Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lo...

Keivandokht Samiee, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Farnaz Keshavarz

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus homarus) in the Persian Gulf

Keivandokht Samiee1,, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan2, Farnaz Keshavarz3

1Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Chemistry, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Marine Sciences and Technology, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In this investigation, the liver and muscle tissues of Panulirus homarus from Bushehr region in the Persian Gulf in Aug 2013 were separately extracted for their lipid content especially omega-3, 6 and 9 fatty acids composition using the method of Blight & Dyer. The compounds were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The components detected in the liver and muscle tissues, include saturated fatty acid Palmitic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids Arachidonic acid (AA), Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), andone methyl ester of fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The results showed that Eicosapentaenoic acid and Palmitic acid were the composition dominant fatty acids in the species.

Cite this article:

  • Keivandokht Samiee, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Farnaz Keshavarz. Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus homarus) in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp 27-30. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/5/1/5
  • Samiee, Keivandokht, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, and Farnaz Keshavarz. "Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus homarus) in the Persian Gulf." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 5.1 (2017): 27-30.
  • Samiee, K. , Rustaiyan, A. , & Keshavarz, F. (2017). Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus homarus) in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 5(1), 27-30.
  • Samiee, Keivandokht, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, and Farnaz Keshavarz. "Omega-3, 6 and 9 Fatty Acids Composition and Lipid Content from Liver and Muscle Tissues of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus homarus) in the Persian Gulf." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 5, no. 1 (2017): 27-30.

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1. Introduction

Panulirus homarus is a species of spiny lobster that lives along the coasts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It lives in shallow water, and feeds on the brown mussel Perna perna. It typically grows to a length of 20–25 cm [5]. The body of Panulirus homarus can reach up to 31 centimeters in total length, or a carapace length of 12 cm, but the average is around 20–25 cm [7]. This species is the most important lobster fishery of Asia. Bodycylindrical comprising cephalothoraxes, heavily spined and conspicuously marked by two frontal supra-orbital horns; abdomen smoother, having six somites; no distinct rostrum. Large antennae particularly large; basal segments well developed and spined; flagellum stiff, robust and longer than body [30] (Figure 1).

Fatty acids (FA) are long-chain carboxylic acids that are insoluble in water. These fatty acid chains can be from 4 to 30 carbons long, but physiologically the most important fatty acids are from 16 to 22 carbons long [11]. In animals, most fatty acids with 16 or more carbons belong to one of three main fatty acid families [2]. All unsaturated members of a family are n-3, n-6, or n-9. Members of these FA families are not inter-convertible [1]. Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain [18]. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (found in plant oils), EPA, and DHA (both commonly found in marine oils).Omega-6 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end. There are several different types of omega-6 fatty acids. Most omega-6 fatty acids in the diet come from vegetable oils, such as linoleic acid (LA). Linoleic acid is converted to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the body. It is then further broken down to arachidonic acid (AA). Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if there is a deficiency in linoleic acid or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, Arachidonic acid is a precursor in the production of eicosanoids [9, 25]. Omega-9 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids which have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the omega−9 position; that is, the ninth bonds from the methyl end of the fatty acid. Two omega−9 fatty acids important in industry are Oleic acid (18:1, n−9) and Erucic acid (22:1, n−9). There are many health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Research shows strong evidence that the omega-3s EPA and DHA can help lower triglycerides [4, 17, 18] and blood pressure. And there are studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may help with other conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, auto-immunity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, depression, reduce the risk of pneumonia and coronary heart disease, Prevention of sudden cardiac death, inhibitory effect on breast and prostate cancers growth and many more. The objective of this study was to identify of the lipid content especially Omega-3 fatty acids of liver and muscle tissues of Panulirus homarus in the Persian Gulf.

2. Material and Methods

In this research, 30 Panulirus homarus samples were obtained of Bushehr region in the Persian Gulf (Figure 2). Initially the liver and muscle tissues were weighed separately and mixed into a soft uniform mixture.

Figure 2. Map of study area and location of sampling station in the Persian Gulf

Mixtures of chloroform and methanol were added as the lipid extract [3]. This solvent system allows for extraction of both polar and non-polar compounds. The lower chloroform layer includes the lipids and the top methanol-water layer generally contains the polar components. The lipid in the chloroform layer is removed using a rotary evaporator under vacuum, at temperature of 40°C. The weight of the lipid was determined.

The lipid extract obtained was injected into chromatograph equipment with a mass spectra detector (GC-MS). Components were identified by comparison of the retention time and mass spectra of the unknowns with those of authentic samples and also comparative analysis of Kovats index & using references of Eight Peaks.

3. Results

This study investigated on the fatty acid composition and lipid content in the liver and muscle tissues of Panulirus homarus.

The results are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Chloroform phase is discussed in this research because the fat content of the muscle tissue is extracted with chloroform [3]. The components identified by GC-MS analysis of the chloroform phase of liver samples is shown the below table.

Table 1. The compound identified in the chloroform phase of liver tissue of Panulirus homarus from Bushehr region in the Persian Gulf

Table 2 shows the components identified by GC-MS analysis of the muscle samples from species.

Table 2. The compound identified in the chloroform phase of muscle tissue of Panulirus homarus from Bushehr region in the Persian Gulf

The present study indicates that compounds identified are common between liver and muscle tissue such as saturated fatty acids Palmitic acid (22.134% in liver and muscle 19.13%), Monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid (16.87% in liver and muscle 15.25%),polyunsaturated fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic acid(24.32 % in liver and muscle 25.17 %), Arachidonic acid (9.43 % in liver and muscle 9.57 %) and Docosahexaenoic acid (4.62 % in liver and muscle 6.32 %), one ester of fatty acid consist Palmitic acid–methylester (19.28 % in liver and muscle 18.27 %) and Alkane including Heptadecane (1.56 % in liver and muscle 1.47 %) and Octadecane (1.78% in liver and muscle in 1.62%). The amounts of alkanes are identified in liver and muscle tissues that they are environmental pollution.

4. Discussion

In the present research, the results indicate that the dominant Omega-3 fatty acids in liver and muscle tissues of Panulirus homarus are Eicosapentaenoic acid (24.32-25.17%) and Docosahexaenoic acid (4.62-6.32 %). EPA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that acts as a precursor for prostaglandin-3, thromboxane-3, leukotriene-5 groups and docosahexaenoic acid [9, 25]. The human body converts alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA [15]. DHA is a key component of all cell membranes and is found in abundance in the brain and retina [22, 27], cerebral cortex, skin, sperm and testicles [9, 10, 25]. DHA appears to be important for visual and neurological development in infants. DHA was found to inhibit growth of human colon carcinoma cells, more than other omega-3 PUFAs [18]. The cytotoxic effect of DHA was not caused by increased lipid peroxidation or any other oxidative damage [4, 16, 17] but rather a decrease in cell growth regulators [23, 25]. These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects [8]. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of this fatty acid in metabolic disorders [13, 14]. Among omega-3 fatty acids, it is thought that EPA and DHA in particular may possess some beneficial potential in mental conditions, such as schizophrenia [22, 27]. EPA and DHA ω−3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease [28]. Eicosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid may be the active biological components of these effects, research has shown that they decrease risk of arrhythmias [6] which can lead to sudden cardiac death, decrease triglyceride levels, decrease growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque and blood clots [12, 21, 29], each of which tends to clog arteries and reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels [20, 24]. Palmitic acid (19.18-22.14%) is the second dominant fatty acid in this research. It is the most common fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Palmitic acid has been shown to alter aspects of the central nervous system responsible for the secretion of insulin and to suppress the body's natural appetite-suppressing signals from leptin and insulin-the key hormones involved in weight regulation [2]. Animal cells can de novo synthesize palmitic fatty acid and its n-9 derivatives. However, de novo synthesis requires the utilization of energy. Palmitic acid (16:0) is a precursor of stearic acid (18:0). Palmitic acid can also be dehydrogenated to form palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-9). A number of other important fatty acids are derived from palmitoleic acid. In the present investigation, we got the positive result for the presence of Omega-3 fatty acid EPA in the muscle and liver tissues of Panulirus homarus from Bushehr region in the Persian Gulf.

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