Figures index

From

S-nitrosylation of Inhibitor-κB kinase: Identifying Novel Targets of Curcumin

Ning-Jo Kao, Chien-Sheng Wu, Jia-Yuan Hu, Zwe-Ling Kong

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(9), 600-609 doi:10.12691/jfnr-4-9-7
  • Figure 1. The cytotoxicity of curcumin on Raw264.7 cells. Cells were incubated with samples for (A) 24 h or (B) 48 h and viability was assessed using an MTT assay. Experiments were repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 2. The repression of iNOS in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells by curcumin. Total lysates was extracted from LPS-induced Raw264.7 macrophage cells of each experimental group at 12 and 24h. The expression of iNOS was detected by Western blot, and β-actin was as the loading control. Experiments were repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 3. Inhibition of nitrite and nitrate in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells by curcumin. Nitrite and nitrate were detected from Raw264.7 cells cultured medium of each experimental group at 12(A, C) and 24h (B, D) by used Griess reagent. The data was repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 4. Cytokine expression in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells by curcumin. IL-1β, IL-6,TNF-α and IFN-γwere detected from Raw264.7 cells cultured medium of each experimental group at 12(A) and 24h (B) by used microarray.The data was repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 5. Total S-nitrosylated protein expression in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells by treated with curcumin. The total S-nitrosylated protein extracted from cell lysates of each experimental group at12(A) and 24h (B) that was prepared by biotin switch method and detected by Western blot using anti-biotin. The bar-chart presented the relative quantification of total S-nitrosylation from Western blot. The data was repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 6. S-nitrosylated IKK-β Expression in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells by treated with curcumin. S-nitrosylated IKKβ as obtained from cell lysates of each experimental group at12 (A) and 24h (B) by biotin switch method and detected by Western blot using anti-biotin. The expression level of IKKβ was as the control and relative fold change of S-nitrosylated IKKβ was normalized by IKKβ protein expression. The data was repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 7. IκBphosphorylation and NF-κB activation in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells by treated with curcumin. The expression level of phosphorylated IκB (pIκB), IκB, and cytosolic/nuclear NF-κB proteins were detected by Western blot. Act in expression was as the loading control. The bar chart presented the relative quantification of p-IκB expression normalized by IκB protein expression The data was repeated 3 times independently to ensure reproducibility and the standard deviation of the mean are represented as error bars (n=3). Values with different letters were significantly different (p< 0.05) at corresponding concentrations between different treatments
  • Figure 8. Proposed model of the mechanism responsible for the protective effects of curcumin in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells