Figure 1. Impact of diet on the gut microbiota and routes of communication involved in the gut–brain axis. Diet is one of the most crucial factors in the development of the human gut microbiota. Different dietary patterns can change the gut microbiota composition by keeping a balanced diversity of the gut microbiota (symbiosis) or causing a state of dysbiosis which is characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathological organisms (pathobionts). A state of dysbiosis leads to an increased inflammation and leaky gut. Many mechanisms have shown to be involved in this bidirectional pathway between the gut microbiota and brain including vagus nerve signalling, immune activation, tryptophan metabolism and production of microbial metabolites and neurometabolites. Many of these bacterial metabolites significantly impact neurological function, therefore there is potential for dietary interventions that increase bacterial metabolism and promote growth of beneficial bacteria, to beneficially modulate the gut–brain axis and modulate CNS function. Abbreviations: GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid; DA, dopamine; NE, norepinephrine; Ach, acetylcholine; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; 5-HT,serotonine; CNS, central nervous system [23]

From

Host-Microbial Gut Interactions and Mushroom Nutrition

Victoria Bell, Jorge Ferrão, Eusébio Chaquisse, Tito Fernandes

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018, 6(9), 576-583 doi:10.12691/jfnr-6-9-6