Figure 4. Antibacterial activities (ΔA620 nm) of pine needle extracts from red pine (RP), Keumkang pine (KP), and sea pine (SP) following extraction by hot-water and 50% ethanol. A, E. coli. B, S. aureus. C, B. subtilis. A lower ΔA620 nm value indicates greater inhibition

From

Biochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Extracts from 3 Species of Korean Pine Needles

So Jung Kim, So Yun Park, Juyun Lee, Man Chang, Youngjae Chung, Taek-Kyun Lee

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(1), 31-36 doi:10.12691/jfnr-5-1-6