Figure 1. Total phenolic content (gallic acid equivalents, mg/g) of pine needle extracts from red pine (RP), Keumkang pine (KP), and sea pine (SP) following extraction by hot-water, 50% ethanol, and 100% ethanol


Biochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Extracts from 3 Species of Korean Pine Needles

So Jung Kim, So Yun Park, Juyun Lee, Man Chang, Youngjae Chung, Taek-Kyun Lee

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(1), 31-36 doi:10.12691/jfnr-5-1-6