Open Access Peer-reviewed

Prevention of Crops Contamination by Fungi and Mycotoxins Using Natural Substances Derived from Lycopersiconesculentum Mill. Leaves

IrèneAhou Kouadio1,, Louis Ban Koffi2, MireilleBretin Dosso3

1Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, UFR Biosciences, University of Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Ivory Coast

2Centre National de RechercheAgronomique (CNRA), Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

3Pasteur Institute of Ivory Coast, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

Journal of Food Security. 2013, 1(2), 16-26. DOI: 10.12691/jfs-1-2-2
Published online: August 25, 2017


Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.(tomato) leaves are known to possess antimicrobial activities. In this study, the aqueous fraction containing the antifungal compounds obtained after purification of these leaves extract was evaluated for its effect on proliferation and mycotoxins production by three Aspergillusstrains (Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergillusflavus and Aspergillusnidulans). This antifungal fraction exhibited a significant inhibition on growth of the three Aspergillusstrains with a dose-dependent manner. Indeed, the radial growth was 90 mm on the medium without antifungal fraction for these three strains, while on the medium at 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of antifungal fraction, it was respectively 55.67, 40, 20 and 0 mm for A nidulans, 70.67, 50, 24.33 and 0 mm for A. fumigatus and 85.33, 54.67, 24.33 and 0 mm for A. flavus after 7 days of incubation. The absence of conidia germination was also observed only on the medium at 1 % of antifungal fraction for the three strains. This reduction of the growth of the strains when the antifungal fraction content in the medium increased, led to the reduction of mycotoxins production. Indeed, the mycotoxins analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography showed any spots of sterigmatocistin and Gliotoxinin the medium at 0.5% and 1% of antifungal fraction respectively for A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, while for the other concentrations tested, spots of these mycotoxins were observed. For A. flavus, the absence ofthe spot of aflatoxinB1 was observed only in the medium at 1% of antifungal fraction. These results suggest the use of Lycopersiconesculentum leaves extract as a natural fungicide in alternative in chemical fungicides which cause environmental risks.


Lycopersiconexculentum, antifungal fraction, Aspergillus, radial growth, mycotoxins
[1]  Silva C. F., Schwan R. F., Sousa-Diaz E. S. and Wheals A. E. Microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of Coffeaarabica in Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology 60: 251-260, 2000.View Article
[2]  Raju M. V. L. N. and Rama Rao S. V..Aflatoxins in poultry diet: natural ways for counteraction. Proc. Annual Conference. Compound livestock feed manufacturers Association, Mumbai, September 13 & 14, 2004.
[3]  Akande, K. E., Abubakar, M. M., Adegbnola, T. A. and Bogoro, S. E.. Nutritional and health implications of mycotoxins in animal feeds: a review. Park.J. Nutr., 5(5):398-403, 2006.
[4]  Word Health Organization. Water-related diseases: Malnutrition. 2001.
[5]  Steyn P. S. Mycotoxins, general view, chemistry and structure. Toxicol.Lett., 82, 843-851, 1995.View Article
[6]  Binder, E. M., Tan, L. M., Chin, L. J., Handl J. & Richard J.Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities feeds and feed ingredients. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 137:265-282, 2007.View Article
[7]  CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). Mycotoxins: Economic and Health Risks. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Task Force Report No 116. Aimes, IA., 1989.
[8]  Kuiper-Goodman T.Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins in food. In:Mycotoxins in food Detection and control, Magan N. and Olsen M. (eds). Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited, p. 3-31, 2004.View Article
[9]  Ciergle, A..Bioproduction of ochratoxin A and penicillic acid by members of Aspergillusochraceusgroup.Can. J. of Microbiol. 18: 631-636, 1975.
[10]  Sharlin J. S., Howarth B., Thompson F. N. and Wyatt R. D. Decreased Reproductive Potential and Reduced Feed Consumption in Mature White Leghorn Males Fed Aflatoxin. Poult. Sci.,60: 2701-2708, 1981.View Article  PubMed
[11]  Hafez A. M., Megalla S. E., Abdel-Fattah H. M. and Kamel Y. Y..Aflatoxin and Aflatoxicosis. II. Effects of Aflatoxin on Ovaries and Testicles in Mature Domestic Fowls.Mycopathologia, 77: 137-139, 1982.View Article  PubMed
[12]  Jantrarotai W. and Lovell R. T..Pier A. C. 1992.Major biological consequences of Toxicity of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 to Channel Catfish. J. Aquatic Anim. Health, 2: 248-254, 1990.View Article
[13]  Choudhary A. K. and Kumari P. Management of mycotoxin contamination in pre-harvest and post-harvest crops: present status and future prospects. Journal of Phytology, 2(7): 37-52, 2010.
[14]  Bullerman L. B. Incidence and control of mycotoxins producing molds in domestic and imported cheeses. Annals of Nutr.and Food, 31, 435-446, 1977.
[15]  Directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil du 15 juillet 1991 concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques. Official Journal, L 230 du 19.8.1991, p. 1. July, 1991.
[16]  Rick, C. M..Tomato.In Hybridization of Crop Plants (ed. W. R. Fehr and H. H. Hadley.American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA, pp. 669-680, 1980.
[17]  Hui, Y.H., Roy Smith, David G. Spoerke, Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 3, Plant Toxicants, CRC; 2nd édition, (ISBN 082470343X), p. 99, 2001.
[18]  Friedman M. and Levin C. E. α-Tomatine content in tomato and tomato products determined by HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, vol. 43, no6, pp. 1507-1511 (1 p.), 1995.
[19]  Sandrock R.W., VanettenH.D..Fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic degradation of the phytoanticipinα-tomatine.Phytopathology,88: 137-143, 1998.View Article  PubMed
[20]  Hoagland R.E..Toxicity of tomatine and tomatidine on weeds, crops and phytopathogenic fungi.Allelopathy J.23: 425-436, 2009.
[21]  Steel C.C., Drysdale R.B. Electrolyte leakage from plant and fungal tissues and disruption of liposome membranes by α-tomatine. Phytochemistry27: 1025-1030, 1988.View Article
[22]  Keukens E.A., de Vrije T., van den Boom C., de Waard P., Plasman H.H., Thiel F., Chupin V., Jongen W.M., de Kruijff B. Molecular basis of glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption. Biochim.Biophys.Acta,1240: 216-228, 1995.View Article
[23]  Blankemeyer J.T., White J.B., Stringer B.K., Friedman M..Effect of α-tomatine and tomatidine on membrane potential of frog embryos and active transport of ions in frog skin.Food Chem. Toxicol.35: 639-646, 1997.View Article
[24]  Iowa Department of Public Health. Acute Pesticide Poisoning Associated with Pyraclostrobin Fungicide --- Iowa, 2008.
[25]  Pitt, J.I.. A laboratory guide to communPenicilliumspecies, Tingalpa :Food Science, 197 p. 1988.
[26]  Fewell, A. M. and Roddick, J. G.. Interactive antifungal activity of the glycoalkaloidsα-solanine and α-chaconine. Phytochemistry 33: 323-328, 1993.View Article
[27]  Fewell, A. M., Roddick, J. G., and Weissenberg, M..Interactions between the glycoalkaloidssolasonine and s olamargine in relation to inhibition of fungal growth.Phytochemistry 37: 1007-1011 . 1994.View Article
[28]  Fewell, A. M. and Roddick, J. G. Potato glycoalkaloid impairment of fungal development. Mycol. R e v. 101: 597-603, 1997.
[29]  Wang LD, Guo DA, Yuan L, He QH, Hu YQ, Tu PF, et al. Antifungal effect of three natural products on the genetic substance of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeGL7 and Protothecawickerhamii. Yao XueXueBao, 35(11): 860-863, 2000.
[30]  Kouadio A. I., Agbo N. G., Lebrihi A., Mathieu F.and Dosso M. Effect of the frequency of the mixing of coffee cherries put out for dryingon the kinetics of drying and the relationship to ochratoxin A production. Food Additives and Contaminants,23(3): 295-304, March 2006.View Article  PubMed