Figure 3. Composite experiment samples (a) and (b), consisting of an anodized aluminum substrate with nickel titanium topical treatment. Composite control sample (c), consisting of anodized aluminum substrate with aluminum topical treatment

From

Active Stiffness Method for High Cycle Fatigue Mitigation using Topical Thin Foil Shape Memory Alloy

Nicholas G. Garafolo, Rachel Collard

Journal of Mechanical Design and Vibration. 2017, 5(1), 11-20 doi:10.12691/jmdv-5-1-2