Figure 5. SEM images of TiO2/Nb2O5 composite films (a) 5.5 μm film showing uniform coating before annealing, (b) 12.0 μm film before annealing showing agglomeration (c) 12.0 μm film showing micro cracks after annealing at 450.0°C and (d) 5.5 μm film showing absence of micro cracks after annealing

From

Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

John Nguu, Francis Nyongesa, Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda

Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2018, 6(1), 1-8 doi:10.12691/jmpc-6-1-1