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The Place of Collective Spaces in Social Sustainability of the New City of Developing Countries (Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran)

Naser Ghanbari , Rezvaneh Rezaee Rashti
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2017, 1(1), 26-32. DOI: 10.12691/jsa-1-1-4
Published online: June 23, 2017

Abstract

With the rapid growth of the population, have been mega cities many problems in Iran. So the new cities have been located with the aim of attracting the overflow population, and these have studied and built to alleviate the problems of demographic, economic, social and physical metropolitans. However, the need to design and build new housing will be felt more than ever before, and new residential complex in New cities are developing rapidly, but the challenge is that whether those new city parts can perform their main duties, especially in the area of social sustainability for the residents or not? The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the effectiveness of collective spaces of social participation and social sustainability of new residents. For this purpose, Golbahar new city on the outskirts of the metropolis of Mashhad was selected as a case study. In this study, the methodology used case studies using combined approaches and techniques for data collection survey and questionnaires were used. It is assumed that the areas of group and common spaces, a place to fulfill the objective of social relations and For the design of sustainable cities and achieving social sustainability in new development areas need to be trained a group effort. While the achievements of the new study showed that complex life due to lack of attention to communal spaces have been reduced social capital citizens. But serious doubts about its position in the field of social sustainability is visible.

1. Introduction

Social avoidance, reluctance of individuals to associate and assistance, social, behavioral abnormalities and indifference into the group and the complications of life in the fast migration of successive instability residence in personal places one hand and the lack of spaces and places mass proper on the other hand, need to design and make them worse. The main areas of a scene to create a sense of togetherness. In this case, the public space arena with the development of trust, ability to operate independent of government control and overcome facilitate and seen as part of social capital and prevent social fragmentation and alienation can be used.

Today, it is known that humans are actually people who are dependent on the direction of communication and interface between the forces beyond their control, to think and to act. Social interaction to respond to human needs for affiliation and sense of place is a necessity. As well as activities such as interacting with others and observe the activities of the people, by creating social and personal development of human sociality to help. Some areas of opportunity for achieving such an order and provide a platform for social interaction are.

In environments where the spheres are a good team, with maximum mental attitude and different characteristics closer together and crime rates are lower. Perhaps because adherence social responsibilities clearer, more public support and alienation from each other less.

On the other hand look at the new Settlements of our country is clear, that approach is considered in terms of their approach to one-dimensional thinking, in which only making space for accommodation and recreation, employment or place to attract overflow crowds metropolis of attention Is And does not pay attention to human relationships governing the environment. This has increasingly less presence of people together and homesickness and loneliness in these cities will rise.

As a result, the most important questions of the research are:

1- what do social sustainability means? And what can indices to assess this concept in the design of new Settlements?

2- What plays role quality collective spaces in social stability?

3- Definition and meaning of social constancy

1.1. The Multi-dimensional Nature of Social Constancy’s Meaning

While few researches have dealt with the definition of social constancy, there is little agreement about its definition. One reason can be the complexity in defining the quantity of social matters and its meaning (Burton, 2003).

Several factors like multi-dimensional nature, the definition scale, and being covered with other concepts are influential upon the definition of social constancy. One of the methods for knowing social constancy’s definition is to investigate its relation with other factors of constancy, i.e, economics and ecosystem. This issue shows the multi-dimensional nature of social constancy. Although the nature of sustainable development is dynamic and complex, this trend makes a balance between political, economic, social, and Environmental aspects. Social constancy will also gain a multi-dimensional definition due to its dependent nature upon other aspects. Major emphasis is put on the Environmental aspect of constancy so far and naturalistic discussions have emphasized on more effective use of the resources and the great lake of natural resources, on the other hand, humanistic view pays attention to both ecosystem problems and humanely and his life quality. According to Jarvis et al 6 “social constancy generally focuses on the relation between people’s behavior and the built environment or the relationship between the individuals’ life chances and organic structures. This problem is vastly ignored in constancy arguments.” ( 6: 127). “The advantage of being multi- dimensional is that it makes a framework for comprehending how different policies influence in various situations. So the concept of social constancy totally depends on the political, social, economic, and environmental limitations and capacities in an area” ( 13: 5).

Chiu 3 has specified three typology of different from theoretician’s comprehension in relation to an understanding of various aspects of social stability. The first typology is: for an activity to be socially sustainable, it is necessary for it to keep or promote the existing social structures and values as social limitations of human existence. Every development which denies the pre-existing social values is not socially sustainable. According to Chiu 3, Mitlin & Satterthwaite (1996) view, this idea doesn’t provide sufficient freedom which is vital for reaching the social sustainable goals, and it seems that it accepts the existing social structures even if they don’t continue with long-term. The second and third view, which is introduced by Chiu, has been used as the theoretical basis of his studies in the social constancy of Housing in Hong-Kong. The second view is the naturalistic approach in which Chiu refers to social constancy as the “necessary social terms for providing ecological constancy.” The third view is the humanistic approach which emphasizes upon social union. Among all the three interpretations, the last one put the most emphasis on justice and social equality. According to Chiu ( 3: 65)” Fair distribution and consumption of resources and entities as well as balanced social relations and an acceptable quality of life are necessary for social constancy.” Those viewpoints are seen in Yiftchel and Hedgcock’s work (1993) in the analysis of citizen social constancy which emphasizes on three important issues of equality, social and citizen’s sense. They said: ” There are definitely other important social issues in the citizen area, but those three topics dealing with city development programming are superior.” ( 3: 140)

However, the importance of considering social constancy as one of the most basic factors of sustainable development in recent years has caused the government to coordinate their political, economic, urban programs with this argument. Nevertheless, there is little agreement upon its definition. Polese and stren ( 17: 15-16) define social constancy in this way: “ A development, which is agreeable with the balanced perfection of social community, provides an environment for leading a kind of cumulative life that is agreeable with different social and cultural groups. On the other hand, such a development strengthens social unity by improving life quality among all social groups. “This definition views social constancy by the cumulative function of the society and the arguments related to each individual’s life quality. The classifications imply that some aspects of social constancy weigh more than the others on the basis of the type of initial, medium, and finite needs. Providing shelter is one of the early needs which are introduced by Maslow as well. Also the shelter’s size, its health, and the existence of services and initial constructions are the primary necessities of social constancy. During the next stage, neighborhood’s security and its social relations are focused upon. Paying attention to psychological and sentimental needs, sense of belonging and arrogance, being satisfied with the neighborhood, active participation, and a sense of responsibility at high ranks in order to reach social constancy must be considered. Each of the existing definitions of social constancy refers to one aspect of social constancy, but what we understand from the meaning of some definitions is the importance of the aspect related to the community’s role in development.

Social constancy is a quality, which focuses on the ways of interaction among people according to social-cultural values of societies, and can be achieved by obeying the principles of social equality, human welfare, and providing his or her spiritual and physical needs in regard with each society’s Environmental properties and social-economic conditions.

1.2. Social Relations and Social Constancy Reproduction

Social constancy is dependent on social relations and social relations that reproduce social constancy. Man is a social being who has lived cumulatively so far. Social relations are the essential needs of human life, which are very important for an individual self-actualization and progress. It’s clear that this need has two sides, the individual and the community and satisfying those needs can be met through the individual’s interaction with society. In fact a person’s identity depends on the proper resultant of all his identities especially his cultural and social ones. Also social and cultural identity is depending on having proper living conditions especially social and cultural ones which leads to social dependency feeling. Such a feeling is the basis of responsibility feeling and later participation in urban and regional development. In fact the most important value of a city lies in its network of human interactions which are based on different trades. Although the physical designation can’t bring about the social sense, it can play an important role in establishing fresh and productive neighborhood units, interaction network for the people who are on foot, and making opportunities for purchasing, having fun, social relations, etc. According to the literature on this topic, physical circumstances have an inevitable effect on human behavior and thought up to the point that it would be impossible to study the human’s thoughts without regard its physical conditions and situation. ” In environmental psychology, behavior is studied in relation to the physical, architectural, and also symbolic aspects of the environment. On one hand, the human being is affected by environmental conditions, and on the other hand, he organized the environment in regard to his own needs, values, and goals. The human and the man-made physical environment strengthen their mutual relationship. In this trend environment is a reflection of the human’s imaginations, interests, and values; however, the environment affects human who has made it. We can classify the influential factors on social relations and the individual’s neighborhood relation into two groups: “external factors” and “internal factors”. In the case of external factors, we can mention the bodily structures of residential atmospheres and the kind of relations which are formed in those atmospheres. The physical structure of environment at different levels of designation such as urban programming, site designation, outlook designation, and details of urban elements, may be considered in a way to provide the atmosphere for social interactions. In addition, if the programming and the designation of atmosphere are coordinated with the existing cultural structure and social relations, success will guarantee designation proposition and total goals. Even at the present time some theories in sociology generally and in city construction specifically emphasize on the fact that we can prevent from the separation of social relations in urban atmospheres through conscious interference. In the case of internal factors we can refer to different factors like family dimension, level of literacy, the size of residential atmosphere, number of rooms, etc. If the combination of external and internal factors meet the societal values and the establishment of social relations, it will respond to the intended goals very well” (Talebi, 2004: 178-179). Social relations and social constancy reproduction have an inseparable association with each other. Such an association has its origin in their theoretical principles and practical manifestation.

1.3. Public Spaces as Social Interaction Context

The main role of public open spaces is to promote social interaction through social activities 15. Social aspects of social processes affect the formation and behavior and describes how the response to this behavior, can not be considered a project. The social environment is a necessary condition but not enough design, this means that if designed in such a way that social behavior could easily accept it, but there mm for this behavior, there will be features of the desired behavior. But when social contacts under any circumstances require it to provide context.

Social capital is generally defined as a product of social interaction (Bassani, 2007). The most basic element of human life, social action and human behavior can not be understood without the social order. Social interaction to respond to humanitarian needs for affiliation and sense of place is essential. The type of relationships that are established in space and intensity of these relationships means that space. Humans to interact socially, needs a sense of belonging to a place. . Meanwhile, public places are often associated with social sustainability by strengthening social interaction among urban residents 5. Public spaces support physical activities, meeting friends or family, participating in leisure activities, enjoying nature and observing others. These activities help to unite people, reduce negative social behavior, and provide significant sociocultural benefits such as community satisfaction and crime reduction 15. Moreover, they help satisfy the crucial human need for social interaction 9.

Humans need these spaces and proximity, the presence of bases and layout of spaces and furniture, they can have a great impact on social interaction. Otherwise, lack of attention to these issues or causes changes in space will remain unused. So these spaces must grow from within and not from its components making up the overall image. But a transformation and metamorphosis, or in other words not made such an atmosphere, but it is nourished by people's normal activities. It is ordinary that space, gives life and yet is beyond all normal things.

The designer can design an environment that relationships and social attitudes, which occur easily. Such spaces are important quality and design of these spaces needs only to meet a specific set of functions is not limited. Such environments to meet the needs of self-esteem, respect and beauty through symbolic messages, social status, identity and values, and many others are also important.

2. New Cities in Iran

The increasing growth of population in developing countries has provided a new situation in developing countries especially in Iran. The literature review of the research shows that the older parts of cities are unable to meet the increasing need for new houses in developing countries. Socioeconomic challenges and other environmental issues turned old parts of cities into deteriorating districts which result in increasing demand for new shelters. Therefore, generally new residential complexes are built and developed in new parts of the cities which are located in suburbs and its vicinities 12.

In the past three decades, rapid growth of urbanization in Iran has not been in accordance with the potentials for equipping the urban spaces and providing the infrastructure needed to create productive jobs. Since the distribution and control of urban spaces have not been carried out in the framework of a comprehensive program which was based on regional coordination, the problems resulting from rapid growth of urban population has got complex dimensions, resulting in issues such as expensive housing, unemployment and other informal settlements, and to the most severe form has appeared in the urban appearance of the country whose remedy requires comprehensive effort and planning 1.

The strategic planning of new cities in Iran initiated in 1970 and has continued up to now. The main objective of this strategy was to decentralize the population from large cities to some surrounding satellite towns. After the Islamic Revolution, from the beginning of 1985, the strategy of developing new cities was adopted in order to plan and control the rapid growth of population in large cities, and development of 12 new cities around large cities was approved. The major objectives of building new cities with regard to metropolitan cities is absorb the overflow population and prevent uncontrolled growth and shape of the metropolises, to provide suitable conditions for discontinuous development of the metropolises, to prevent the uncontrolled destruction of agricultural lands, gardens and pleasant urban views around the metropolises, to reduce congestion, pollution and traffic of the metropolises and provide attractive and quality life in new cities 14.

3. Research Methodology

To respond to questions raised in the study, measures of social sustainability is determined, then the purposive sampling method is used. The research method, case study research methods using a combination of strategies and techniques for data collection survey and questionnaires were used and to respond to questions raised in the study, a combination of targeted and random sampling method is selected. Due to the characteristics of Mashhad, Iran's position as one of the metropolises of New City Golbahar absorb the overspill of the metropolis, Case New City Golbahar was chosen purposefully. Then for random sampling, four neighborhood as an example of new areas of Golbahar were randomly selected. In this regard, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 240 households. The outcome of the study indicate that if there is a communal spaces more convenient and practical social sustainability can be achieved in the new settlements.

4. Case Study - New City Golbahar

New City Golbahar latitude 37 36 and longitude 14 and 59 and an average elevation of 1250 meters above sea level in the valley between the mountains of thousands of mosques and Binalud at a distance of 45 kilometers northwestern city of Mashhad at the center of Mashhad - Quchan is located. Golbahar area of urban land area of 4,000 hectares. The linear design of the fabric - checkered comply. Range designed from the two regions, four districts and 21 urban neighborhoods formed and is intended to accommodate 235 thousand people. In zone A, which is an important part of the city center as it is located and Accommodation hundred and ten thousand tons which is predicted. The second area of the project includes ten neighborhood centers and main city center area in the center of the first area is design and planning. Studies satellite city of Mashhad, was launched in 1366. From 1371 into the construction process and the 1374 population and housing trends that began in 1390. The city has a population of close to 13,371 people.

In this research both the focus on public spaces and on physical connections can be interpreted as addressing segregation – but without using that particular, and problematic, word. The emphasis on meetings between different groups positions isolation, segregation and planning for only residential areas as the opposite of the current plans. The fact that meeting places are so central in the plans, and mentioned explicitly and frequently, indicates that it is not any kind of meetings that are imagined, but good, positive and constructive meetings.

4.1. The Pardis Neighbourhood

Campus area of 659,414 square meters and 8,000 people to live in this neighborhood is predicted. The neighborhood north of University Boulevard and Independence Boulevard West ends. So that there is space for children to play in the neighborhood, the waterfront and green space has been allocated and a mosque and retail will follow.

4.2. The Parand Neighbourhood

Neighborhood above the boulevards of independence, justice and street Attar and Ibn Sina enclosed and has an area of 473,927 square meters. About 8100 people living in it has been predicted. This neighborhood has a mosque, a sports complex, shopping malls and hypermarket will follow.

4.3. The Golshan Neighbourhood

Gulshan neighborhood with an area of 480,250 square meters and projected population 2051 people, of boulevards Attar, justice, Khayyam and Imam Khomeini. This neighborhood has no communal spaces and interior spaces residential neighborhood will also be assigned only to park the car.

4.4. The Ferdows Neighbourhood

Paradise neighborhood, unlike the other three are in West New City Gulbahar. It has an area of about 562,500 square meters, which can accommodate 7304 people in its acceptance. Unfortunately, the neighborhood without the slightest communal facilities and meeting more residents to meet and a place to spend their leisure time there and even for procuring basic supplies must go to the eastern neighborhood.

5. Analysis Results

The questionnaire contains 25 questions and set out three options for the main purpose of evaluation of social stability and social sustainability assessment of place as the dependent variable, is among residents of residential complexes. The questionnaires were distributed among 240 community effort hit the target from different age groups and different gender interviewees chosen based on observations and interviews were completed. When evaluating the responses for each of the options a score between 1 and 3 was considered and the average data for each of the questions in the samples was calculated separately. The answer is closer to the number 3 represents the measured index is higher.

The results of questionnaire analysis are as follows:

As Table 1 indicates the campus neighborhood residents have the highest satisfaction Which in total represent have good facilities, adequate space for active recreation for all ages and a good relationship with nature As can be seen from the results of tests measured security, Residents of the neighborhood also have the highest sense of security that the feeling of satisfaction of residents of the neighborhood have a direct impact And the greatest amount of social capital in neighborhoods showcase. Which represents residents cooperate with each other fairly well And so to a greater extent than any of the people in decision-making and participation are responsible.

The residents in this neighborhood is highlighted, on the occasion of sadness and joy all together and have each partner. Residents of the neighborhood also has a campus with an average of 1.88 more than the sense of belonging to their neighborhood, their sense of responsibility towards their children each And prefer in times of grief and sadness together and heal together. This led to his life proud of their location, to talk about it with pride and try to maintain it. While residents of the neighborhood were often seek escape from their residence, Do not come together and the children and the children to attend neighborhood do not feel safe, and behind closed doors trapped houses. Even in case of unexpected events as well as neighbors help each other not to rush and Others immerse themselves in everything that represents the low cooperation and collaboration among them.

Golshan and Ferdows neighborhood residents strongly point out the lack of social justice and the lack of security, services and convenient facilities suffer And believes that any consideration for people with disabilities and the elderly there. Dark nights, dusty and deserted streets of many residential units located in the neighborhood led to their dissatisfaction with the city authorities not to any efforts to improve conditions. The situation gets worse every day and neighborhoods and newly constructed homes soon be dirty and worn, and the national capital losses.

For the final assessment for all indicators measured in this study are considered equal value. As seen in Chart 1, Social stability in the neighborhood of the campus and jump significantly more social stability in the neighborhood of Ferdows and Golshan (without spaces collective) are, And represents a dramatic impact in the areas of social sustainability in the new group. Because social interactions made in these areas to increase participation, solidarity, trust and be builders. And only in this situation we can think to sustainable urban development.

6. Conclusion

Social stability has gained special importance in the planning and designing of residential and living areas, especially considering the today’s life that moves toward individualism quickly.

Cumulative life and areas have an inseparable relationship with one another, a relation which has its origin in their theoretical and practical concepts. Social or cumulative life is an opportunity for getting rid of daily life disturbances, spending free time, social interactions, and a gathering of people and different groups and also a chance for presence, freedom of speech, and maintaining them in the atmosphere. Cumulative life in public atmospheres depends on the advertising of social interactions, attracting people and different groups, social security and consequently encouragement toward decreasing different group’s tolerance in the atmosphere, more socialism, and finally the establishment of a fresh and active atmosphere. And this is practical in a favorable social atmosphere along with physiological calmness, land claim, a sense of possession, and receiving justice within the atmosphere. Social interaction and relation establishment can be a physical topic, a look, a conversation and a relation between individuals, which itself requires the definition of events and related activities and as a result the people’s role in the atmosphere, and their membership within groups and social networks.

The theoretical arguments toward the meaning of social stability are interpreted through analyzing the society and social relations. This is because social interaction is happening within the constraints of place and time. Exposure can be the reason for initiating social relations. The physical structure and the functional divisions of place may limit or develop opportunities for interaction. Designing at different scales including urban planning, designing sites, and designing the details can have effect on people’s gatherings at exterior places. Cultural system and social relationships are interconnected. So place includes a collection of social and cultural interactions among of special groups and within a specific place. Those relations continue over a specific period of time; consequently, social life is surrounded by place and time. This kind of relations is established within place and their development makes the place or environment meaningful. Finally, group works and common spaces are places for making social relations come true.

In general, it is recommended to design sustainable cities and achieving social stability in the new field of collaborative development effort to be experienced.

References

[1]  Anabestani, A., Anabestani, Z. and Heydari, A., (2013). “Analysis the Satisfaction of the Residents of Golbahar New Town with the Living Conditions and its Effects on Mashhad Metropolis”. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, Vol-2, Issue 10.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Colantonio, Andrea, Dixon, Tim (2009). Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe, Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD).
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[3]  Chiu, Rebecca, L., H. (2003). “Sustainable Development: A New Perspective For Housing Development”. Hong Kong: The University Of Hong Kong.
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[4]  Dave, Seema (2009). Neighbourhood Density and Social Sustainability in Cities of Developing Countries, Published online in Wiley Inter Science (www.interscience.wiley.com).
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[5]  Harun, N. Z., Zakariya, K., Mansor, M., & Zakariaya, K. (2014). “Determining attributes of urban plaza for social sustainability”. Procedia- social and behavioral sciences. 153. (pp. 606-615). Elsevier.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Jarvis, H., A. C. Pratt and P. Cheng-Chong Wu (2001). “The Secret Life of Cities: The Social Reproduction of Everyday Life”. Harlow: Prentice.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Jenks, Mike, Dempsey, Nicola, (2007). “Defining the neighbourhood: Challenges for empirical research”, Town planning review. 78(2): 153-177.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Jenks, M, Jones, C (2010). “Dimensions of the sustainable city2”, Springer.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Kazmierczak, A. (2013). “The contribution of local parks to neighbourhood social ties”. Landscape and Urban Planning, 109(1), 31-44.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Lang, J. “Creating Architectural Theory: The role of the behavioral sciences in environmental design” Translated by Ali Reza Eini far, Publisher: University of Tehran, Tehran, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Madani-poor, A and Nurian, F. (2008). ‘Public and private spaces of the City’, Publisher: Processing companies and urban planning, Tehran.
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[12]  Mahdavinejad, M. Rezaei , R, R . (2013). “The Situation of Social Capital in New Settlements of Developing Countries Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran” International Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 98-110.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Manzi, T. Lucas, K. Jones, L. Tony, A, J. (2010). “Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric”, Earthscan, London.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Monavari. S.M and Tabibiyan. S., (2006). “Environmental factors on locate New Towns in Iran”, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, No. 30, pp. 9-1.
In article      
 
[15]  Moulay, A., Ujang, N. and Said, I., 2017. Legibility of neighborhood parks as a predicator for enhanced social interaction towards social sustainability. Cities, 61, pp.58-64.
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[16]  Pakzad. J. (2007). “Architecture & Urban Design Terms Proceeding”, Volume II, Shahidi Publications
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[17]  Polese, M. Stren, R. (eds.). (2000). “The Social Sustainability of Cities. Diversity and the Management of Change”. Toronto-Buffalo-London: University of Toronto Press.
In article      View Article
 

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Naser Ghanbari, Rezvaneh Rezaee Rashti. The Place of Collective Spaces in Social Sustainability of the New City of Developing Countries (Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran). Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017, pp 26-32. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jsa/1/1/4
MLA Style
Ghanbari, Naser, and Rezvaneh Rezaee Rashti. "The Place of Collective Spaces in Social Sustainability of the New City of Developing Countries (Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran)." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 1.1 (2017): 26-32.
APA Style
Ghanbari, N. , & Rashti, R. R. (2017). The Place of Collective Spaces in Social Sustainability of the New City of Developing Countries (Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran). Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 1(1), 26-32.
Chicago Style
Ghanbari, Naser, and Rezvaneh Rezaee Rashti. "The Place of Collective Spaces in Social Sustainability of the New City of Developing Countries (Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran)." Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 1, no. 1 (2017): 26-32.
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[1]  Anabestani, A., Anabestani, Z. and Heydari, A., (2013). “Analysis the Satisfaction of the Residents of Golbahar New Town with the Living Conditions and its Effects on Mashhad Metropolis”. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, Vol-2, Issue 10.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Colantonio, Andrea, Dixon, Tim (2009). Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe, Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD).
In article      PubMed
 
[3]  Chiu, Rebecca, L., H. (2003). “Sustainable Development: A New Perspective For Housing Development”. Hong Kong: The University Of Hong Kong.
In article      
 
[4]  Dave, Seema (2009). Neighbourhood Density and Social Sustainability in Cities of Developing Countries, Published online in Wiley Inter Science (www.interscience.wiley.com).
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Harun, N. Z., Zakariya, K., Mansor, M., & Zakariaya, K. (2014). “Determining attributes of urban plaza for social sustainability”. Procedia- social and behavioral sciences. 153. (pp. 606-615). Elsevier.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Jarvis, H., A. C. Pratt and P. Cheng-Chong Wu (2001). “The Secret Life of Cities: The Social Reproduction of Everyday Life”. Harlow: Prentice.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Jenks, Mike, Dempsey, Nicola, (2007). “Defining the neighbourhood: Challenges for empirical research”, Town planning review. 78(2): 153-177.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Jenks, M, Jones, C (2010). “Dimensions of the sustainable city2”, Springer.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Kazmierczak, A. (2013). “The contribution of local parks to neighbourhood social ties”. Landscape and Urban Planning, 109(1), 31-44.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Lang, J. “Creating Architectural Theory: The role of the behavioral sciences in environmental design” Translated by Ali Reza Eini far, Publisher: University of Tehran, Tehran, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Madani-poor, A and Nurian, F. (2008). ‘Public and private spaces of the City’, Publisher: Processing companies and urban planning, Tehran.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Mahdavinejad, M. Rezaei , R, R . (2013). “The Situation of Social Capital in New Settlements of Developing Countries Case Study: Golbahar, Mashhad, Iran” International Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 98-110.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Manzi, T. Lucas, K. Jones, L. Tony, A, J. (2010). “Social Sustainability in Urban Areas: Communities, Connectivity and the Urban Fabric”, Earthscan, London.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Monavari. S.M and Tabibiyan. S., (2006). “Environmental factors on locate New Towns in Iran”, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, No. 30, pp. 9-1.
In article      
 
[15]  Moulay, A., Ujang, N. and Said, I., 2017. Legibility of neighborhood parks as a predicator for enhanced social interaction towards social sustainability. Cities, 61, pp.58-64.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Pakzad. J. (2007). “Architecture & Urban Design Terms Proceeding”, Volume II, Shahidi Publications
In article      
 
[17]  Polese, M. Stren, R. (eds.). (2000). “The Social Sustainability of Cities. Diversity and the Management of Change”. Toronto-Buffalo-London: University of Toronto Press.
In article      View Article