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Factors Affecting Distance Learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur

Fluellen L. Cos, Matt Ranillo S. Paguia
Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. 2021, 1(2), 62-68. DOI: 10.12691/jitl-1-2-1
Received March 03, 2021; Revised April 05, 2021; Accepted April 14, 2021

Abstract

The study presented in this paper sought to explore several factors affecting the distance learning modality of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur. Identifying the different dimensions of distance learning entails important basic questions which are of great relevance in order to enhance its implementation in the succeeding quarters. Factors being considered are: Students’ Demographic Profile, Content Delivery thru Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Learning Preference, Language Use in the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Degree of Difficulty (Cognitive Dimensions), Study Environment, Parental Support and Teacher Support. Out of 1,389 enrolled students for School Year 2020-20201, using Slovin’s formula, 311 students from Grade 7 to Grade 12 were randomly selected to be part of the sample. A survey utilizing validated items was conducted to gather data from the identified respondents. Findings were based on the results from the questionnaire given to the 311 respondents. Findings suggested that in order to enhance the implementation of the distance learning modality of Carrascal National High School, there is a need to revisit the Bloom’s Taxonomy and Social Cognitive Dimensions before designing the Learning Activity Sheets to ensure the consistency and alignment of the degree of difficulty to the summative assessments guidelines. Parental and teacher support especially to the young learners must also be considered since this study singled out that these variables have significant correlation to the age and grade level of the learners. Therefore, these are two of the important factors affecting distance learning which must be strengthened and amplified.

1. Introduction & Rationale

Distance learning does not include any in-person interaction with an instructor or study peers. Students study at home on their own, and the learning is more individual and varies on speed and timeline according to each individual student and their availability.

Historically, this described correspondence courses in which students would communicate with their schools or teachers by mail. More recently, distance education has moved online and other modalities like modular delivery to include a huge range of systems and methods on practically any connected device.

To fight the spread of coronavirus and maintain healthy social-distancing, schools across the country have temporarily closed and quickly transitioned from on-campus, face-to-face learning to distance learning.

The numbers are unprecedented, the implications enormous. As the COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the globe, a majority of countries have announced the temporary closure of schools, impacting more than 91 per cent of students worldwide – around 1.6 billion children and young people.

In response to the educational challenges created by school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 90 per cent of countries have implemented some form of remote learning policy.

In the Philippines, instead of physical classes, the Department of Education will implement distance or remote learning. This method delivers lessons through various ways, including online, television, radio, and printed materials.

The Department of Education (DepEd) formally opens School Year (SY) 2020-2021, October 5, 2020, after two postponements and a delay of four months from the usual June schedule, for the country’s 22.50 million students enrolled in public schools.

The opening of classes is annually marked with millions of students trooping to their schools but with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, students will stay inside their homes in the first day of classes for SY 2020-2021.

Without face-to-face classes, students will learn their lessons through various alternative delivery modalities with the guidance of their parents and teachers. Under distance learning, students will take their lessons using printed or digitized modules, online, or through television or radio-based instruction.

Depending on available resources and capabilities, DepEd said that schools are allowed to implement blended learning or a combination of two or more learning delivery modalities.

In Carrascal National High School of the division of Surigao del Sur, there are around 1,389 students who are initially enrolled as of July 2020. Seventy percent of these learners prefer to have modular learning delivery in print.

The Learning Activity Sheets (LAS) are designed by the teachers which contains the key concepts of the required content to master the Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELC) for the week. The LAS also allow the learners to be exposed with designed activities and assessments to monitor the progress of the learners in this novel way of delivering the lessons.

Based on the formative assessment tracking of the learners’ achievement by the subject teachers for the 1st quarter, there are competencies which are not mastered by the students that need remedial and supplemental activities. This also implies that there are learners who manifest difficulties in the learning modality which is both new to the teachers and the learners.

With this, the researchers sought to find the factors affecting the distance learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur.

2. Literature Review

Learning Module is a tool that provides course materials in a logical, sequential, order, guiding students through the content and assessments in the order specified by the instructor. Instructors can insert formatted text, files, weblinks, Discussion Topics, Assignments, Tests & Quizzes, and Assessments. Content can be structured in such a way as to require students to complete content before they are allowed to proceed to the next content. It is also possible for instructors to set up a place for students to add content to the Learning Module.

Education industry is certainly revolutionizing in a big way. From the era of black board teaching, heavy textbooks filled with theories to today’s simpler and effective way, the industry across the globe has seen quite an evolution in the methodologies adapted for teaching. When it comes to educating young learners, quite a distinct approach is required. Research says that young learners have great abilities of learning and learn faster through experiential exercises.

More and more schools are adapting to novel teaching culture and using worksheets for students as one of the most effective tools for learning.

"Teaching materials" is a generic term used to describe the resources teachers use to deliver instruction. Teaching materials can support student learning and increase student success. Ideally, the teaching materials will be tailored to the content in which they're being used, to the students in whose class they are being used, and the teacher. Teaching materials come in many shapes and sizes, but they all have in common the ability to support student learning like the teacher-made worksheets (educ.gov.gy).

Learning materials are important because they can significantly increase student achievement by supporting student learning. For example, a worksheet may provide a student with important opportunities to practice a new skill gained in class. This process aids in the learning process by allowing the student to explore the knowledge independently as well as providing repetition. Learning materials, regardless of what kind, all have some function in student learning.

Understanding learning differences and how they function in the classroom is important to both students and teachers. The learning preferences described in some students handbook are based on the concepts of psychological type developed by Carl Jung. Jung identified three sets of psychological processes, the areas of attitude (orientation), perception, and judgment (decision making) 1.

Gulbahar and Alper 2 mention that learning preferences and learning styles are a way to enhance the quality of learning, especially for those who are alone in front of a computer, i.e. online students. Any student can adapt learning processes, activities and techniques, if he/she is able to understand his/her own personal characteristics and the consequences of possible different experiences. In order to help students to learn better, instructors should provide an easy way for them to make discoveries about themselves.

The ability of each learner to identify, participate in and manage learning experiences, which match their individual learning needs, is essential to fully benefit from the opportunities available in distance learning.

The fit between the target language materials and particular learner needs, how to proceed in the face of confusion or uncertainty and how to make connections between different parts of the course are strongly considered. As learners interact with the distance learning environment and make these kinds of decisions which underpin the learning process, they begin to establish an interface between themselves and the learning context 3.

The very idea behind distance learning (DL) is to deliver education that does not constrain the students to be physically present in the same location as the instructor. This way of continuous education and professional preparedness in various applied studies enables the student community to play a constructive role in their respective communities. Thus the most important part of DL is not the system, it is the people who will be learning from that system 4.

DL technology is trying to replace the traditional classroom instruction with a more sophisticated view to provide a bridge for remote learners who might not otherwise be able to attend a normal classroom program. Several hurdles such as transportation limitations, children issues, and work schedules, are reasons why a distance learner cannot attend a classroom program. Supporting these students through DL programs may involve tradeoffs and compromise in aspects such as, communication, teaching equipment, preparation of course materials, and its degree of difficulty 4.

According to a study from the University of California, Irvine, every time your work is interrupted, it can take an average of more than 23 minutes to get back on task. Your time is precious. If you have a spouse or child knocking on your office door every 10 minutes, it may be difficult to get any meaningful studying done.

Wherever a learner studies, he makes sure it's as private as possible. If it's a space in the home, let the housemates know when it's study time and not to disturb the learner. A distance learner can even hang a “Do Not Disturb” sign up to send a clear message. If one goes somewhere public to study, he considers a private room or at a library.

One common reason students are interested in online school is the flexibility it offers—they can take classes and study wherever they want, as long as there is an internet connection or materials (like LAS). Often, this is at home, where one may be juggling school with being house mate. The convenience is exceptional, but distractions can be a problem. One way to stay focused is to create a study environment for distance learning that minimizes distractions and puts you in the mind-set to concentrate (puredueglobal.edu).

Distance Learning modes have been found to be equivalent to on-campus environments with respect to key outcomes such as student academic performance 5, 6 and student satisfaction 7. However, remote learning also pose some key differences to on-campus modes of study. Accessing course materials online allows unprecedented levels of flexibility and accessibility for students from around the world and overcomes geographical barriers that might prevent students accessing on-campus course offerings 8, 9, 10.

Parent and family involvement has always been essential to student learning and success. But, as more students must learn from home as a result of school closures, family involvement has taken on an entirely new meaning. Suddenly, many families are being asked to assume a lot more responsibility in their students’ schooling, and teachers are seeking ways to best guide and support them.

Continuing with the exploration of internal factors affecting students’ attitudes towards distance education, it would appear that one’s self-discipline and drive will also play a role. A student lacking motivation may find it difficult to stay focused while completing online assignments. Smart and Cappel’s 11 findings support this belief as students who were interested in the material or identified with it demonstrated a higher level of motivation. Additionally, disinterest and distraction could explain some students’ negative attitudes.

3. Research Questions

This study delved on the factors affecting distance learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur.

Considering the research problem, the following questions are posed:

1. What is the profile of the student respondents in terms of

a. Age

b. Sex

c. Grade Level

d. Geographical Location

2. What are the factors affecting the distance learning of the student respondents as to:

a. Delivery of Content

b. Learning Preference

c. Language Use in the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS)

d. Degree of Difficulty (Cognitive Dimensions)

e. Study Environment

f. Parental Support

g. Teacher Support

3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the learners and the factors affecting distance learning of the student respondents as to variable sub problem no. 2?

4. What measures are recommended to enhance the distance learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur?

3.1. Hypothesis

The study was guided by the null hypothesis

Ho: There is no relationship between the students’ profile and the factors affecting distance learning of Carrascal National High School

3.2. Schematic Diagram

4. Scope and Limitation

The study examined the different factors affecting the implementation of the distance learning of Carrascal National High School. The researcher sought to find out the issues concerning this new modality and get down to the nitty-gritty of its implementation. Specifically, aspects being considered are: Students’ Demographic Profile, Content Delivery thru Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Learning Preference, Language Use in the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Degree of Difficulty (Cognitive Dimensions, Study Environment, Parental Support and Teacher Support.

Findings were based on the results from the questionnaire given to the 311 respondents who served as sample. Respondents were the randomly selected students of Carrascal National High School from Grade 7 to Grade 12. Results will be used to come up with solutions to better the implementation of this novel modality of learning.

5. Research Methodology

A. Sampling

This study used a descriptive quantitative research design. The population of the study consisted students of Carrascal National High School. Data were obtained through sampling of the respondents. Out of 1,389 enrolled students for School Year 2020-2021, using Slovin’s formula, 311 students were randomly chosen as the respondents. Using simple random sampling, 52 students from each grade level were picked to comprise the 311 chosen respondents.

B. Data Collection

A questionnaire written in English translated to Filipino was designed to capture data on the following variables: Profile, Delivery of Content, Learning Preference, Language Use in the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Degree of Difficulty (Cognitive Dimensions), Study Environment, Parental Support and Teacher Support. These variables mainly comprised the prepared questionnaire. A total of 33 questions were formulated to capture information on all the variables and factors that tested the hypotheses. Each statement on the questionnaire was based on the Likert scale, and each answer was assigned weights to establish normally distributed scores. The weights of the responses from the questionnaire were assigned as follows:

1. Refers to “Never”

2. Refers to “Seldom”

3. Refers to “Sometimes”

4. Refers to “Many Times”

5. Refers to “Always”

After identifying the ideal number of samples using sampling methods, the survey questionnaire was given to each respondent. The researcher inserted the survey forms to the respondent’s envelope together with their Learning Activity Sheet for the week. The questionnaire was available for one week to allow students sufficient time to completely answer the questions. Survey forms were then collected and recorded for further interpretation and analysis. To observe intellectual property right, all data gathered were subjected to utmost confidentiality.

6. Discussion of Results

This part deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the data.

1. What is the profile of the student respondents in terms of Age, Sex, Grade Level and Geographical Location?

Table 1 shows that one hundred forty three (143) or 46% of the respondents were male and one hundred sixty eight (168) or 54% were female of which eighty five (85) or 27% belonged to the 12-13 age bracket, seventy five or 24% to the 14-15 age bracket, one hundred six (106) or 34% to the 16-17 age bracket and forty five (45) or 15% to the 18 and above age bracket. For the grade level, fifty-one (51) students were from Grade 7 and fifty-two (52) students for each grade level from Grade 8 to Grade 12 were randomly chosen. They comprised the 311-total number of respondents. In terms of the geographical location, table number 1 shows that two hundred twenty (220) or 71% of the respondents were the ones living within the town proper and ninety-one (91) or 29% of the respondents were those living outside the town proper.

The data gathered enabled the research to understand deeper and carefully analyze if there is a significant relationship between the profile of the learners and the different identified factors affecting their distance learning.

2. What are the factors affecting the distance learning of the student respondents as to: Delivery of Content, Learning Preference, Language Use in the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS), Degree of Difficulty (Cognitive Dimensions), Study Environment, Parental Support and Teacher Support?

Table 2 comprises the identified factors affecting distance learning with mean score and description for each statement. Based on the table, delivery of content has a mean score of 4.45. Learning preference and language used have a mean score of 4.10 and 4.08, respectively.

In terms of study atmosphere, it has a mean score of 3.76 with the description “Many Times”. For parental and teacher support, mean scores of 3.66 and 3.63 were computed. Both would fall under “Many Times” description.

Based on the table above, the degree of difficulty got the lowest mean score which is equal to 3.46. Specifically, statement number 4: The outputs ask are difficult to do has a mean score of 3.32. This could mean that respondents’ concerns which affect their distance learning are primarily have something to do with the Learning Activity Sheets (LAS) degree of difficulty. This suggests that cognitive dimension specifically the Blooms taxonomy is an important aspect to consider. The use of Bloom's Taxonomy 12 has been shown to enhance student mastery of skills and concepts and critical thinking 13.

Bloom's taxonomy is a tool that can help human services educators broaden the depth of their students' leaming. The challenge with the taxonomy is developing assessments that measure each of the six levels. It is imperative to examine the use of the taxonomy. In order for students to gain more from their education, it is important to also consider where students are in terms of cognitive development. 14

Moreover, based on the data presented in the table, it can also be noted that parental and teachers support got low mean scores. This denotes that parental involvement and constant interaction with the teacher even remotely are also to be considered to have an effective distance learning. According to O’Neil 15, learning involves two types of interaction: interaction with content and interaction with the other people.

3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the learners and the factors affecting distance learning of the student respondents?

Table 3 shows that Sex and Location have no direct correlation to the Content Delivery. However, Age and Grade Level are positively correlated to the Delivery of Content. This manifest that there is a relationship between the learners age and the grade level they are in to how they asses the delivery of content. For the learning preference it can be concluded that there is a relationship between the learners Age, Grade Level, and Location to their learning preference except for Sex which has no correlation. In this case, since gender is not correlated to the learning preference of the learners, this implies that male and female learners have different study habits and these largely affect their behavior towards learning. Gender differences, particularly for distance learners, need to be recognized. 16

In terms of the language used in the learning Activity Sheets, Sex, Age, Grade Level, and Location have no relationship to it. Sex and Location have no correlation in terms of the degree of difficulty of the Learning Activity Sheets, but Age and Grade Level have a significant relationship to the degree of difficulty. Study Atmosphere does not also have a relationship to the learners Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Geographical Location. Sex and Location have no correlation to the parental and teacher support. However, learners age and the grade level are significantly correlated to the parental and teacher support. This implies that parental and teachers support are important factors in the students’ distance learning.

Parental involvement in children’s learning has been found to influence academic success. 2

Generally, schools are considered as places which provide appropriate learning environment for a child, but importance of parents and community cannot be ignored. Parents, adult family members, and siblings contribute significantly to various components of personality of the child particularly and in improving his/her academic performance. The pivotal role of parents still continues as it has been recognized by the teachers and parents themselves that they are essential for complete development of the personality and career of their children. 17

Gonzalez-Pienda, et al., 18 stressed that “without the children's parental support, it is hard for teachers to devise academic experiences to help students learn meaningful content”. In home settings, the learning processes occur explicitly or consciously, often in an informal way. Parents teach and train children early in their lives, the fundamental skills, attitudes and values necessary for day-to-day living 19.

4. What measures are recommended to enhance the distance learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur?

In order to enhance the Implementation of the distance learning of Carrascal National High School, the following are recommended:

1. INSET on Learning Activity Sheets (LAS) preparation based on the cognitive dimensions is highly recommended.

2. An orientation on DepEd Order no.30 s.2020 is essential to ensure that teachers are aware of the different summative assessment tool.

3. There is a need for a Re-orientation of the parents on Responsible Parenthood.

4. Simplified teachers’ routine is designed to ease teachers’ administrative task and focus on communicating to the learners, provide real-time feedback and give supplemental materials and activities.

5. Future research on the efficacy of Responsible Parenting as major support on Distance Learning is recommended.

Acknowledgements

The heading of the Acknowledgment section and the References section must not be numbered.

Definition of Terms

The following are the terms used in the study:

MODULAR DISTANCE LEARNING. It involves individualized instruction that allows learners to use SLMs in print or digital format, whichever is applicable in the context of the learner, and other learning resources like learner’s materials, textbooks, activity sheets, study guides, and other study materials. (Deped Order no. 12 s2020)

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE. a description of a particular type of customer, including their sex, age, income, etc.:

SAMPLING. is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed, but it may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling.

POPULATION. is the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn. A population may refer to an entire group of people, objects, events, hospital visits, or measurements. A population can thus be said to be an aggregate observation of subjects grouped together by a common feature.

CORRELATION. a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things.

LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET. is commonly a piece of paper with questions or activities. Students can either place their answers or perform the specific activity.

COGNITIVE DIMENSION. The Cognitive Process Dimension of the revised Bloom's Taxonomy like the original version has six skills. They are, from simplest to most complex: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create.

References

[1]  Jung, C.G. (1971). Psychological Types. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 6).
In article      
 
[2]  Gulbahar, Yasemin & Alper, Ayfer. (2011). Learning Preferences and Learning Styles of Online Adult Learners. Education in A Technological World: Communicating Current and Emerging Research and Technological Efforts.
In article      
 
[3]  White, C.J.. (2004). Independent language learning in distance education: Current issues. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Kofahi, N. and Srinivas, N. (2004). Distance Learning: Major Issues and Challenges Retrieved November 10, 2020 from http://www.itdl.org/Journal/May_04/article02.htm.
In article      
 
[5]  Magagula, C. M., and Ngwenya, A. P. (2004). A comparative analysis of the academic performance of distance and on-campus learners. Turk. Online J. Distance Educ. 5, 1-11.
In article      
 
[6]  McPhee, I., and Söderström, T. (2012). Distance, online and campus higher education: reflections on learning outcomes. Campus Wide Inf. Syst. 29, 144-155.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Palmer, S. (2012). Understanding the context of distance students: differences in on- and off-campus engagement with an online learning environment. J. Open Flexible Distance Learn. 16, 70-82.
In article      
 
[8]  Brown, A. (1997). Features of an effective online course. Aust. J. Educ. Technol. 13, 115-126.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Brown, V. (2011). Changing demographics of online courses. US-China Educ. Rev. 8, 460-467.
In article      
 
[10]  Bates, A. W. (2005). Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education. London: Routledge.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Smart, K. L., & Cappel, J. J. (2006). Students' perceptions of online learning: A comparative study. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5(1), 201-219.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, Krathwohl (1956) Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain.
In article      
 
[13]  Bissell, A.. Lemons, P. (2006). BioScience, Volume 56, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 66-72.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Eber, A. and Parker, T. “Assessing Student Learning: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy.” (2007).
In article      
 
[15]  O’Neil, T. D. (2006). How Distance Education Has Changed Teaching and the Role of the Instructor. E-leader, Slovakia. Retrieved from: http://www.g-casa.com/download/ONeil_Distance_Education.pdf.
In article      
 
[16]  Burge, E. (1998). Gender in distance education. In C. Campbell-Gibson (Ed.), Distance learners in higher education: Institutional responses for quality outcomes (pp. 25-45). Madison, WI: Atwood.
In article      
 
[17]  Chohan, Bushra Iqbal & Khan, Rehana. (2010). Impact of Parental Support on the Academic Performance and Self Concept of the Student. Journal of Research and reflections in Education. 4. 14-26.
In article      
 
[18]  Gonzalez-Pienda, J.A, Nunez, J.C., Gonzalez-Pumariega, S., Alvarez, L., Roces, C. & Garcia, M. (2002). A Structural Equation Model of Parental Involvement, Motivational and Aptitudinal Characteristics, and Academic Achievement. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(3).
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sam, R. (2000) Parents and learning Corporate author: UNESCO International Bureau of Education International cademy of Education Retrieved November 11, 2020 from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125451.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Fluellen L. Cos and Matt Ranillo S. Paguia

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Fluellen L. Cos, Matt Ranillo S. Paguia. Factors Affecting Distance Learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur. Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2021, pp 62-68. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jitl/1/2/1
MLA Style
Cos, Fluellen L., and Matt Ranillo S. Paguia. "Factors Affecting Distance Learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur." Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning 1.2 (2021): 62-68.
APA Style
Cos, F. L. , & Paguia, M. R. S. (2021). Factors Affecting Distance Learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur. Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning, 1(2), 62-68.
Chicago Style
Cos, Fluellen L., and Matt Ranillo S. Paguia. "Factors Affecting Distance Learning of Carrascal National High School, Division of Surigao del Sur." Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning 1, no. 2 (2021): 62-68.
Share
[1]  Jung, C.G. (1971). Psychological Types. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 6).
In article      
 
[2]  Gulbahar, Yasemin & Alper, Ayfer. (2011). Learning Preferences and Learning Styles of Online Adult Learners. Education in A Technological World: Communicating Current and Emerging Research and Technological Efforts.
In article      
 
[3]  White, C.J.. (2004). Independent language learning in distance education: Current issues. 2003.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Kofahi, N. and Srinivas, N. (2004). Distance Learning: Major Issues and Challenges Retrieved November 10, 2020 from http://www.itdl.org/Journal/May_04/article02.htm.
In article      
 
[5]  Magagula, C. M., and Ngwenya, A. P. (2004). A comparative analysis of the academic performance of distance and on-campus learners. Turk. Online J. Distance Educ. 5, 1-11.
In article      
 
[6]  McPhee, I., and Söderström, T. (2012). Distance, online and campus higher education: reflections on learning outcomes. Campus Wide Inf. Syst. 29, 144-155.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Palmer, S. (2012). Understanding the context of distance students: differences in on- and off-campus engagement with an online learning environment. J. Open Flexible Distance Learn. 16, 70-82.
In article      
 
[8]  Brown, A. (1997). Features of an effective online course. Aust. J. Educ. Technol. 13, 115-126.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Brown, V. (2011). Changing demographics of online courses. US-China Educ. Rev. 8, 460-467.
In article      
 
[10]  Bates, A. W. (2005). Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education. London: Routledge.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Smart, K. L., & Cappel, J. J. (2006). Students' perceptions of online learning: A comparative study. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5(1), 201-219.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, Krathwohl (1956) Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain.
In article      
 
[13]  Bissell, A.. Lemons, P. (2006). BioScience, Volume 56, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 66-72.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Eber, A. and Parker, T. “Assessing Student Learning: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy.” (2007).
In article      
 
[15]  O’Neil, T. D. (2006). How Distance Education Has Changed Teaching and the Role of the Instructor. E-leader, Slovakia. Retrieved from: http://www.g-casa.com/download/ONeil_Distance_Education.pdf.
In article      
 
[16]  Burge, E. (1998). Gender in distance education. In C. Campbell-Gibson (Ed.), Distance learners in higher education: Institutional responses for quality outcomes (pp. 25-45). Madison, WI: Atwood.
In article      
 
[17]  Chohan, Bushra Iqbal & Khan, Rehana. (2010). Impact of Parental Support on the Academic Performance and Self Concept of the Student. Journal of Research and reflections in Education. 4. 14-26.
In article      
 
[18]  Gonzalez-Pienda, J.A, Nunez, J.C., Gonzalez-Pumariega, S., Alvarez, L., Roces, C. & Garcia, M. (2002). A Structural Equation Model of Parental Involvement, Motivational and Aptitudinal Characteristics, and Academic Achievement. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(3).
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sam, R. (2000) Parents and learning Corporate author: UNESCO International Bureau of Education International cademy of Education Retrieved November 11, 2020 from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125451.
In article