Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Practices and Attitudes Assessment of Street Vendors of Hot Beverages Made of Coffee, Tea, Milk or Cocoa with Coffee Carts

Atobla Koua , Touré Naka, Koffi Ahua René, Oumarou Taffa Fataoulaye, Kouadio-Ngbesso Nadège, Dadié Adjehi, Niamké Sébastien
Journal of Food Security. 2020, 8(2), 43-51. DOI: 10.12691/jfs-8-2-2
Received May 19, 2020; Revised June 22, 2020; Accepted June 29, 2020

Abstract

In Côte d’Ivoire, the sale of hot beverages made of coffee, tea, milk or cocoa powder by street vendor has grown, especially in Abidjan city. Despite the potential of hot beverage to contribute to Ivorian food security, no detailed information on the marketing of hot beverages is available. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, behavior and practices of these street beverage vendors. The preparation methods, sale characteristics with regards to beverage hygiene and safety were evaluated. Beverage samples were purchased from street hot beverage vendors. Temperatures of water stored in thermos for coffee and ready-to-drink hot beverages served to consumers were taken by digital thermometer. Preparation methods of street vendors have been described. The study revealed that, most street vendors were foreigners (88.0%) and illiterate (71.3%). Street vendors preferred drinking coffee (40.7%) than tea (33.3%). For them, coffee offered an energy boost to sell. According to vendors, the consumers liked to drink tea (42.7%), followed by coffee (38.7%), then coffee with milk (14%) and at last by cocoa powder (0.7%) beverage. According to vendors, 87.7% of male preferred drinking coffee and 42% of female liked tea. Most street vendors consumed only one cup of coffee per day (72.7%) and twice a day (48.1%) for tea. Adult (24.7%) preferred tea while young people (62.0%) preferred coffee and children (8.7%) preferred cocoa powder beverage. The temperature measurements of hot beverages served to consumers and water stored in thermos varied from vendor to vendor showing the variability of preparation methods. This variation of temperature could impact the marketability or organoleptic, even hygienic quality of hot beverages sold. Therefore, it is important to prepare hot beverages (teas and coffees) using the correct method for the drink ordered by the consumers.

1. Introduction

Street foods are defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as “ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold and prepared by vendors or hawkers in streets or other public places” 1. These foodstuffs provide a convenient diet for many people in developing countries 2, 3, and approximately 2.5 billion people eat street food every day, with the consumption supporting the livelihood of millions of low income people and contributing to the economy 4, 5. Street foods are highly demanded both by the sellers and consumers because of the taste, easy availability, low cost, cultural and social heritage connection 6, 7. Street foods are consumed in many countries as food, drinks, and snacks which reflect traditional cuisine culture in countries together with their content, preparation, sales methods, and consumption ways 8, 9. However, the safety of street foods remains a major concern in developing countries, including Côte d’Ivoire. Indeed, preparation of street foods can cause cross contamination of raw and processed food during insufficient cooking and food storage 10, 11. Also, staff hygiene is one of the main factor causing foodborne diseases 12.

Among street foods, hot beverages specially prepared by addition of hot water with other ingredients are important sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds. In Côte d’Ivoire, the sale of hot beverages by street vendors has recently grown, especially in Abidjan District. These street vendors use hand push mobile coffee carts to prepare hot beverages made of coffee, tea, milk or cocoa powder.

Coffee drink is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide, with a global production output of ca. 7 million tons in 2010, compared to 6.7 million tons in 1998-2000 13. People drink coffee to relax and enjoy its diverse flavors and aromas. It has physiological and psychological effects beyond its nutritional benefits 14. Coffee is a rich source of caffeine that provides mild stimulant effects but may be undesired by certain consumers. To cater for this need, manufacturers have developed processes to decaffeinate coffee, applied to the green bean and which remove caffeine to a large degree 13. Coffee typically contains more caffeine than most other beverages, and is widely consumed 15, 16. Thus, it contributes significantly more too overall caffeine consumption within the population, particularly in adults 17. Some studies also showed that such drinks may be consumed by young adults, teenagers, college students, athletes, and military personnel 18, 19, 20.

Tea is the most frequently consumed non-alcoholic refreshment beverage in the world after water 21, 22. This is due to its refreshing, mild stimulant properties and health-promoting purposes 13. Bovine milk and dairy products have been part of the human diet, from birth to old age 23. Farm characteristics and hygienic practices significantly affect milk products quality 24, 25.

Despite the potential of hot beverage to contribute to Ivorian food security and reducing poverty levels through income generation, no detailed information on the marketing of hot drinks is available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess preparation methods, vendor characteristics and environmental conditions of hot street beverages.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Sampling Procedure

The study was carried out in Abidjan, a city of Côte d'Ivoire, in West Africa. It is the economic capital and the country’s major urban center. This study was conducted from July to December 2019 in five communes of Abidjan: Abobo, Adjamé, Yopougon, Cocody and Port-Bouet. A total of 150 street hot beverage vendors (30 respondents per commune) were selected for the interview. Vendors of street beverage products were selected based on their willingness to participate to this study. A survey was carried out to describe the attitudes, practices of vendors, and the preferences for hot beverages. Sales methods, preparation methods, consumption ways and environmental conditions were observed during preparation by street vendors.

2.2. Survey Conducting

The survey was conducted according to the method of 26. Methods of collecting data were face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires (written surveys) for vendors. Written surveys allowed asking questions to consumers of hot beverages. The questionnaire was used for vendors of street hot beverages of tea, coffee, milk, coffee with milk or cocoa powder. The survey was conducted in street areas where we found street vendors in Abidjan city. In the selected commune, vendors predisposed who were selling, were randomly questioned. The questionnaire focused on themes, namely hygiene of vendors, beverage consumption, gender and sex of vendors. Socio-demographic information such as age, gender and level of education were also collected. In addition, consumption practices and environmental hygiene were observed during the survey. The questionnaire survey was coupled with direct observation on the selected vendors.

2.3. Survey Description

Street beverage vendors with coffee carts were interviewed in this study. This survey has been conducted for vendors of all ages who sold hot beverages in streets. The respondents were about 150 volunteer vendors. This survey has been conducted for vendors of all ages. Vendor characteristics included age, gender and presence of vendors in street.

2.4. Inclusion Criteria

The questions were only asked to street vendors using hand push mobile coffee carts for preparation and sale of street hot beverages.

2.5. Temperature Intake

Samples were purchased from street hot beverage vendors (in streets, in markets or stations) and the temperatures of water stored in thermos for coffee and ready-to-drink hot beverages served to customers were taken by digital thermometer (Chektemp 1 by HANNA, Romania).

2.6. Data Analysis

The data obtained from the questionnaires and observation checklists were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 statistical software package, and then exported to Microsoft Excel to calculate the various scores. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the variables of interest and determine relationships between them. The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviations (±SD), frequencies, and percentages. The Chi-squared frequency test (χ2 test) was used to test the relationships between the variables. Statistically significant differences were based on 95% confidence limits, i.e., α = 0.05 or p < 0.05.

3. Results

3.1. Description of Hand Push Mobile Coffee Cart and Process of Street Beverage Preparation

Hand push mobile coffee carts were used to transport and sold hot beverage products (coffee, tea, milk, milk with coffee or cocoa powder) bags, ingredients (sugar, lemon and mint) and materials (thermos for hot water, lemon squeezer, knife, scissors) for the preparation of hot drinks for consumers. It could include hidden storage, hidden storage for thermos reserve of hot water.

A small porous bag containing tea leaves or powdered tea, onto which boiling water was poured in order to make a drink of tea. The first step in preparing and serving hot beverage by street vendors is to put beverage powder in disposable cups. The second step was to add sugar and then hot water stored in thermos for coffee and selected ingredients to match the needs of consumers (customer). Beverage powder products of tea, coffee, milk, coffee with milk or cocoa powder bags were used to prepare ready-to-drink beverages that are served hot to consumers as customers in non-recyclable cups or disposable cups (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

3.2. Temperature Intakes with Street Beverage Vendors

Temperature measurements of hot beverages and hot water stored in thermos used to prepare these beverages were taken in order to assess beverage safety because of the variability of preparation methods. Temperature intakes of hot beverages and water stored in thermos varied according to vendors. For hot water stored in the thermos, the temperature ranged from 59.8 to 90.4°C (74.9 ± 6.8°C). After mixture by hot beverage vendors and served to customers (ready to drink), temperature ranged from 50.5 to 70.1°C for coffee served with average of 61.6±4.3 °C, from 50.6 to 74.5°C (60.8 ± 4.1°C) for teas, from 49.9 to 70.3°C (60.5 ± 4.4 °C) for milk, from 50.2 to 69.0 °C (61.1 ± 4.4°C) for coffee with milk and finally from 51.6 to 68.7°C (60.9 ± 5.4°C) for cocoa powder beverage (Table 1).

3.3. Socio-demographic and Cultural Characteristics of Hot Beverage Vendors

Table 2 summarizes the data on demographic and cultural characteristics of vendors. All hand push mobile cart vendors were male. The age of vendors ranged from 20 to 34 years (mean = 28.3 ± 7.5) were the dominated group (66.0%). They were predominantly from Niger (33.3%) followed by Guinea (28.0%), Mali (18.7%). Among these vendors, most were Muslims (92%) and then Christian (7.3%). However, vendor education level showed that most (71.3%) were illiterate and 17.3% had a primary level (Table 2).

3.4. Preferences of Hot Beverages by Consumers

The survey revealed that street vendors preferred coffee (40.7%), followed by tea (33.3%), then milk (15.3%). According to vendors, 42.7% of consumers preferred tea, followed by coffee consumers (38.7%), then coffee with milk (14%) and at last by cocoa powder (0.7%) consumers (Figure 3). A negative correlation was found between hot beverage preferred by vendors and consumers (r = - 0.023, p = 0.778).

3.5. Vendor’s Consumption of Hot Beverages

Table 3 shows the number of hot beverage cup drunk per day by the vendors. Majority of street vendors consumed only one cup of coffee per day (72.7%). For tea, vendors consumed twice a day (48.1%). The difference between hot beverages drunk and the number of beverage cup drink per day were statistically significant (χ2 = 37.360, p = 0.002).

3.6. Hot Beverage Preferences Based on Consumers’ Sex

Figure 4 shows hot beverage preferences by consumers’ sex according to vendors. According to vendors, 87.7% of males preferred coffee and 42.0% of females preferred tea.

3.7. Consumer’s Age Groups

According to vendors, among the consumers, young people (62.0%) preferred coffee, children (8.7%) preferred drinking cocoa powder beverage and adult (24.7%) preferred drinking tea. Also, tea (36.0%) was consumed by all ages. Milk (62.0%) and coffee with milk (40.0%) were consumed by all ages (Table 4).

3.8. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Hot Beverage Street Vendors

Table 5 shows street beverage handling behavior and socio-economic characteristics of hot beverage street vendors. Almost half street vendors were mobile (51.3%) or in street corner (13.3%) where people are pass-by or gathered near market (14.7%) or at car station or bus terminals (16.0%) where people are crowded. Some street vendors chose location near school or bus terminals. No vendors washed their hands before or after hot beverage preparation.

Most vendors interviewed were the owner of their hot beverages business (76.7%). This business allowed them to meet the needs of their family (72.0%). Almost all vendors (99.3%) were not organized in association. Most of them (75.3%) paid their taxes (Table 5).

4. Discussion

For 27, foods and beverages which are prepared and sold by the sellers on places like streets, market, festival areas and consumed by the consumers on the run are known as street food. Street foods especially show the eating habits of people living in big cities such as Abidjan.

Survey results showed that, majority of hot beverage street vendors were foreigners (88.0%) and illiterate (71.3%). The reference 28 reported that preparing and selling food on the streets provide a constant income for millions of uneducated people. Regarding the employment, street food provides a good job opportunity and income for sellers with small capitals and especially for women 29. The reference 30 found out that among 225 street sellers in Uganda, 87.6% were made up of women with low education that they were using non-recyclable plates and glasses during food sale, and that soap and cold water were widely used in cleaning of kitchen materials. Also, 5 showed that vendors’ knowledge is poor and had lower education levels, which is also reflected in their largely inadequate facilities and unhygienic behavior while selling food.

In our study, hot beverage preparation methods of street vendors have been described in Figure 1 and 2. In another study, it was seen that 95% of street food processors did not have sufficient information and that 88% applied wrong food safety methods 31. Besides, it was determined in several studies that food sellers did not have adequate information regarding pathogens 32. Reference 33 determined that usage of poor quality raw materials, inefficient audits, insufficient infrastructure at places where street food is sold, and insufficient sanitation knowledge among street food sellers all form risks for food safety. Urbanization and increase in population spreading in many countries in recent years are influential in the development of street food as an illegal sector 34, 35. Food contamination can occur during the steps related with production, processing, and preparation for consumption. It is determined that in many countries national authorities have prepared legislations to reduce contamination during food production and processing stages. Besides, specific legal regulations were not determined for people selling these products 34, 36.

The survey revealed that street vendors preferred coffee (40.7%) than tea (33.3%). For them, coffee offers an energy boost and beneficial plant compounds. For 21, coffee is a complex beverage with hundreds of bioactive components with potential adverse or beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. The most abundant bioactive compounds in coffee are caffeine, and polyphenols. Reference 14 reported that people drink coffee to relax and enjoy its diverse flavors and aromas. It has physiological and psychological effects beyond its nutritional benefits 14. Improvements in mental alertness, concentration, fatigue, and athletic performance are well documented benefits 37, 38. Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant known to increase alertness, elevate mood and give temporary energy boost thereby easing fatigue 39. Caffeine is also consumed widely for its stimulatory effects of enhancing wakefulness, mood, physical endurance and mental concentration, and decreasing the sensation of fatigue 40, 41.

The result from Table 5 shows that, street vendors with coffee carts liked to sell hot beverages to passers-by in street corner, where active population work (market or car station). Some street vendors chose location near school or bus terminals. For 27, in today’s world, people prefer to buy food sold on the streets to meet their nutrition needs outside home. Street foods are being prepared and sold at places like streets, near schools, train or car stations, bus terminals, entertainment and festival areas where people are crowded. Street food is preferred by consumers, especially students, because of its delicious taste, accessibility, variety, and cheapness 42.

Before hot beverage preparation, vendors must wash their hands with clean water. Unlike, no vendors washed their hands before or after beverage preparation. According to 5, before each operation, the food preparer must wash their hands with clean water, however, more than half of the operators washed their hands in their studies.

Temperature measurements of hot beverages and hot water used stored in thermos to prepare these beverages were taken in order to assess beverage safety because of the variability of preparation methods. For 43, it is important to prepare teas and coffees using the correct method for the drink ordered by the customer. Many people can choose between coffee and tea, and drink these in varying ratios depending on taste preference, lifestyle, socio-economic factors, genetics and health 44.

According to vendors, consumers liked drinking tea (42.7%), followed by coffee (38.7%). Reference 13 reported that tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world with an estimated daily consumption of 15-20 billions cups. This is due to its refreshing, mild stimulant properties, and also to its medicinal and general health-promoting purposes. Coffee and tea are both drunk in most countries, usually one predominates because of economic (e.g., trade and income), marketing, cultural and ethnic reasons 45. Many people can choose between coffee and tea, and drink these in varying ratios depending on taste preference, lifestyle, socio-economic factors, genetics and health, but in very few mortality studies associations with coffee and tea have been investigated simultaneously, and no studies have been conducted on possible effects associated with substituting one beverage for the other 44.

Most street vendors consumed only one cup of coffee per day (72.7%) and preferred twice a day (48.1%) for tea. Millions of people around the world depend on a morning cup of coffee to get their day started. The New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends consumption of no more than six cups of tea or instant coffee (or three “single” espresso-type coffees or one “double” espresso-type coffee) each day 46.

The result of socio-economic characteristics of vendors showed that, most vendors interviewed were the owner of their hot beverages business (76.7%) and this business allowed them to meet the needs of their family (72.0%). Therefore, street hot beverage trading is a profitable and a lucrative business venture in Côte d'Ivoire that is worth investing. For 47, the role of informal sector for any developing country is to reduce poverty and hunger from the country of overpopulation with lack of job opportunities. For some people informal sector is the only source of income hence now mere assumption that dynamic economic policies will drive informal sector out of the country is false. The awareness of vendors to food safety and food hygiene practices should applied to avoid possible disease or effects to consumers 47. According to 6, lifestyle changes and socio-economic factors creates very little space for consumers to look at other alternatives one of which would be to prepare one’s own meal. Therefore, street vendors should have direct access to potable water and have formal food safety training.

5. Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the first hot beverage study to assess the characteristic of vendors with hand push mobile carts in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). Street vendors preferred drinking coffee to boost of energy to sell. According to them, tea was the most beverages consumed by Ivoirians. The results from this street vendors showed that most street vendors are foreigners and illiterate. These street vendors therefore need training in basic hygiene practice to avoid risks such as food contamination or throwing plastic cups on the street.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank street beverage vendors. This work was supported by ASCAD (Académie des Sciences, des Arts, des Cultures d'Afrique et des Diasporas Africaines) funds. The authors appreciate Dr. ZOUE Lesoy Thierry’s comments during the preparation of the manuscript.

References

[1]  Lamuka, P.O. (2014), Public Health Measures: Challenges of Developing Countries in Management of Food Safety. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 4, 20-26, Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  König, A., Kuiper, H. A., Marvin, H. J. P., Boon, P. E., Busk, L., Cnudde, F., Cope, S., Davies, H. V., Dreyer, M., Frewer, L. J., Kaiser, M., Kleter, G. A., Knudsen, I., Pascal, G., Prandini, A., Renn, O., Smith, M. R., Traill, B. W., Van Der Voet, H., Van Trijp, H. and Wentholt, M. T. A. (2010), The SAFE FOODS framework for improved risk analysis of foods, Food Control, 21 (12), 1566-1587. ISSN 0956-7135.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Anandhi, N., Janani, and Krishnaveni, N. (2015), Microbiological quality of selected streetvended foods in Coimbatore, India, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 9 (11), 757-62.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Al M.M., Rahman, S.M.M. and Turin, T.C. (2013), Knowledge and awareness of children's food safety among school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 10 (4), 323-30.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Ma, L,, Chen, H., Yan, H., Wu, L. and Zhang, W. (2019), Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of street food vendors and consumers in Handan, a third tier city in China, BMC Public Health, 19, 1128.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Buscemi, S., Barile, A., Maniaci, V., Batsis, J.A., Mattina, A., and Verga, S. (2011), Characterization of street food consumption in Palermo, possible effects on health, Nutrition Journal, 10 (119), http://www.nutritionj.com/content/10/1/119.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Kok, R. and Balkaran, R. (2014), Street Food Vending and Hygiene Practices and Implications for Consumers, Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6 (3), 188-193.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  FAO/WHO (2010), International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), Information Note No. 3/2010- Safety of street vended food. Basic steps to improve safety of street-vended food. Available at (accessed Fev 02, 2020). https://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/No_03_StreetFood_Jun10_en.pdf.
In article      
 
[9]  Campbell, P.T. (2011), Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of street food vendors in the city of Johannesburg regarding food hygiene and safety. Master of Public Health thesis, School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape.
In article      
 
[10]  Ehiri, J.E. and Morris, G.P. (1996), Hygiene training and education of food handlers, does it work? Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 35 (4), 243-251.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Abdalla, M.A., Suliman, S.E., and Bakhiet, A.O. (2009), Food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan), African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (24), 6967-6971.
In article      
 
[12]  Medeiros, L.C., Hillers, V.N., Chen, G., Bergmann, P., Kendall, V., and Schoreder, M. (2004), Design and development of food safety knowledge and attitude scales for consumer food safety education, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (11), 1671-1677.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[13]  Stadler, R.H., Hughes, G. and Guillaume-Gentil O. (2014), Safety of Food and Beverages: Coffee, Tea and Herbals, Cocoa and Derived Products. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 3, pp. 371-383. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Mesfin, H. and Won, H.K. (2019), The Role of Microbes in Coffee Fermentation and Their Impact on Coffee Quality. Hindawi, Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2019, Article ID 4836709, 6 pages.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Frary, C.D., Johnson, R.K. and Wang, M.Q. (2005), Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (1), 110-113.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Knight, C.A., Knight, I., Mitchell, D.C. and Zepp, J.E. (2004), Beverage caffeine intake in U.S. consumers and subpopulations of interest: estimates from the Share of Intake Panel survey, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42 (12), 1923-1930.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Mitchell, D.C., Knight, C.A., Hockenberry, J., Teplansky R. and Hartman, T.J. (2014), Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 63, 136-142.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Heckman, M.A., Sherry, K. and Gonzalez De Mejia, E. (2010a), Energy drinks: an assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9 (3), 303-317.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Lieberman, H.R., Stavinoha, T., McGraw, S., White, A., Hadden, L. and Marriott, B.P. (2012), Caffeine use among active duty U.S. Army soldiers, Journal of the Academy Nutrition and Dietetics, 112 (6), 902-912, e901-e904.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Norton, T.R., Lazev, A.B. and Sullivan, M.J. (2011), The ‘‘buzz’’ in caffeine: patterns of caffeine use in a convenience sample of college students, Journal of Caffeine Research, 1 (1), 35-40.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Larsson, S.C. (2014), Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa and Risk of Stroke. Stroke, 45 (1), 309-314.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Palanivel M. (2019), General food safety issues in tea, International Journal of Creative and Innovative Research In All Studies, 1 (10), 2581-5334.
In article      
 
[23]  Marangoni, F., Pellegrino, L., Verduci, E., Ghiselli, A., Bernabei, R., Calvani, R., Cetin, I., Giampietro, M., Perticone, F., Piretta, L., Giacco, R., Vecchia, C. L., Brandi, M. L., Ballardini, D., Banderali, G., Bellentani, S., Canzone, G., Cricelli, C., Faggiano, P., Ferrara, N., Flachi, E., Gonnelli, S., Macca, C., Magni, P., Marelli, G., Marrocco, W., Miniello, V. L., Origo, C., Pietrantonio, F., Silvestri, P., Stella, R., Strazzullo, P., Troiano, E. and Poli, A. (2018), Cow’s Milk Consumption and Health: A Health Professional’s Guide, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38, 197-208.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Carloni, E., Petruzzelli A., Amagliani, G., Brandi, G., Caverni, F., Mangili, P. and Tonucci, F. (2016), Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of bovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy, Animal Science Journal, 87 (4), 591-599.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Lan, X.Y., Zhao, S.G., Zheng, N., Li, S.L., Zhang, Y.D., Liu, H.M., McKillip, J. and Wang, J.Q. (2017), Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China, Journal of Dairy Science, 100 (6), 4294-4299.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Atobla, K., Akoa, E.E., Bonny, A.C., Dadié, A., Karou, T.G. and Niamke, S. (2018), Pork supply chain, consumption and risk factors for infections of consumers in the Abidjan district (Côte d'Ivoire), Food and Environment Safety, 16 (17), 20-31.
In article      
 
[27]  Ceyhun Sezgin, A. and Şanlier, N. (2016), Street food consumption in terms of the food safety and health, Journal of Human Sciences, 13 (3), 4072-4083.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization (2011), The place of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in national food security programmes. Rome (Italy). Technical Cooperation Dept, ISBN 978-92-5-106845-8. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/i2177e/i2177e00.pdf (accessed Fev 09, 2020).
In article      
 
[29]  WHO, World Health Organization (1996), Essential safety requirements for street vended foods. (Revised Edition), https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/63265/WHO_FNU_FOS_96.7.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed Fev 09, 2020).
In article      
 
[30]  Muyanja, C., Nayiga, L., Brenda, N. and Nasinyama, G. (2011), Practices, knowledge and risk factors of street food vendors in Uganda, Food Control, 22 (10), 1551-1558.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Nguyen, M.H., Nguyen, T.H.M. and Le, T.G. (2010), Food Safety Status of Public Kitchen in Company Enterprise at Ho Chi Minh City and Solution to Prevent Food Poisoning. HCMC Medical Journal, 14 (1), 88-94.
In article      
 
[32]  Neves, E.G., Cardoso, C.S., Araújo, A.C., and Correia da Costa, J.M. (2011), Meat handlers training in Portugal, a survey on knowledge and practice. Food Control, 22 (3), 501-507.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Liu, Z., Zhang, G. and Zhang, X. (2014), Urban street foods in Shijiazhuang city, China, Current status, safety practices and risk mitigating strategies, Food Control, 41 (1), 212-218.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Omemu, A.M. and Aderoju, S.T. (2008), Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Street Food Vendors in the City of Abeokuta, Nigeria, Food Control, 19 (4), 396-402.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Chukuezi, C.O. (2010), Food Safety and Hygienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. Studies in Sociology of Science, 1 (1), 50-57.
In article      
 
[36]  Muinde, O.K. and Kuria, E. (2005), Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi, Kenya, African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development, 5 (1), 1-14.
In article      
 
[37]  Heckman, M.A., Weil, J. and Gonzalez de Mejia, E. (2010b), Caffeine (1, 3, 7- trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. Journal of Food Science, 75 (3), R77-R87.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A. and Feeley, M. (2003), Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 20, 1-30.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Ogah, C.O. and Obebe, O.T. (2012), Caffeine Content of Cocoa and Coffee Beverages in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Sciences, 3 (1), 404-411.
In article      
 
[40]  Glade M.J. (2010), Caffeine-not just a stimulant. Nutrition, 26 (10), 932-938.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[41]  Barbara, M.T., Donald M.C., Peter C., Ursula E. and Beverley H. (2014), Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk, Food Additives and Contaminants, 31, 1476-1488.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2010), Basic steps to improve safety of street-vended food. International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), Information Note No.3/2010 - Safety of street-vended food. Available at: https://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/No_03_StreetFoo d_Jun10_en.pdf [accessed Fev 10, 2020].
In article      
 
[43]  Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (2013), Prepare and serve non-alcoholic beverages. Trainee Manual. D1.HBS.CL5.07, pp 1-73. Available: https://leonardarueyingho.com/wp- content/uploads/2019/10/PREPARE-AND-SERVE-NON- ALCHOHOLIC-BEVERAGE.pdf. [Accessed May 20, 2020].
In article      
 
[44]  Piet A.van den B. (2018), Coffee or Tea? A prospective cohort study on the associations of coffee and tea intake with overall and cause-specific mortality in men versus women. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33 (2), 183-200.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  Grigg D. (2002), The worlds of tea and coffee: patterns of consumption, GeoJournal, 57 (4), 283-94.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  Ministry of Health (2011), Eating for healthy pregnant women. This resource is available from www.healthed.govt.nz or the Authorised Provider at your local DHB. Revised June 2017. 09/2018. Code HE1805. Available: https://www.healthed.govt.nz/system/files/resource- files/HE1805_Healthy%20for%20healthy%20pregnant%20wome n.pdf. [Accessed May 20, 2020].
In article      
 
[47]  Menes, C.C., Japitana, M.A.F., Chua, J.G.D., Dico, Jr M.R., Parcon, A.M.D. and Makilan, R.E. (2018), Street Food: Stories and Insights on Production and Operations, Marketing Strategies, and Vending, pp 42-69.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2020 Atobla Koua, Touré Naka, Koffi Ahua René, Oumarou Taffa Fataoulaye, Kouadio-Ngbesso Nadège, Dadié Adjehi and Niamké Sébastien

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Atobla Koua, Touré Naka, Koffi Ahua René, Oumarou Taffa Fataoulaye, Kouadio-Ngbesso Nadège, Dadié Adjehi, Niamké Sébastien. Practices and Attitudes Assessment of Street Vendors of Hot Beverages Made of Coffee, Tea, Milk or Cocoa with Coffee Carts. Journal of Food Security. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp 43-51. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfs/8/2/2
MLA Style
Koua, Atobla, et al. "Practices and Attitudes Assessment of Street Vendors of Hot Beverages Made of Coffee, Tea, Milk or Cocoa with Coffee Carts." Journal of Food Security 8.2 (2020): 43-51.
APA Style
Koua, A. , Naka, T. , René, K. A. , Fataoulaye, O. T. , Nadège, K. , Adjehi, D. , & Sébastien, N. (2020). Practices and Attitudes Assessment of Street Vendors of Hot Beverages Made of Coffee, Tea, Milk or Cocoa with Coffee Carts. Journal of Food Security, 8(2), 43-51.
Chicago Style
Koua, Atobla, Touré Naka, Koffi Ahua René, Oumarou Taffa Fataoulaye, Kouadio-Ngbesso Nadège, Dadié Adjehi, and Niamké Sébastien. "Practices and Attitudes Assessment of Street Vendors of Hot Beverages Made of Coffee, Tea, Milk or Cocoa with Coffee Carts." Journal of Food Security 8, no. 2 (2020): 43-51.
Share
[1]  Lamuka, P.O. (2014), Public Health Measures: Challenges of Developing Countries in Management of Food Safety. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 4, 20-26, Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  König, A., Kuiper, H. A., Marvin, H. J. P., Boon, P. E., Busk, L., Cnudde, F., Cope, S., Davies, H. V., Dreyer, M., Frewer, L. J., Kaiser, M., Kleter, G. A., Knudsen, I., Pascal, G., Prandini, A., Renn, O., Smith, M. R., Traill, B. W., Van Der Voet, H., Van Trijp, H. and Wentholt, M. T. A. (2010), The SAFE FOODS framework for improved risk analysis of foods, Food Control, 21 (12), 1566-1587. ISSN 0956-7135.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Anandhi, N., Janani, and Krishnaveni, N. (2015), Microbiological quality of selected streetvended foods in Coimbatore, India, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 9 (11), 757-62.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Al M.M., Rahman, S.M.M. and Turin, T.C. (2013), Knowledge and awareness of children's food safety among school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 10 (4), 323-30.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Ma, L,, Chen, H., Yan, H., Wu, L. and Zhang, W. (2019), Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of street food vendors and consumers in Handan, a third tier city in China, BMC Public Health, 19, 1128.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[6]  Buscemi, S., Barile, A., Maniaci, V., Batsis, J.A., Mattina, A., and Verga, S. (2011), Characterization of street food consumption in Palermo, possible effects on health, Nutrition Journal, 10 (119), http://www.nutritionj.com/content/10/1/119.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Kok, R. and Balkaran, R. (2014), Street Food Vending and Hygiene Practices and Implications for Consumers, Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6 (3), 188-193.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  FAO/WHO (2010), International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), Information Note No. 3/2010- Safety of street vended food. Basic steps to improve safety of street-vended food. Available at (accessed Fev 02, 2020). https://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/No_03_StreetFood_Jun10_en.pdf.
In article      
 
[9]  Campbell, P.T. (2011), Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of street food vendors in the city of Johannesburg regarding food hygiene and safety. Master of Public Health thesis, School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape.
In article      
 
[10]  Ehiri, J.E. and Morris, G.P. (1996), Hygiene training and education of food handlers, does it work? Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 35 (4), 243-251.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Abdalla, M.A., Suliman, S.E., and Bakhiet, A.O. (2009), Food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan), African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (24), 6967-6971.
In article      
 
[12]  Medeiros, L.C., Hillers, V.N., Chen, G., Bergmann, P., Kendall, V., and Schoreder, M. (2004), Design and development of food safety knowledge and attitude scales for consumer food safety education, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (11), 1671-1677.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[13]  Stadler, R.H., Hughes, G. and Guillaume-Gentil O. (2014), Safety of Food and Beverages: Coffee, Tea and Herbals, Cocoa and Derived Products. In: Motarjemi Y. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Volume 3, pp. 371-383. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Mesfin, H. and Won, H.K. (2019), The Role of Microbes in Coffee Fermentation and Their Impact on Coffee Quality. Hindawi, Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2019, Article ID 4836709, 6 pages.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Frary, C.D., Johnson, R.K. and Wang, M.Q. (2005), Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (1), 110-113.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Knight, C.A., Knight, I., Mitchell, D.C. and Zepp, J.E. (2004), Beverage caffeine intake in U.S. consumers and subpopulations of interest: estimates from the Share of Intake Panel survey, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42 (12), 1923-1930.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Mitchell, D.C., Knight, C.A., Hockenberry, J., Teplansky R. and Hartman, T.J. (2014), Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 63, 136-142.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Heckman, M.A., Sherry, K. and Gonzalez De Mejia, E. (2010a), Energy drinks: an assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9 (3), 303-317.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Lieberman, H.R., Stavinoha, T., McGraw, S., White, A., Hadden, L. and Marriott, B.P. (2012), Caffeine use among active duty U.S. Army soldiers, Journal of the Academy Nutrition and Dietetics, 112 (6), 902-912, e901-e904.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Norton, T.R., Lazev, A.B. and Sullivan, M.J. (2011), The ‘‘buzz’’ in caffeine: patterns of caffeine use in a convenience sample of college students, Journal of Caffeine Research, 1 (1), 35-40.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Larsson, S.C. (2014), Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa and Risk of Stroke. Stroke, 45 (1), 309-314.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Palanivel M. (2019), General food safety issues in tea, International Journal of Creative and Innovative Research In All Studies, 1 (10), 2581-5334.
In article      
 
[23]  Marangoni, F., Pellegrino, L., Verduci, E., Ghiselli, A., Bernabei, R., Calvani, R., Cetin, I., Giampietro, M., Perticone, F., Piretta, L., Giacco, R., Vecchia, C. L., Brandi, M. L., Ballardini, D., Banderali, G., Bellentani, S., Canzone, G., Cricelli, C., Faggiano, P., Ferrara, N., Flachi, E., Gonnelli, S., Macca, C., Magni, P., Marelli, G., Marrocco, W., Miniello, V. L., Origo, C., Pietrantonio, F., Silvestri, P., Stella, R., Strazzullo, P., Troiano, E. and Poli, A. (2018), Cow’s Milk Consumption and Health: A Health Professional’s Guide, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38, 197-208.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Carloni, E., Petruzzelli A., Amagliani, G., Brandi, G., Caverni, F., Mangili, P. and Tonucci, F. (2016), Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of bovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy, Animal Science Journal, 87 (4), 591-599.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Lan, X.Y., Zhao, S.G., Zheng, N., Li, S.L., Zhang, Y.D., Liu, H.M., McKillip, J. and Wang, J.Q. (2017), Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China, Journal of Dairy Science, 100 (6), 4294-4299.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[26]  Atobla, K., Akoa, E.E., Bonny, A.C., Dadié, A., Karou, T.G. and Niamke, S. (2018), Pork supply chain, consumption and risk factors for infections of consumers in the Abidjan district (Côte d'Ivoire), Food and Environment Safety, 16 (17), 20-31.
In article      
 
[27]  Ceyhun Sezgin, A. and Şanlier, N. (2016), Street food consumption in terms of the food safety and health, Journal of Human Sciences, 13 (3), 4072-4083.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization (2011), The place of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in national food security programmes. Rome (Italy). Technical Cooperation Dept, ISBN 978-92-5-106845-8. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/i2177e/i2177e00.pdf (accessed Fev 09, 2020).
In article      
 
[29]  WHO, World Health Organization (1996), Essential safety requirements for street vended foods. (Revised Edition), https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/63265/WHO_FNU_FOS_96.7.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed Fev 09, 2020).
In article      
 
[30]  Muyanja, C., Nayiga, L., Brenda, N. and Nasinyama, G. (2011), Practices, knowledge and risk factors of street food vendors in Uganda, Food Control, 22 (10), 1551-1558.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Nguyen, M.H., Nguyen, T.H.M. and Le, T.G. (2010), Food Safety Status of Public Kitchen in Company Enterprise at Ho Chi Minh City and Solution to Prevent Food Poisoning. HCMC Medical Journal, 14 (1), 88-94.
In article      
 
[32]  Neves, E.G., Cardoso, C.S., Araújo, A.C., and Correia da Costa, J.M. (2011), Meat handlers training in Portugal, a survey on knowledge and practice. Food Control, 22 (3), 501-507.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Liu, Z., Zhang, G. and Zhang, X. (2014), Urban street foods in Shijiazhuang city, China, Current status, safety practices and risk mitigating strategies, Food Control, 41 (1), 212-218.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Omemu, A.M. and Aderoju, S.T. (2008), Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Street Food Vendors in the City of Abeokuta, Nigeria, Food Control, 19 (4), 396-402.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Chukuezi, C.O. (2010), Food Safety and Hygienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. Studies in Sociology of Science, 1 (1), 50-57.
In article      
 
[36]  Muinde, O.K. and Kuria, E. (2005), Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi, Kenya, African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development, 5 (1), 1-14.
In article      
 
[37]  Heckman, M.A., Weil, J. and Gonzalez de Mejia, E. (2010b), Caffeine (1, 3, 7- trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. Journal of Food Science, 75 (3), R77-R87.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A. and Feeley, M. (2003), Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 20, 1-30.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  Ogah, C.O. and Obebe, O.T. (2012), Caffeine Content of Cocoa and Coffee Beverages in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Sciences, 3 (1), 404-411.
In article      
 
[40]  Glade M.J. (2010), Caffeine-not just a stimulant. Nutrition, 26 (10), 932-938.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[41]  Barbara, M.T., Donald M.C., Peter C., Ursula E. and Beverley H. (2014), Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk, Food Additives and Contaminants, 31, 1476-1488.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2010), Basic steps to improve safety of street-vended food. International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), Information Note No.3/2010 - Safety of street-vended food. Available at: https://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/No_03_StreetFoo d_Jun10_en.pdf [accessed Fev 10, 2020].
In article      
 
[43]  Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (2013), Prepare and serve non-alcoholic beverages. Trainee Manual. D1.HBS.CL5.07, pp 1-73. Available: https://leonardarueyingho.com/wp- content/uploads/2019/10/PREPARE-AND-SERVE-NON- ALCHOHOLIC-BEVERAGE.pdf. [Accessed May 20, 2020].
In article      
 
[44]  Piet A.van den B. (2018), Coffee or Tea? A prospective cohort study on the associations of coffee and tea intake with overall and cause-specific mortality in men versus women. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33 (2), 183-200.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  Grigg D. (2002), The worlds of tea and coffee: patterns of consumption, GeoJournal, 57 (4), 283-94.
In article      View Article
 
[46]  Ministry of Health (2011), Eating for healthy pregnant women. This resource is available from www.healthed.govt.nz or the Authorised Provider at your local DHB. Revised June 2017. 09/2018. Code HE1805. Available: https://www.healthed.govt.nz/system/files/resource- files/HE1805_Healthy%20for%20healthy%20pregnant%20wome n.pdf. [Accessed May 20, 2020].
In article      
 
[47]  Menes, C.C., Japitana, M.A.F., Chua, J.G.D., Dico, Jr M.R., Parcon, A.M.D. and Makilan, R.E. (2018), Street Food: Stories and Insights on Production and Operations, Marketing Strategies, and Vending, pp 42-69.
In article