an item on physical demands, items on time pressure, worries about making mistakes, and exposure to abusive language. Interpersonal resources comprised items on aspects such as support, recognition, adequate payment, and trust, and it was thus considered to mainly reflect. Work-related values included items on security, promotion prospects, and freedom at work. Factor-specific summary scores were calculated for each factor with a high score indicating high work-related demands, interpersonal resources, or work-related values. Values of the items regarding promotion prospects, job security, and freedom therefore had to be mirrored as they were phrased negatively.

In line with a previous study among 808 workers from 39 Ready Made Garments (RMG) factories in Bangladesh, we observed a high burden among workers in terms of psychologically adverse working conditions and self-report in mental health. In that earlier study, poor health – based on a definition comparable to the one used in our study – was reported by 60% of the female employees and 40% of the male employees. The prevalence of poor SRH was lower in our study. This may be explained by the fact that the working conditions at our study site were possibly more favorable in terms of reported working hours and salaries. Virtually all participants reported a daily income which exceeded the international extreme poverty line of $1.25 per day and the national minimum wage of 3000 BDT/month (equals $35.7) 13.

4. Conclusion

The clothing and textiles sector is a significant part of the world’s economy. Seven percent of total world exports are in clothing and textiles. Because of the size of the sector and the historical dependence of clothing manufacture on cheap labor, the textile and apparel industry in Bangladesh is subject to intense political interest and has been significantly shaped by international trading agreements. However, on the basis of overall analysis and interpretation of data, discussion with sample mills′ executives, workers′ perceptions and opinions of stakeholders, it can be concluded that although this industry has been unexpectedly flourishing but the overall activities are not functioning in a sustainable way. That is why, multifarious problematic issues like fire hazards, labor unrests, low wage payment issues, discrimination and harassment of women, building collapse, ecological crisis, workers′ health and safety issues, shortage of raw cotton issues, and shortage of working capital issues etc., have been arising frequently. The performances of textile mills entirely depend on the personal experiences, knowledge and forecasting power of corporate managers but they are not professionally qualified and they have lacked enough proficiency in the application of strategic management techniques and sustainable business strategies. The textile mills′ owners, on the other hand, are behaving irrationally and ignoring the interest of all parties like workers, society, environment, and other stakeholders due to their profit seeking mentality.

References

[1]  Rivoli, P., The travels of a t-shirt in the global economy: An economist examines the markets, power, and politics of world trade. New preface and epilogue with updates on economic issues and main characters. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
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[2]  Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA), Annuall Report. WWW. btmadhaka.com, 2011, 19-27.
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[3]  Gereffi, G., International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. Journal of international economics, 48(1). 37-70. 1999.
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[4]  Dahlman, C. Technology, globalization, and international competitiveness: Challenges for developing countries. asdf, 2007, 29.
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[5]  Szewczyk, M. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Textile and Apparel Industry: Barriers and Challenges, Journal of Corporate Responsibility and Leadership Contemporary Challenges in Corporate Social Responsibility, 3(4). 67-81. 2016.
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[6]  Davis, K. and Frederic, W. C. Business and Society: Management, Public Policy, Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1984.
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[7]  Rahman. Globalization, Environmental Crisis and Social Change in Bangladesh: (Dhaka: Bangladesh: The University Press Limited,), 2003, 05-08 & 164-243.
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[8]  Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. Fairness and retaliation: The economics of reciprocity. Journal of economic perspectives, 14(3). 159-181. 2000.
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[9]  Grant, R. M. Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strategic management journal, 17(S2). 109-122. 1996.
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[10]  Mukharji, P. B., Social Responsibilities of Business Report of the Study Group of the Calcutta Seminar. Calcutta, Oxford-IBH Publishing Co.1969.
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[11]  Carroll, A. B., The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Businesshorizons, 34(4). 39-48. 1991.
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[12]  Nithyavathi, K., A Study on Safety and Welfare Measures Provided to the Employees in Textile Industry in Tirupur District, International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce, 06(10). 51-59. 2016.
In article      
 
[13]  Maria, S.T., Rita, Y., Jian, L., Omar, R., Hasan, M.A., Christian, S., Joachim, E.F. and Adrian, L.,Work Stress: Its Components and Its Association With Self-Reported Health Outcomes In A Garment Factory In Bangladesh—Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study. Health and Place, 24: 123-130. 2013.
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[14]  Khatun, A., Occupational Health of Women Garment workers in Dhaka City, M.Sc Thesis, Gen, Dev., Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, 78. 1998.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Md. Redwanur Rahman, Md. Razib Ahsan, Modan Mohan Dey, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Atiqur Rahman and Md. Azibar Rahman

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Md. Redwanur Rahman, Md. Razib Ahsan, Modan Mohan Dey, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Md. Azibar Rahman. Socio-Ecology of Textile Industry in Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp 69-76. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/2/2/5
MLA Style
Rahman, Md. Redwanur, et al. "Socio-Ecology of Textile Industry in Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2.2 (2018): 69-76.
APA Style
Rahman, M. R. , Ahsan, M. R. , Dey, M. M. , Ali, M. Y. , Rahman, M. A. , & Rahman, M. A. (2018). Socio-Ecology of Textile Industry in Bangladesh. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2(2), 69-76.
Chicago Style
Rahman, Md. Redwanur, Md. Razib Ahsan, Modan Mohan Dey, Md. Yeamin Ali, Md. Atiqur Rahman, and Md. Azibar Rahman. "Socio-Ecology of Textile Industry in Bangladesh." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2, no. 2 (2018): 69-76.
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  • Table 2. Responsibility of sample mills according to the workers’ perception about level of adequacy for physical working environmental facilities
  • Table 6. Opinion of stakeholders regarding the level of satisfaction for social responsibility of sample mills toward employees
[1]  Rivoli, P., The travels of a t-shirt in the global economy: An economist examines the markets, power, and politics of world trade. New preface and epilogue with updates on economic issues and main characters. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
In article      PubMed
 
[2]  Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA), Annuall Report. WWW. btmadhaka.com, 2011, 19-27.
In article      
 
[3]  Gereffi, G., International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. Journal of international economics, 48(1). 37-70. 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Dahlman, C. Technology, globalization, and international competitiveness: Challenges for developing countries. asdf, 2007, 29.
In article      
 
[5]  Szewczyk, M. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Textile and Apparel Industry: Barriers and Challenges, Journal of Corporate Responsibility and Leadership Contemporary Challenges in Corporate Social Responsibility, 3(4). 67-81. 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Davis, K. and Frederic, W. C. Business and Society: Management, Public Policy, Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1984.
In article      
 
[7]  Rahman. Globalization, Environmental Crisis and Social Change in Bangladesh: (Dhaka: Bangladesh: The University Press Limited,), 2003, 05-08 & 164-243.
In article      
 
[8]  Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. Fairness and retaliation: The economics of reciprocity. Journal of economic perspectives, 14(3). 159-181. 2000.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Grant, R. M. Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strategic management journal, 17(S2). 109-122. 1996.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Mukharji, P. B., Social Responsibilities of Business Report of the Study Group of the Calcutta Seminar. Calcutta, Oxford-IBH Publishing Co.1969.
In article      
 
[11]  Carroll, A. B., The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Businesshorizons, 34(4). 39-48. 1991.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Nithyavathi, K., A Study on Safety and Welfare Measures Provided to the Employees in Textile Industry in Tirupur District, International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce, 06(10). 51-59. 2016.
In article      
 
[13]  Maria, S.T., Rita, Y., Jian, L., Omar, R., Hasan, M.A., Christian, S., Joachim, E.F. and Adrian, L.,Work Stress: Its Components and Its Association With Self-Reported Health Outcomes In A Garment Factory In Bangladesh—Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study. Health and Place, 24: 123-130. 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Khatun, A., Occupational Health of Women Garment workers in Dhaka City, M.Sc Thesis, Gen, Dev., Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, 78. 1998.
In article